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Full text of "Birds of the New York city region"

BIRDS OF THE 

NEW YORK CITY 

REGION 




r 














FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 






Plate I. Rose-Breasted Grosbeak 

Courtesy of the National Association of Audubon Societies 



BIRDS OF THE 
NEW YORK CITY REGION 

BY 
LUDLOW GRISCOM 

Assistant Curator of Ornithology 

With the cooperation of the 
LINN^AN SOCIETY OF NEW YORK 



V 




THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

HANDBOOK SERIES, No. 9 



NEW YORK. PUBLISHED BY THE MUSEUM 
1923 



l»--Anftl* 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface 5 

[ntroduction 12 

a. Area included 12 

b. Life-Zones 13 

e. Seasonal Variation in Bird-Life 18 

d. Migrations and Movements of Local Birds 27 

e. Local Regions 40 

f. The Local Collection 17 

g. Changes in Bird-Life 48 

h. Bibliography of Useful Literature 53 

Annotated List of Local Birds 56 

Appendix 378 

a. Extinct and Extirpated Species 378 

1). Introduced Species 382 

c. Hypothetical List 384 

Errata ? 390 

Index 391 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Colored Plates 
Plate Facing Page. 

I. Rose-breasted Grosbeak Froniispiect . 

II. Goldfinch 16 

III. Cardinal 192 

I V. Scarlet Tanager 208 

V. Tufted Titmouse 368 

VI. Wood Thrush 384 

Figures in the Text 

Figure Page 

1. Loon 61 

2. f Aligning ( lull 7."> 

:;. Black Skimmer S3 

L Wilson's Petrel s7 

( '.Hi Y:ts-I tack 105 

•Id-squaw Ill 

7. Brant 120 

8. Ljeasl Bittern 121 

rreen Heron L30 



4 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Figuee Page 

10. Sora 136 

11. Little Black Rail 138 

12. Northern Phalarope 143 

13. Kffldeer 170 

14. Mourning Dove 178 

15. Bald Eagle 194 

16. Barn Owl 201 

17. Barred Owl 204 

18. Snowy Owl 210 

19. Downy Woodpecker 214 

20. Nighthawk 223 

21. Ruby-throated Hummingbird 225 

22. Kingbird 227 

23. Meadowlark 249 

24. Red Crossbill 262 

25. Song and White-throated Sparrows 285 

26. Red-eyed Vireo 305 

27. Redstart J 350 

28. Catbird | 354 

29. Brown Thrasher f 356 

30. Brown Creeper and Chickadee 362 

Map of The New York City Region 



PREFACE 

Seventeen years have passed since the appearance of Dr. 
Chapman's pamphlet on "The Birds of the Vicinity of New 
York City.*' This publication briefly summarized the 
information about our local birds available at that time, 
and was a veritable mine of inspiration and assistance to the 
modern generation of field ornithologists and amateur bird 
students, who were then just beginning work. 

It is difficult to conceive the change that has taken place 
in these seventeen years. For one person interested in birds 
then there are now hundreds, who cover almost every section 
of the area at every season of the year. When Dr. Chapman 
wrote, not onl}' were many parts of his territory without a 
resident student, but many sections had never even been 
visited by anyone interested in birds, or had remained un- 
visited for many years. Twenty-five years ago an active 
field man went out collecting a few dozen times a year, or 
made two or three trips lasting a week or so apiece. Now- 
adays an active student will often be afield a hundred times 
in one year. The result is an enormous mass of data and notes 
of all kinds, which, when digested and arranged, greatly 
extend the knowledge of our birds, and modify many old 
conceptions of their status and distribution. 

The Linnaean Society of New York, throughout this 
period, has been the main center and nucleus for this growth 
of ornithological interest. At its meeting of October 14, 1919, 
Dr. Chapman moved that a committee be appointed to 
prepare as complete and detailed a Local Avifauna as 
present knowledge permitted. This committee, appointed 
somewhat later, consisted of Mr. J. T. Nichols as chairman, 
Dr. E. R. P. Janvrin, and the writer. Late in December. 
1921, Dr. F. A. Lucas, director of the American Museum, who 
had lon^r realized the need of a new guide of some sort to the 
local bird-, instructed me to prepare a handbook as -oon as 

5 



6 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

possible, it having become evident that publication by the 
Linnsean Society would be unduly protracted, as no member 
of the Committee was free to prosecute the work, except at 
long and irregular intervals. It was accordingly agreed that 
I should devote my whole time to the preparation of the 
Handbook, that the Museum would assume the burden of 
publication, and that the Linnsean Society would cooperate 
in every possible way. I accordingly became chairman of 
the Local Avifauna Committee, of which Mr. L. N. Nichols 
subsequently became the fourth member. 

The information on which the Handbook is based is de- 
rived from the following sources: (a) The published records, 
now amounting to an extensive bibliography, have not only 
been used, but carefully checked and critically examined, 
regardless of whether they have been summarized and in- 
cluded in previous publications. This literature is widely 
scattered, some of it in obscure and little known periodicals. 
In an effort to make the search as complete as possible, the 
entire bibliography has been gone over four times in the last 
eight years, the writer acting each time as if he had never 
done it before. In this way it is hoped that very few if any 
records have escaped notice, (b) The great majority of the 
collections made locally are now in this Museum. They have 
all been examined, regardless of whether they have been the 
bases of earlier reports or not. The labor involved has been 
amply rewarded by the discovery of errors of identification 
and numerous records of local interest as yet unpublished. 
(c) It is not too much to say that the sight records of the past 
twenty years constitute fifty percent of the available data for 
this region in historical times. Over one hundred people 
have contributed to a greater or less extent the information 
on which the status, the relative abundance and the migra- 
tions of the birds of the area are based. If the list of birds 
seen on a day afield by one observer is regarded as the unit, 
the grand total easily passes the enormous sum of one hundred 



I'KKI A« E 



thousand. Fortunately there were at least half a dozen active 

members of the Limuean Society, who were not only compe- 
tent to draw up local lists from their own and other's notes, 
hut they most generously and helpfully did so. Were it not 
for their assistance the writer would -till he floundering 
through a mass of statistics. As a matter of form their 
summaries have been checked in every case, but it is a 
pleasure to point out the relative simplicity of this task, (d) 
The writer's own observations commenced in 1896, when he 
i small hoy. Since 1907 he has been incessantly afield 
whenever residing in New York City, and has returned from 
many parts of this country and many foreign countries to 
local problems with unabated enthusiasm and interest. Dur- 
ing tins period over 1250 field trips have taken him to every 
section of the area covered by this Handbook, except northern 
Westchester ( Ymnty. It includes daily observation of twelve 
spring migrations, daily observation of two fall migration-, 
and daily observation of parts of eight others. Since 1909 
he has been compiling all the available information. 

The object of this Handbook is to render the existing 
information about local birds readily accessible. Its subtitle 
might well be: "Our Local Birds, when and where to find 
them." as these are the first quest ions anyone interested want- 
to have answered. The next question, how to recognize and 
identify the different species of local birds, is outside the 
province of this book. Limitations of space alone would 
prevent the inclusion of subject matter, which is fully 
treated in many inexpensive text-books, obtainable in any 
book -ton-. A li>t of those recommended will be found in the 
bibliography. Bearing in mind, however, the fact that the 
majority of bird-lovers now happily use the glass instead of 

gun, the problem of identifying birds in life has largely 

replaced the problem of how to get near enough to kill them. 
( Consequently I have given the characters which 1 have found 
Useful in recognizing many Bpeciee of birds difficult to 



8 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

identify in life, wherever the subject has not been adequately 
treated, in the hope that this might increase the usefulness of 
the book, without unduly increasing its bulk. 

With the purpose of the book thus denned, many matters 
ordinarily included in a scientific monograph or treatise have 
been omitted. In leaving out a complete bibliography, I 
have borne in mind the fact that most of the scattered notes 
and articles have already been listed in the bibliographies of 
recent monographic works. Similarly, references to the 
original publication of records have been omitted wherever 
possible. All the published references to the captures of rare 
birds on Long Island, for instance, have been repeated three 
times in the last sixteen years. There is little point in re- 
peating them a fourth time, and the very few interested can 
obtain them in one or more of the general works given in the 
bibliography. I have also been forced to omit discussion of 
the more technical aspects of such questions of great interest 
as life-zones, faunal areas, and migration. Space has also 
been lacking to treat habits, and life histories, or to give in 
any detail the history of vanished species. Nesting dates for 
our local breeding birds are now well-known and readily 
available. Unusually early or late records of complete sets of 
eggs are deliberately left out, to discourage as much as 
possible the local collecting of eggs, now largely a waste of life 
without adequate scientific return. 

By all means my most difficult and ungracious task has 
been weighing the reliability of identifications of living birds. 
In a recent number of 'The Auk' (January 1922, pp. 31-41) I 
have discussed at length what seem to me to be the require- 
ments on which these " sight records" should be based. 
Fortunately all those whose sight records appear in the fol- 
lowing pages are either known to me personally through many 
trips afield together, or are known to others, whose point of 
view about such records is the same as mine. Moreover, 
those whose records are the most frequently cited are all 



PRE] \' l. 9 

experienced field ornithologists, who are just as competent 
to judge the writer's records as he is to judge theirs. I le has 

hail the privilege of too many years' companionship with 
them not to be perfectly clear <>n this point. However, no 

sight record for a rare or exceptional occurrence has been 

included, unless specimens of the same species have previously 
been taken locally. Xo rare or exceptional record has been 
included, no matter by whom made, unless the circumstances 
of the observation and the full details are personally known 
to me. Several such, here omitted, are unquestionably 
reliable. In every case sight records of rare species are clearly 
indicated as such, and the observer or observers are duly 
credited. It will be noted that many sight records published 
elsewhere are not mentioned here. This must be taken to 
mean that either I regard them as unsatisfactory or the 
observer as unreliable, and that omission of such a record 
indicates my doubt of its validity. In a few cases I have 
reported rather than recorded an observation, with or without 
comment. This means that I lack the necessary knowledge 
to vouch for it, but have no grounds for regarding it as un- 
reliable. Records included without comment I vouch for as 
accurate, in so far as this is possible in any line of human 
endeavor. 

In any area where ornithological research has extended 
over many decades, and in which man}' ornithologists and 
bird students have worked, it is impossible for any one in- 
dividual to write an adequate account of the bird life, b 
on the published records and his personal field experience. 
Xo one in a lite time can hope to have the experience of 
several generations. Xor in any one generation can the 
experience of on.- individual equal that of many other-. Even 
when information has been collected from all available 
sources, it should be remembered that an absolutely complete 
account of our local bird- is impossible. The most important 
•i i- the fact that our knowledge of the bird-life of the 



10 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

region is far from complete. Too many local avifaunas con- 
tain no hint of this fact, and are written as if the last word on 
the subject had been pronounced. I have tried in every case 
to indicate where our knowledge is defective, and to point 
out many opportunities for the student to add to it. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the assistance which the 
writer has received in every direction. All but one of the 
active members of the Linnaean Society have placed their 
experience and observation unreservedly at his disposal. 
Their names will appear frequently in the following pages, 
and every record given is properly accredited. The members 
of the Local Avifauna Committee have, of course, rendered 
additional and invaluable services, which will be mentioned 
more fully in the proper places beyond. The writer must, 
however, go further and state that such local knowledge as he 
possesses is in large measure due to the Linnaean Society and 
its members. The meetings have stimulated him since boy- 
hood; there he has gained new information, new ideas, and a 
broader viewpoint. How can one overevaluate the priceless 
companionship of years afield with one's fellow-members, 
the S3 T mpathy, the bond of a great interest shared in common. 
Every wood and field, every marsh and beach near New York 
City, is laden with memories of most of them ; few discoveries, 
few sights of rarities, but were shared with one or more of 
them; we have been hot, cold, hungry or wet together; we 
have been storm-bound on islands, bogged in swamps, carried 
out to sea in rowboats together. Above all I must thank Mr. 
J. T. Nichols, who knows more about Long Island birds than 
anyone living, who magnanimously surrendered his plans for 
publication, for the sake of a work of larger scope, and who 
has done all he could to make this work a success. To him I 
have turned for advice and counsel on numerous prob- 
lems of ever}- kind, and never in vain. I have frequently 
deferred to his opinion. He has read and corrected the entire 
manuscript. 



PRE! \' l 11 

Special acknowledgments arc due to Dr. Jonathan 
Dwight. His collection of local birds is now the best in 
existence, and he lias kindly permitted me to record the many 
unpublished items of interest it contains. Also to Messrs. 
E. V. BickneU and Roy Latham for generously supplying 
invaluable records which they were proposing to publish 
separately. Mr. \Y. DeW. Miller has always been ready to 
answer all queries about New Jersey birds, has put his knowl- 
edge and experience at my disposal, and has given advice in 
many directions. Miss Elizabeth II. McYickar was for 
M'veral months of the greatest assistance in the monotonous 
task of collating data and notes. Mr. M. S. Crosby kindly 
<h1 in reading proof, and my brother, the Rev. Acton 
Griscom, rendered invaluable service in critically reading 
the entire book in both galley and page proof. 

I am indebted to Dr. A A. Allen, Messrs Louis Agassiz 
Fuertes, ( lourtenayBrandreth, and others for their kind per- 
mission to reproduce their photographs or paintings. Most 
of these have appeared in Natural History. Messrs. D. 
Appleton and Co. have permitted the reproduction of a 
picture from Bird-Life. The National Association of Audu- 
bon Societies have most generously permitted the use of six 
of their colored plates, and have facilitated their reproduc- 
tion in every way. 

To Dr. F. M. Chapman, Dr. F. A. Lucas, and Dr. R. W. 
Tower. I am indebted for kindly interest and encourage- 
ment, and assistance in publication. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Area Included 

The area covered by Dr. Chapman's List was roughly 
within a circle every point on the circumference of which was 
fifty miles from City Hall. It has been deemed expedient to 
alter it in several particulars. The area covered by the 
present Handbook is roughly a rectangle. It includes the 
whole of Long Island, for a century the favorite field of New 
York ornithologists, and that part of New York State on the 
east bank of the Hudson River between the northern'bound- 
ary of Westchester County and the Connecticut line. On 
the west side of the Hudson it includes the whole of northern 
New Jersey, south to the southern extremity of Warren 
County on the Delaware, and a line drawn from that point 
across the State to Perth Amboy. A glance at the accom- 
panying map will make this clear. The small portion of 
Connecticut within fifty miles of New York is left out, as it 
is adequately covered by a recent report on the birds of the 
State, and because no students with New York affiliations go 
there or reside there. That portion of New York State on 
both banks of the Hudson River, which is excluded, is 
practically terra incognita ornithologically. No bird student 
of any attainments has ever worked in Putnam County, 
and it is fifty years since any intensive work has been done 
in either Orange or Rockland Counties. In New Jersey the 
area has also been reduced by the elimination of the coast, 
such parts of the Pine Barrens as lie within fifty miles, and 
the Princeton section. The two latter belong more properly 
to the territory of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club. 
New York students rarely visit them and know little about 
them. As a result of these changes all records from Con- 
necticut, the Hudson Highlands, Princeton and other exclud- 
ed portions of New Jersey, which were given in Chapman's 
List, are here omitted. 

12 



entr0ducti0n 13 

The Life Zones of the Region 
In spite of tin 1 relatively small size of the Region as de- 
limited above, it is remarkably diversified, and birds are 
surprisingly abundant. With the exception of high moun- 
tains and deserts, almost every type of habitat calculated to 
attract birds is found locally, and the coast line and the 
Hudson River Valley are well known highways of migration. 
It remains to be determined whether the Delaware Valley 
and the Kittatiny Ridge on our western boundary is not 
another highway of migration. In spite of the presence of 
one of the largest cities of the world, with a large suburban 
area, and even more distant summer resorts, there is a large 
amount of unspoiled and relatively untouched country still 
remaining. 

The great variety of bird-life in this vicinity, however, is 
not so much due to natural advantages of habitat and the 
fact that migratory hosts pass through twice each year, as to 
certain other more fundamental causes. It is a curious fact, 
as yet but partly understood, that groups of species of animals 
and plants range over almost identical areas, and are not 
found, at least in the breeding season, either north or south of 
limits which are definable with a fair degree of accuracy. 
Whatever the natural causes may be that govern the ranges 
of these species, they are taken as indices of natural life zones 
or faunal areas. The change from one faunal area to another 
is. of course, a gradual one, except where high mountains 
cause a rapid change in temperature and climate with the 
change in altitude. In relatively level country no sharp lines 
of demarcation can be drawn, and between any two faunal 
areas a neutral zone will exist in which occur species char- 
acteristic of cadi. The Xew York City Region happens to 

be situated in territory occupied or touched by three different 

life zones. The Upper Austral or ( 'arolinian Zone reaches its 
northern limit in parts of our area, or extends but little 
beyond it along the coast and up the Hudson River Valley. 



14 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Most of our breeding birds belong to the Alleghanian or 
Transition Zone, and in the highest parts of northwestern 
New Jersey there is a trace at least of the Canadian Zone. 

Twenty-five years ago the limits of these faunas in our 
Region could be stated with a fair degree of definiteness on 
existing information. Unfortunately, the much more detailed 
knowledge of the exact distribution of our breeding birds at 
the present time has tended to make these lines of demarca- 
tion more obscure, so that many local students are beginning 
to find life zones a difficulty rather than an aid in their work. 
While it is true that the number of apparent exceptions has 
greatly increased, the causes back of these exceptions are yet 
to be determined. I know of no more interesting field for 
local research. Again it is beyond dispute that the boundaries 
of life zones correspond in a general way with lines of equal 
temperature. But in so small an area as this, differences of 
climate are scarcely perceivable. Let no one suppose that 
there is any marked difference in climate between those parts 
of our Region which may be regarded as Carolinian and those 
which are Alleghanian. What is true is that any territory 
which is definitely in any life zone lies in between two iso- 
thermal lines (lines of equal temperature) . This Region being 
largely neutral territory, as explained above, does not possess 
a well-marked isothermal line dividing it into two parts. 
The exigencies of space forbid further discussion here. The 
situation is particularly complicated, as a local problem, 
but this complication must not be construed as invalidating 
the concept of life zones. 

I. The Carolinian or Upper Austral Zone. The fol- 
lowing birds are generally regarded as Carolinian species, 
and occur more or less regularly in our area. Their exact 
status can be found in detail in the annotated list. While all 
of them were formerly believed to reach their normal northern 
limits as breeding birds in this Region, this is now known to 
be the case onlv with those marked with an asterisk (*). 



[NTRODUCTION 15 

^Clapper Kail Worm-eating Warbler 
* K in.ii Rail Blue-winged Warbler 

•Turkey Vulture Louisiana Water-thrush 

Ram Owl 'Kentucky Warbler 

Acadian Flycatcher Hooded Warbler 

Fish Crow Mockingbird (formerly 

"Cardinal ( 'arolina Wren 

Rough-winged Swallow Tufted Titmouse 

This life Zone is the most difficult to interpret in our area. 
If the presence of one of these species be taken as an index of 
the zone, no part of it is entirely outside or north of it. ( )n 
the other hand, in no one section of the Region do a majority 
of these species occur or constitute a dominant part of the 
avifauna. Finally the distribution of no two species is exactly 
alike. It is therefore evident that there is no more than a 
faint tinge of the Carolinian Zone in~this territory, and that 
the causes limiting the distribution of any one species are 
peculiar to it, rather than of general or wide scope. The 
dominant cause with the Carolina Wren is the severity of the 
winter. The causes or factors limiting the other species are 
still a matter for research. 

Much has been said in recent years about the northward 
extension of this Life Zone. I find no satisfactory evidence of 
it in this territory, with the single 1 exception of the Tufted 
Titmouse, which has gained a few miles in New Jersey. While 
it i> quite true that' most of these birds are now known to 
range further northward, notably in the Hudson River 
valley, this may well bo due to the fact that competent ob- 
servers now exi-t at points where formerly there were few 
or none. When this all-importani factor is considered, many 
alleged increases or extensions require confirmation or have 
been shown, to be fictitious. ( Consequently I do not deny any 
such extension locally, but it cannot be stated a- a fact. On 
the other hand there i> definite evidence that mosl of these 

Carolinian birds have decreased in the last twenty-five 

3. The detail- will be found in the annotated li-t. With 



16 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

most of the species concerned, the cause is obviously the 
interference of man. The disappearance of the Acadian 
Flycatcher however, cannot be ascribed wholly to this cause. 
If Giraud's statements, written in 1842, can be credited, the 
decrease of Carolinian species has been going on ever since 
then. The Red-bellied Woodpecker, which is now of acciden- 
tal occurrence, was formerly a permanent resident on Long 
Island. I cite this, one of several southern species which have 
completely disappeared from our region, because the inter- 
ference of man cannot reasonably be advanced to explain it. 
Unfortunately the accurate and detailed data of the present 
did not exist in the past, and this interesting question can 
never be settled definitely. 

II. The Alleghanian or Transition Zone. It can readily 
be inferred from the foregoing, that the southern limit of this 
Zone is approximately reached in this region. The following 
species, at sea-level, reach their southern breeding limit here 
or but little south of us : 

Carolina Rail Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Alder Flycatcher Purple Finch 

Least Flycatcher Golden-winged Warbler 

Bobolink Chestnut-sided Warbler 

Savannah Sparrow Black-throated Green Warbler 

Wilson's Thrush 

As with the Carolinian birds, there is much still to be 
learned of the factors limiting the southward extension of these 
species. The majority, however, are rare or absent on the 
coastal plain of Long Island and Staten Island, which is a 
more definite statement than is possible for the northern 
limits of the Carolinian species. Most of them also increase 
northward, as might be expected, but the Purple Finch and 
Savannah Sparrow do not, for which there is no available 
explanation. The Black-throated Green Warbler is very 
irregularly distributed, and turns up in three distinct habitats, 
with different associations of species and radically different 




Plate II. Goldfinch 



INTRODUCTION 17 

floras. These three groups of Alleghaniao species musl have 
three different sets of causes limiting their distribution. They 

await satisfactory determination. 

III. The Canadian Zone. Due principally to the recent 
investigations of Mr. W. DeW. Miller in extreme northern and 
northwestern New Jersey, a distinctly Canadian element has 
been found, especially in the high-forested plateau between 
Bearforl and Wawayanda Mountains, where the altitude 
varies from 1200-1400 feet. This element appeals in many 
other swamps and bogs of Sussex County. It is quite possible 
that other species ma}' yet be found, and undoubtedly many 
new stations for the known species remain to be discovered. 
Not even half the likely country has been visited, and none of 
it has been thoroughly studied. The following species are 
characteristic of the Canadian Zone. Those whose breeding 
is regarded as casual are omitted. 

'.'Wilson's Snipe Blackbumian Warbler 

'.'Solitary Vireo Northern Water-thrush 

Nashville Warbler Canadian Warbler 

Black-throated Blue Warbler Brown Creeper 

'.'Magnolia Warbler Hermit Thrush 

It seems curious that the distribution of these Canadian 
forms in our territory is the most normal and the least 
anomalous. The Hermit Thrush, however, nests commonly 
in the hottest and driest pine-barrens of Long Island, and it is 
very rare in the one section where all the other species occur. 
The others require no comment. Anyone who has had field 
experience in the heart of the Canadian Zone would immedi- 
ately understand their occurrence in the region where they 
are found. It is astonishing, however, to find the Hooded, 
Golden-winged, and Canadian Warblers equally abundant in 
the same swamp, and to find all three disappearing southward 
at the same rate. When it is realized that they are taken as 
indices of three different life-zones, it is evident that their 

occurrence together cannot be explained by isothermal line-. 



18 birds of the new york city region 

Seasonal Variation in Bird-Life 

The bird-life of our vicinity varies widely during the 
course of a year. A few are always present. Others nest and 
then retire southward; others come in winter only, and still 
others pass through twice each year to and from southern 
winter quarters and northern summer homes. Many of them, 
however, do not fit into any of these groups with any degree of 
definiteness, and others are in different groups in different 
parts of the territory. I have not, therefore, adhered to 
strict definitions of terms, but have consulted utility, putting 
each species in that group in which it belongs either in the 
greatest extent of territory or in the greatest numbers. Thus 
the Hermit Thrush is technically a permanent resident, as it is 
undoubtedly present somewhere at every season. But in no 
one locality will this be true, except casually, so it is classed as 
a transient, as under this head it is known to the majority of 
students and is most abundant. In many cases, the inclusion 
of a species in any particular group must be quite arbitrary. 
There is no answer, for instance, to the question : when does a 
summer resident become a permanent resident? Every pos- 
sible stage of intergradation occurs. Mr. J. T. Nichols' 
opinion has been of assistance in many of these doubtful 
cases. 

I. Permanent Residents. This group includes species 
regularly present throughout the year. Some, like the 
Bob-white, Ruffed Grouse, and certain Owls, are doubtless 
strictly non-migratory. The majority, however, do migrate, 
and it is probable that wintering individuals come from 
further north, replacing breeding individuals who retire 
southward. Bird-banding, now happily gaining rapidly in 
popularity, can alone definitely answer this question. 



IM'HODIVTION 



1!) 



List of Peru lnent Residents 



►Herring (hill 

*Black Duck 

Bob-white 

Pheasant 

Ruffed Grouse 
•Marsh Hawk 
•Red-tailed Hawk 

Red-shouldered Hawk 
*Bald Eagle 

Duck Hawk 

Sparrow Hawk 

Barn Owl 
*Long-eared Owl 
♦Short-eared Owl 

Barred Owl 

Screech Owl 

Great Horned Owl 

Hairy Woodpecker 



Downy Woodpecker 
Pileated Woodpecker 
fRed-headed Woodpecker 

fFlicker 

Blue Jay 

Crow 
fFish Crow 

Starling 
fMeadowlark 

House Sparrow 
fGoldfinch 
tField Sparrow 
fSong Sparrow 
fSwamp Sparrow 

Cardinal 

Carolina Wren 

White-breasted Nuthatch 



Tufted Titmouse 
Chickadee 
*More common in winter or as a transient. 
"rMore common in summer. 

II. Summer Residents. This term is applied to the 
large group of birds which arrive from the south in spring, 
nest within our limits and retire southward again in the fall. 
They may arrive in March and remain until December, as 
do the Woodcock and Blackbirds, or like the Orchard Oriole, 
they may arrive in May and leave in August. Some occa- 
sionally spend the winter, and might thus qualify as perma- 
nent residents. Others are comparatively rare, and are 
common or generally distributed only during migration. 



List of Simmer Residi 



*Common Tern 
*Roseate Tern 
"Wood Duck 

American Bittern 
• Bittern 

Green Heron 



fBlack-crowned Night Heron 

*?King Rail 
Clapper Rail 
Virginia Rail 

•Tlattle Black Rail 
•Florida Gallinule 



20 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 



List of Summer Residents {Continued) 



Woodcock 
♦Upland Plover 

Spotted Sandpiper 

Killdeer 

Piping Plover 

Mourning Dove 

Turkey Vulture 
JtSharp-shinned Hawk 
{fCooper's Hawk 

Broad-winged Hawk 
fFish Hawk 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

Black-billed Cuckoo 
{Kingfisher 

Whippoorwill 

Nighthawk 

Chimney Swift 

Hummingbird 

Kingbird 

Crested Flycatcher 

Phoebe 

Wood Pewee 
*Acadian Flycatcher 
♦Alder Flycatcher 

Least Flycatcher 

Bobolink 

Cowbird 
{Red-winged Blackbird 

Orchard Oriole 

Baltimore Oriole 

Purple Grackle 

Vesper Sparrow 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Indigo Bunting 
♦Scarlet Tanager 
♦Purple Martin 

Cliff Swallow 

Barn Swallow 



♦Henslow's Sparrow 

Grasshopper Sparrow 

Sharp-tailed Sparrow 

Seaside Sparrow 

Chipping Sparrow 

Towhee 

Bank Swallow 

Rough-winged Swallow 
{ f Cedar Waxwing 

Red-eyed Vireo 

Warbling Vireo 

Yellow-throated Vireo 

White-eyed Vireo 

Black and White Warbler 

Worm-eating Warbler 

Blue-winged Warbler 

Golden-winged Warbler 
fParula W^arbler 

Yellow Warbler 

Chestnut-sided Warbler 
fBlack-throated Green Warbler 

Pine Warbler 

Prairie Warbler 

Ovenbird 

Louisiana W^ater-thrush 
♦Kentucky Warbler 

Maryland Yellowthroat 

Yellow-breasted Chat 

Hooded Warbler 

Redstart 

Catbird 

Brown Thrasher 

House Wren 
♦Short-billed Marsh Wren 

Long-billed Marsh Wren 

Wood Thrush 

Veery 
{Robin 
{Bluebird 



♦Rare or local. 

tOccurring chiefly as a transient. 

{Occasionally wintering. 



INTRODUCTION -I 

III. Summer Visitants. The few species in this 
group are divisible into two classes. The Shearwaters and 
Petrels nest in t ho Antarctic Regions and spend their winter 
(our summer) in these latitudes. The two Herons wander 
north after their breeding season in the south is over. 

List of Summer Visitants 
Cory's Shearwater Wilson's Petrel 

Greater Shearwater American Egret 

Sooty Shearwater Little Blue Heron 

IV. Winter Visitants. Birds which breed north of our 
limits and regularly spend the winter with us are winter 
visitants. As with the summer residents, they may arrive 
long before and remain until long after the actual winter 
season. The Junco, for example, arrives from the north 
in September and remains until May. but is a typical winter 
visitant. 

List of \\ inter Visitants 
Holboell'e Grebe King Eider 

Horned Grebe fAmerican Scoter 

Loon fWhite-winged Scoter 

*Red-throate<l Loon tSurf Scoter 

Kittiwake Rough-legged Hawk 

Glaucous Gull Saw-whet Owl 

Greal Black-backed Gull Horned Lark 

tHerring Clull Snowflake 

'Ring-billed Gull [pswich Sparrow 

American Merganser •White-throated Sparrow 

Red-breasted Merganser Tree Sparrow 

- up Duck Junco 

Golden-eye *Myrtle Warbler 

Bufflehead fBrown ( beeper 

Old-squaw Golden-crowned Kinglet 

•Usually commonest as :• transient. 
fSuinmering, or breeding very locally. 

V. Irregular Winter Visitants. The bird- in this group 

vi-it as at irregular intervals. Sonic, like the Shrike are 



22 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 



reported three winters out of five; others are much rarer, 
and like the Pine Grosbeak, are unrecorded in this Region for 
ten years or more at a time. 

List of Irregular Winter Visitants 



Puffin 

Black Guillemot 
Brunnich's Murre 
Razor-billed Auk 
Dovekie 
Iceland Gull 
Cormorant 
Harlequin Duck 
American Eider 
Purple Sandpiper 



Goshawk 
Snowy Owl 

?Prairie Horned Lark (breeds) 
Evening Grosbeak 
Pine Grosbeak 
American Crossbill 
White-winged Crossbill 
Redpoll 

Lapland Longspur 
Northern Shrike 



VI. Regular Transients. Birds which winter south of 
our limits, breed north of us, and pass through our territory 
in spring and fall, are transients. The regular transients 
occur every year. A few of them breed very locally, and 
others winter very locally or occasionally. These excep- 
tional cases, however, are always much more abundant and 
widely distributed as transients, and are consequently in- 
cluded here. 

List of Regular Transients 



*Pied-billed Grebe 
*Laughing Gull 
fBonaparte's Gull 
*Least Tern 

Black Tern 

Gannet 

Double-crested Cormorant 

Hooded Merganser 
fMallard 

Baldpate 

Green-winged Teal 

Blue-winged Teal 

Pintail 

Redhead 
[Lesser Scaup Duck 



Ruddy Duck 
fCanada Goose 
fBrant 

fGreat Blue Heron 
*Sora 

Yellow Rail 
*Coot 

Northern Phalarope 
fWilson's Snipe 

Dowitcher 

Knot 

Pectoral Sandpiper 

White-rumped Sandpiper 

Least Sandpiper 

Red-backed Sandpiper 



1\ I RODUCTION 



23 



f Regular Transients Continwd) 



Semipalmated Sandpiper 
fSanderling 

ter Yellowlegs 
! i sser Yellowlegs 

Solitary Sandpiper 
Willot 
Hudsonian Curlew 

Black-bellied Plover 

Golden Plover 

Semipalmated Plover 

Ruddy Turnstone 

Pigeon Hawk 
fSapsucker 

Olive-sided Flycatcher 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher 
tRusty Blackbird 
^Bronzed Crackle 

Purple Finch 
^Savannah Sparrow 

Acadian Sharp-tail 

White-crowned Sparrow 

Lincoln's Sparrow 
tFox Sparrow 
*Tree Swallow 
*Has bred or breeds locally. 
^Wintering locally or occasionally 



Solitary Viieo 
•Nashville Warbler 
Tennessee Warbler 
( Jape Ma\ Warbler 

* Black-throated Blue Warbler 
Magnolia Warbler 
Bay-breasted Warbler 

*Blackburnian Warbler 
BlackpoU Warbler 
Palm Warbler 
Yellow Palm Warbler 

* Water-Thrush 
Connecticut Warbler 
Mourning Warbler 
Canadian Warbler 
Wil son's Warbler 
Pipit 

tWinter Wren 
fRed-breasted Nuthatch 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Gray-cheeked Thrush 

Bicknell's Thrush 

Olive-backed Thrush 
♦Hermit Thrush 



VII. Irregular Transients. As can be inferred from the 
name, irregular transients are those which apparently do not 
occur in our territory every year 

List of Irsegfulab Transients 



Pomarine Jaeger 
Parasitic Jaeger 
( laspian Tern 
'.'Leach'. Petrel 
European Widgeon 
Shoveller 
Canvasback 
Long-billed Dowitcher 



fStilt Sandpiper 

Baird'fl Sandpiper 
{Western Sandpiper 

Hudsonian Godwil 

Western Willel 

BurT-breasted Sandpiper 
'.'1'inc Siskin 
{"♦Nelson's Sharp-tail 



24 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

List of Irregular Transients {Continued) 
Migrant Shrike Orange-crowned Warbler 

Philadelphia Vireo *Mockingbird 

Gnatcatcher 
*Winters occasionally. 
fSometimes numerous. 

VIII. Casual Visitants. The species in this group 
occur only at very long intervals, and are all very rare birds 
in our territory. In some cases their regular migration route 
or home is not very far away; in other cases they have 
occurred here and elsewhere in the north-east too often to be 
regarded as accidental. 

List of Casual Visitants 

Long-tailed Jaeger Red Phalarope 

Kumlien's Gull Wilson's Phalarope 

Arctic Tern Marbled Godwit 

Black Skimmer Arkansas Kingbird 

Gadwall Lark Sparrow 

Ring-necked Duck Summer Tanager 

Greater Snow Goose Prothonotary Warbler 

Whistling Swan Cerulean Warbler 

Yellow-crowned Xight Heron Labrador Chickadee 

IX. Accidental Visitants. The homes of these birds 
are so far removed from our territory that their occurrence 
here is probably due in large part to storms, high winds, or 
a defective migratory instinct. The great majority have been 
captured in this vicinity once only. 

List of Accidental Visitants 

Pacific Loon Audubon's Shearwater 

Skua Black-capped Petrel 

Ivory Gull Booby 

Littie Gull White Pelican 

Sabine's Gull Brown Pelican 

Royal Tern Frigate Bird 

Sooty Tern European Teal 

Fulmar Barrow's Golden-eye 

Mediterranean Shearwater Lesser Snow Goose 

Manx Shearwater White-fronted Goose 



I\ I UODIVTIOX 



25 



List of Acciden i\i. 
Blue Goose 
Black Brant 
Barnacle Goose 
White [bis 

(I lossy Il)is 

Wood [bis 
Louisiana Heron 
( 'orn Crake 
Purple Gallinule 

Avoect 

European Dunlin 
Curlew Sandpiper 
Ruff 

Long-lulled Curlew 
Whimbrel 
Lapwing 
Wilson's Plover 
Black Vulture 
Swallow-tailed Kite 
Swainson's Hawk 
Golden Eagle 
Gyrfalcon 
Black Gyrfalcon 



Visit ints ( 'ontinited) 
Great Cray Owl 
Arctic Horned Owl 
Hawk Owl 

Eted-cockaded Woodpecker 
Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker 
Red-bellied Woodpecker 
Gray Kingbird 
Raven 

Greater Redpoll 
Holboell's Redpoll 
Hoary Redpoll 
( liest nut-collared Longspur 
Baird's Sparrow 
Bach man's Sparrow 
Blue Grosbeak 
Lark Bunting 
Bohemian Waxwing 
Yellow-throated Warbler 
Grinnell's Water-thrush 
Hudsonian Chickadee 
Townsend's Solitaire 
Varied Thrush 
Greenland Wheatear 



X. Extinct and Extirpated Species. This list contains 
those species which were formerly a part of our avifauna. 
The Labrador Duck and Passenger Pigeon are extinct; the 
Eskimo Curlew is probably so, or very near it. The extir- 
pated species survive in other parts of North America, but 
have not occurred in this area in many years. Should they 
subsequently do BO, they should be transferred to the acci- 
dental visitant-. 

List of Extinct ind Extirpated Species 

Gull-billed Tern Eskimo Curlew 

Forster's Tern Oyster-catcher 

Labrador Duck Eeatfa Hen 

Snowy Egret Wild Turkey 

Whooping Crane Passenger Pigeon 

Black-necked Stilt Dickcissel 



26 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

XI. The following species have been introduced in our 
vicinity from Europe. The Mute Swan has not as yet be- 
come definitely established. The introduction of the other 
three species can be pronounced a complete failure, and few 
if any individuals survive. None is counted in the summary. 

Introduced Species, not established 
Mute Swan Chaffinch 

Skylark European Goldfinch 

XII. Hypothetical Species. Species whose occurrence 
in our area has been recorded, but where definite and positive 
evidence is lacking, are placed in this list. Three cases 
marked with an asterisk (*) are recent sight records, appar- 
ently reliable. Others are chiefly very old records of birds 
whose occurrence is now known to be highly improbable, 
and where this fact was not realized at the time. In other 
cases the bird captured was possibly an escaped cage-bird. 
All are discussed in detail in the proper place, and all should 
be removed from the list of New York State birds. 

List of Hypothetical Species 
*Western Grebe Ground Dove 

Great Auk * White Gyrfalcon 
Cabot's Tern Burrowing Owl 

Trudeau's Tern *American Three-toed Wood- 
Rufous-crested Duck pecker 

Hutchin's Goose Hoyt's Horned Lark 

European Curlew Painted Bunting 

SUMMARY 

Permanent Residents 37 

Summer Residents 89 

Summer Visitants 6 

Winter Visitants 30 

Irregular Winter Visitants 20 

Regular Transients 78 

Irregular Transients 21 

Casual Visitants 18 

Accidental Visitants 66 

Extinct and Extirpated Species 12 

Total 377 



INTRODUCTION 27 

Dr, Chapman's List enumerated 353 specie- and BUD- 

Bpecies. Of these, four are here removed to the hypothetical 
list, and three more, the European Woodcock, Louisiana 
Tanager, and Carolina chickadee occurred in territory now 

extralimital. The additional thirty species are chiefly 
accidental visitants, the majority recorded from eastern 
Long Island (beyond the fifty mile limit) before the publica- 
tion of his list. Ten species only have been added since 
1910, and three of these additions are based on old specimens, 
now correctly determined. The Western Willet is the only 
form obviously not of accidental occurrence. The addition, 
however, of a few more accidental visitants, is of no real 
importance. The actual measure of progress in knowledge 
which has taken place is, perhaps, best found in the fact that 
nearly one-third of our local species appear in a different 
group from that in which they were placed in Dr. Chapman's 
li-t. Again the discovery of several Canadian Zone species 
breeding in Xew Jersey is of far greater scientific value than 
the recording of all 66 accidental visitants. 

The Migrations and Movements of Local Birds 

The fact that there is seasonal variation in bird-life means 
that only a part of the 377 species which have been recorded 
from this vicinity are present in any one season or month, or 
are likely to occur. Within general limits every bird, other 
than the ever-present Permanent Residents, has an appointed 
time for arriving and departing. It is idle to look for Warblers 
in January or Ducks in July. Not only must we know that 
a given specie- i- a transient in order to make its acquaintance; 
we musi also know in what part of the spring and fall it 
- through, or we are certain to miss it. 

There are perhaps only a few week- in the year when some 
bird or birds are not moving north or south in our territory. 
Bird-life i- unquestionably at it< minimum, however, in 
January and February, and i- composed of the permanent 



28 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

residents and the winter visitants. The interest afield at 
this season is the hope of finding some of the rare and 
irregular winter visitants, or some belated summer resident 
or transient which has attempted to brave the winter storms. 
There is always movement, even when there is no migration 
in the technical sense. Many species or individuals present 
in early January disappear in February, forced to move 
elsewhere by the exhaustion of their food supply. On the 
seacoast every severe cold wave brings a sudden rush of 
water-fowl, frozen out of more favorable quarters elsewhere. 
These disappear when the weather moderates. In late 
February the first harbinger of spring, the Canada Goose,, 
frequently arrives at the eastern end of Long Island. 

No matter how backward the season, March is certain to 
witness a general northward movement of birds. In the 
following discussion the rarer species are omitted. As soon 
as the ice leaves our bays, ponds and marshes, Ducks and 
Geese will appear. With the first heavy thaw, the earliest 
group of land-birds will take possession of the country. 
These are: 

(Feb. 15-March 15) 

Meadowlark Purple Grackle 

Red-winged Blackbird Fox Sparrow 

Rusty Blackbird Robin 

Bluebird 

There is almost a month's variation in the arrival of this 
wave, according to season. In 1909 it took place the middle 
of February. Later in March there is a second distinct 
group of migrants, which takes place between the 10th and 
the 25th. It is exceptional for any of the species in this 
group to arrive in February, and it is also exceptional for the 
majority of them to arrive on saiy one day in this period. 
They are 

(March 10-March 25) 

Gannet Turkey Vulture 

Green-winged Teal Kingfisher 





[NTRODUC 


"IIOX 


\S ood Duck 




Phoebe 


Woodcock 




Fish ( 'row 


Killdeer 




Cowbird 


Mourning Dove 




Pipit 



29 



The last few days of the month often bring no new arrivals, 
but increasing numbers of those species already on the move. 
By the (mil of the month the rarer winter visitants and those 
which arrive last in the fall, such as the Snowflake and 
Horned Lark, have usually completely disappeared. 

In early April the pronounced developments in the 
vegetable and insect worlds bring our first Warblers and other 
species largely dependent upon insects for food. They often 
arrive in a marked "wave,'' which is usually between the 7th 
and the 12th. Occasionally in very mild and advanced 
ins half the species of this group arrive the last days of 
March, and the balance perhaps before April 7th. The 
following species belong in the early April group: 

(March 25-April 12) 

Pied-billed Grebe Savannah Sparrow 

Douhle-crested Cormorant White-throated Sparrow 

Blue-winged Teal Chipping Sparrow 

Great Blue Heron Field Sparrow 

Wilson's Snipe Swamp Sparrow 

Piping Plover Tree Swallow 

Osprey Yellow Palm Warhler 

Sapsucker Pine Warbler 

Vesper Sparrow Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Hermit Thrush 

The balance of the month is the most difficult period <>! 
the spring migration to describe, as it often breaks the rule 
that as the season advances more species arrive in proportion 
over a given -pace of time. Between the 17th and the 25th 
the following species appear, but I have never known them 
to appear together. At the same time the numbers of the 
early April migrants are greatly increased, and the migration 
of the fresh-water duck- i- concluded. 



30 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

(April 17-April 25) 

Bittern Blue-headed Vireo 

Night Heron Black and White Warbler 

Clapper Rail Myrtle Warbler 

Virginia Rail Black-throated Green Warbler 

Towhee Louisiana Water-thrush 

Barn Swallow Brown Thrasher 

While it is most exceptional for one of these species not to 
arrive in April, they are the only ones which can be counted 
upon. In six years out of ten, however, there is a third move- 
ment between April 25th and 30th, bringing the majority of 
the following species : 

(April 25-April 30) 

Green Heron Purple Martin 

Greater Yellowlegs Cliff Swallow 

Spotted Sandpiper Bank Swallow 

Broad-winged Hawk Rough-winged Swallow 

Whippoorwill Yellow Warbler 

Chimney Swift House Wren 

May is the star month of the year for the bird-lover. The 
migration becomes more marked and continuous. A vast 
horde of birds flood the countryside and pour overhead at 
night, their calls coming to us from the sky. A rise in 
temperature and a light southerly wind is apt to bring a great 
"wave. " As many as a dozen new species will arrive over- 
night. A drop in temperature, cold rain, or strong northerly 
or easterly winds are equally certain to bring a lull in migra- 
tion. Five distinct groups of species can be distinguished 
during the month, but climatic factors will often bring about 
a totally different story for any given season. As a general 
rule the following species arrive between May 2nd and May 
7th, and a " wave " usually occurs in this period bringing the 
majority of them with it. Those marked with an asterisk (*) 
occasionally arrive the last days of April. The balance are 
casual in April, but in the remarkable spring of 1914 the 
majority arrived on April 29th and 30th: 



INTRODUCTION 31 

(May L' May 7) 

Solitary Sandpiper Nashville Warbler 

•Pigeon Hawk Blue-winged Warbler 

Hummingbird Pamla Warbler 

Kingbird Black-throated Blue Warbler 

-•t'<l Flycatcher Chestnut-sided Warbler 

"1 i-t Flycatcher *Prairie Warbler 

Baltimore Oriole 'Northern Water-Thrush 

Orchard Oriole Hooded Warbler 

•Grasshopper Sparrow Northern Ycllowthroat 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak *Ovenbird 

Tanager *Redstar1 

Warbling Yireo *Catbird 

Yellow-throated Yireo *Wood Thrush 

White-eyed Yirco Veery 

Between May 9th and May 12th there is often another 
well-marked "wave," During this period a few species arrive 
with great regularity. In backward seasons many of the 
species in the last list do not arrive until this "wave," which 
brings : 

(May 9-May 12) 
Acadian Flycatcher Blackburnian Warbler 

Red-eyed Yireo Chat 

Worm-eating Warbler Canadian Warbler 

Magnolia Warbler Olive-backed Thrush 

The third "wave" of the month usually takes place 
between May 10th and May 14th. It is eagerly awaited by 
the field student, as it is one of the two chief opportunities of 
finding the rarer species. The following commonly arrive at 
this time: 

May LO-May 14) 
Nighthawk ('ape May Warbler 

Bobolink Bay-breasted Warbler 

White-crowned Sparrow Blackpoll Warbler 

Lincoln's Sparrow Wilson's Warbler 

Golden-winged Warbler Long-billed Marsh Wren 

Tenn<->^-<- Warbler Gray-cheeked Thrush 



32 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

The fourth "wave" of the season is what is technically 
known as the " height of the migration/' and takes place 
chiefly between May 16th and May 19th. If all goes well, 
and the season is normal, the maximum number of birds is 
present at this time, and those who are so fortunate as to be 
afield the day when this "wave" arrives, have recorded 100 
or more species. It will bring the birds listed below, plus any 
in the earlier groups which have not yet appeared: 

(May 10-May 19) 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo Wood Pewee 

Black-billed Cuckoo Indigo Bunting 

Cedar Waxwing 

The above summary may be described as the normal or 
ideal May migration. As there are obviously an infinite 
number of combinations of weather and temperature which 
can occur in 19 days, it follows that this ideal migration rarely 
takes place without more or less extensive modifications. It 
must be remembered that a "wave" is usually due to un- 
favorable weather damming the flood of birds moving north- 
ward for several days. A change to ideal conditions means an 
opportunity which the delayed host immediately seizes, and it 
rushes forward en masse. However, should the unfavorable 
weather continue over a protracted period, two or more 
"waves" are telescoped, the species arriving irregularly and 
in small numbers at a time. Long-continued ideal weather 
may have exactly the same result. Birds move forward every 
night throughout the period, and on no one day is there a 
sufficiently marked concentration to be called a "wave." 
Such seasons of both classes are particularly unsatisfactory 
and disappointing to the observer, who usually misses most 
if not all of the rarer transients, which as a rule are only re- 
corded on days when other birds are particularly abundant. 
Perhaps the table below, giving days of the month on which 
"waves" have arrived during 12 years in Central Park, based 
on my own daily observation, will give a better idea of the 



I\ I RODUCTION 



33 



possible variation than pages of comment. It is jusl this 

variation and the resulting uncertainty, however, which 
makes the period so fascinating. The birds in group 5 are 
included for the sake of completeness. They are discussed 
further on. 



( rroup 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1907 




Chiefly is 


18 


23 


29 


1906 


2 


9 


13 


? 


? 


1909 


4 


11 


15 


19 


24 and 25 


1910 




11 


17 


20 


25 


1911 


2 and 3 




11 


16 


17 


1912 


4 


9 


11 


15 


? 


1913 


t. :, 


5 and 13 


16 


18 


23 and 26 


1914 


Apr. 29. 80. May 4 


6 and 11 


1 1 and 12 


14 and 17 


Chiefly 17 


1919 


Chiefly <> 


6 


6 and 14 


18 


? 


1920 




11 


16 




22 


1921 


10 


14 


14 






1922 




7 


7 and 10 


Chiefly 10 


•• 



A little study of this table will show that 1907 was the 
coldest spring on record, and there was practically no migra- 
tion until May IS. The spring of 1922 was also an exceed- 
ingly poor year, as the weather was exceptionally favorable 
throughout the month, and there w r ere only two days on 
which birds were at all abundant. The years 1913 and 1914 
were remarkable in the number of great " waves" of birds, 
but in both years a spell of cold rainy weather suspended 
migration, and caused a long delay in the complete arrival of 
the species in ( rroup 2. 

It will now be evident thai there is no such tiling as an 
average arrival date for any species. Such a date can, of 
COUrse, b<' calculated arithmetically, but it will be of no 

particular service, if not positively misleading. In another 

place I hope to discuss the matter more fully. Suffice it here 

lecting ;ill y species a1 random and calculating 



34 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

its average date of arrival for the twelve years under discus- 
sion, the date of arrival each year will in the great majority 
of cases not coincide with such an average date. If this be 
true of May birds, it is much more true of the earlier spring 
migrants, which sometimes arrive on dates two weeks or even 
a month apart in two successive years. For this reason arrival 
dates have been given in the annotated list in great detail, 
and every precaution has been taken to convince the student 
that there is nothing fixed in the migration of our local birds. 
Not a season has passed without breaking the arrival or 
departure record of some species, and it is scarcely conceivable 
that such a season will occur. If the very earliest or the very 
latest spring arrival dates be considered, not a single state- 
ment for any species in the preceding discussion would be 
strictly true. The most that can be done, therefore, is to say 
of a species that it belongs in a group which usually arrives 
between certain limits. Any more specific statement is not 
warranted by the facts, and is more misleading than helpful. 
After the height of the migration, birds fall off very rapidly 
in numbers, but there is often a "wave" between the 22nd 
and 26th. This is the "wave" of female Warblers. The 
Blackpoll, Bay-breasted, Magnolia and Canadian Warblers 
become common, as do the transient thrushes. The late 
arriving summer residents, such as the Wood Pewee and 
Red-e}^ed Vireo, now become common. A very few new 
species also appear at this time. It is exceptional when they 
arrive with Group 4. 

(May 15-May 26) 
Olive-sided Flycatcher Kentucky Warbler 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Mourning Warbler 

Alder Flycatcher ?Short-billed Marsh Wren 

Nothing has so far been said about the bird-life of May 
at the seashore. During the month the last waterfowl dis- 
appear, the Laughing Gull, Terns and Shore-birds arrive. 
The} r are, however, exceedingly irregular, and their migra- 



i.\ ruonrrnoN :;."> 

tion ilocs not correspond with that of the other transients 

inland. That is to say, a wave of Warblers inland docs not 
mean that there has been a flight of sea birds on the coast. 
In fact, with the Shore-birds, a flight is caused by diametrically 
opposite reasons. ( 'old weather and easterly gales cause these 
more powerful fliers to alight, when they would otherwise 

fly by without stopping. ( )f passerine birds, the Seaside and 
Sharp-tailed Sparrows arrive early in the month, and the 
Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow has t he distinction of being the 
very last land-bird to arrive in this region. 

In June the great majority of our local birds are nesting 
and are absorbed with the cares of raising a family. A few 
Black-poll Warblers linger regularly during the first week of 
the month, but in very backward seasons, such as 1907, a con- 
siderable number of transients have been recorded. On the 
. however, Loons, Cormorants, the Laughing Gull, the 
Terns and most of the Shore birds remain until the middle of 
the month. About this time the summer visitant Petrels and 
Shearwaters arrive. Inland, certain species have finished 
nesting, and like Starlings and Crackles, gather in flocks and 
commence wandering around the country. In July the 
breeding season begins to wane. The song season is rapidly 
concluded with most species, which begin to moult, and 
consequently become hard to find. A few. such as the 
< )rchard Oriole and Kentucky Warbler, disappear completely 
during the month. First Tree and later Barn Swallows appear 
in great numbers in the coastal marshes, and the Solitary 
Sandpiper arrives from the north. On the coast the Shore- 
bird migration starts regularly the first week in .July, and is 
well under way by the end of the month. Laughing Gulls 
and Terns also appear, as well as the summer visitanl Egrets 
and Herons from the south. 

Xo month of the year more sorely t ries t he pal ience of t he 
bird-lover than August. The retiring habits of moulting 
individual- and the gradual disappearance tor good of many 



36 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

summer residents greatly outweighs the accessions from the 
north in the way of new species. Many summer residents 
are now on the move, but this is difficult to detect except in 
places where they do not breed. Species, however, such as 
the Worm-eating and Golden-winged Warblers, which are 
rare as transients, are more often recorded in this month. 
Those birds which regularly arrive from the north are : 

(Aug. 1-Aug. 30) 
Great Blue Heron Magnolia Warbler 

Sora Bay-breasted Warbler 

Olive-sided Flycatcher Blackburnian Warbler 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Northern Water-Thrush 

Golden-winged Warbler Mourning Warbler 

Tennessee Warbler Wilson's Warbler 

Cape May Warbler Canadian Warbler 

Red-breasted Nuthatch (irregular) 

Of these species, the Heron, Sora, Yellow-bellied Fly- 
catcher, Water-thrush, and Canadian Warbler regularly 
arrive before August 15, the others usually not until after the 
20th. Birds do not come in " waves" in August as they do 
in May. The migration of each species is extended over a 
much longer period, consequently fewer individuals are 
present on any one day, and a bird is often recorded less 
frequently in fall than in spring, in spite of the fact that the 
total number of individuals passing through is approximately 
the same. The absence of song, the change to a more obscure 
plumage, and the fact that the vegetation is at its maximum 
of luxuriance add to the difficulties of the student. It is by all 
odds the least known and the most interesting season of the 
year. On the coast the migration of Terns and Shore-birds 
reaches its maximum. The Loon, Cormorant, Ring-billed 
Gull and Jaegers arrive from the north. 

The great apparent scarcity of birds in August is partially 
relieved in early September. More transients have arrived. 
The number of summer residents is also greatly reenforced by 
individuals appearing from more northern nesting grounds. 



IMHODl ( [TON 3*3 

As a result, around September 10th it is possible to sec as 
many as 80 species of birds in a day. After this date a 
considerable body of summer residents take their final de- 
parture and there is a general scarcity of bird-life, until the 
cool snap of the month brings the second group o! 
September transients together with the first of the winter 
visitants. The new arrivals in early September are: 

(Sept. 1-Sept. 10) 
Nashville Warbler Blaekpoll Warbler 

Panda Warbler Black-throated Green Warbler 

Black-throated Blue Warbler Connecticut Warbler 

They are all occasionally recorded the last days of August. 

The second group is composed of the following species: 

(Sept. 10-Scpt. 20) 
Wilson's Snipe White-throated Sparrow 

Broad-winged Hawk Palm Warbler 

Pigeon Hawk Olive-backed Thrush 

Some time between the 20th and the 30th there is usually 
a frost attended with high northwest winds. This causes a 
"wave" of the third group of the month's transients. Birds 
are now as abundant individually as in May, but the number 
of species is much less. The arrival of this group is practically 
synchronous with the departure of many summer residents 
and the majority of the early August transients. 

Sept. 20-Sept. 30) 
Coot Yellow Palm Warbler 

Savanna li Sparrow Brown Creeper 

Junco Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Lincoln's Sparrow Ruby-crownc<l Kinglet 

Myrtle Warbler Gray-cheeked Thrush 

With the commencement of October the migration be- 
comes bo irregular and so dependent upon the weather, that 
it i- almost impossible to make any general statement. One 
might as well predict a frost or a spell of warm weather as 
State the arrival or departure of any given species. The m08l 
vital factor is. of course, a killing frost, which clears out Dearly 



38 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

all the insectivorous species, whether summer residents or 
transients. In mild seasons a maximum of bird-life is reached 
between the 4th and 13th; the normal transient host is re- 
enforced by lingering summer residents and the earlier tran- 
sients such as Warblers. Should a frost then ensue, a big 
"wave" occurs, and 80 species can be recorded in a day. 
Such a fortunate combination occurs about once in five 
years. Just as in May, continued warm weather means that 
birds are relatively scarce, and no marked flights occur. 
Apparently the birds move south anyhow, and sudden cold 
weather merely serves to hasten their departure in a body. 
The Pipit, Winter Wren, Rusty Blackbird, Solitary Vireo, and 
White-crowned Sparrow arrive regularly early in October. 
The Fox Sparrow and Hermit Thrush always arrive on the 
heels of the first hard frost, which in recent years at least has 
never been later than the 20th. After this date the bird- 
life of the month is practically the same as that of March, 
plus those species of the earlier April groups, which are not 
purely insectivorous. These latter linger until the end of the 
month or the first days of November, when the Tree Sparrow 
arrives. During this period the most abundant birds are the 
Sparrows, which throng the countryside in countless numbers. 
There is a second factor, however, which is obvious to 
those who have carefully followed the migration both spring 
and fall for a sufficient number of years. There can be no 
question of the fact that an early or a late fall migration is 
somewhat dependent upon that of the preceding spring, 
provided that the summer has not been abnormal or that the 
fall is not abnormally cold. Two excellent illustrations of 
this are at hand. The spring of 1907 was the latest on record, 
and many species were reported in October, never before or 
since reported, while many remained later in the month than 
ever before or since. The fact that the relative mildness of 
the month that year had little or nothing to do with it, is 
proved by the past fall (1922), in which the months of 



l\ I BOD1 < I tOK 39 

September and October broke all records for heat and excep- 
tional warmth. Those who supposed that our birds would 
linger later than ever before were sadly deceived. The Bpring 
migration of 1922 was concluded earlier than any other on 
record. Perhaps the birds started nesting and finished breed- 
ing earlier than usual. I was in Central Park almost every 
day from August 9th to October 15th. I have never known 
the summer residents to disappear so early, and in only one 
previous year did the transients arrive earlier. It was aston- 
ishing to see Myrtle Warblers in August one month ahead of 
normal, to record all the early September transients in 
August, and to break the arrival record of the Yellow Palm 
Warbler on a blistering hot day in September, when I did not 
see a single individual of twenty summer residents which I 
might have expected to find in October. Oddly enough the 
earlier migration referred to above was the fall of 1921, which 
was also abnormally warm. Here perhaps the excessive 
drought in northern New England and eastern Canada may 
furnish a clue to the appearance of many transients and 
winter visitants earlier than ever previously recorded. If 
there seems to be some correspondence in the extreme seasons, 
it i- equally true that a normal spring migration is followed 
by a normal fall migration, unless other exceptional factors 
happen to exist. 

We may now turn our attention briefly to the bird-life of 
the coast, where the situation is almost the reverse of what it 
i> inland. To my mind the dullest time of the year on the 
<-<,a-t i< the period between the middle of September, when 
the main southward movement of Shorebirds is over, until 
cold weather in late October or early November. The 
Scoter- regularly arrive in this period, and individuals of other 
Bpecies are frequently recorded, but the main migration of the 
winter waterfowl and seabirds does not take place until really 
cold weather. As a result many specie- vary as much as two 
month- in the time of their appearance. A period of inaxi- 



40 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

mum abundance is sometimes reached around October 25th , 
if cold weather brings many winter birds down early, which 
thus meet the migrating Sparrow host, and a large list is 
possible. Early in November the Horned Lark, Snowflake 
and Ipswich Sparrow appear, and at about the same time the 
Seaside and Sharp-tailed Sparrows depart. 

Little need be said about the bird-life of November and 
December. The weather is the dominant factor. The species 
which arrived in March will remain until the conditions which 
caused their arrival are terminated by the approach of 
winter. The forming of ice, the hard freezing of the ground, 
or a fall of snow deprive them of their food supply, and they 
depart southward. The end of November marks the normal 
termination of their stay, but in very mild seasons many 
linger until Christmas. The waterfowl on the coast are, of 
course, hardier, and their migration is rarely concluded before 
January 1st. Many winter visitants do not arrive in bulk 
until after December 1st. 

The Local Regions 

The above discussion of the migrations of our local 
birds during the year holds true for the immediate vicinity 
of New York City. In the whole territory covered by this 
Handbook, however, slight differences in climate result in 
modifications of the statements made in those sections more 
remote from the City. Accordingly, as a further assistance 
to the student, the Region has been divided into three sec- 
tions, Long Island, the balance of New York State, and New 
Jersey. In each of these three sections the status and migra- 
tion of each species is given in detail. In addition one or more 
" Local Regions ' ' are given under each section . These ' ' Local 
Regions" are areas of relatively small extent, in which inten- 
sive observation over long periods of years has been conducted 
by numerous observers. The resulting local lists probably 



INTRODUCTION 41 

cannot be exceeded in any sectioD of the United States at all 
comparable in area and latitude. The records include the 

Summer of 1922, hut as many as possible were added later. 
up to December 1st inclusive. Exceptions are noted beyond. 

Long Island. Hie best known section of the Region, 
with records going back 100 years. The long seacoast and the 
many hays give us our long list of water-birds, the majority 
of which an 1 unknown elsewhere. The eastern end is by far 
the best for them. As a general rule they arrive from the 
north quite a bit earlier here than near New York City, and 
linger later, as the winter climate is distinctly milder, tem- 
pered by the relatively warm seas surrounding it. In the 
spring they arrive earlier and depart later. This is also true 
of certain land-birds that are preeminently coastal, such as 
the Horned Lark, Snowflake and Ipswich Sparrow. Long 
Island is, however, to the east of any main migratory high- 
way of those transient land-birds which prefer rich woodland 
or its borders. Warblers, for instance, are distinctly less 
abundant on Long Island than in the Hudson River Valley or 
northern New Jersey, although they follow even the outer 
beaches. A total of 357 species are definitely and positively 
known to have occurred. The status of the Prairie Horned 
Lark and Bronzed Grackle still need careful determination, 
and the winter bird-life of Montauk Point will unquestion- 
ably repay long-continued observation. Mr. J. T. Nichols, 
who has devoted himself to the study of Long Island birds for 
inaii\- years, collated the data for the water-birds. Dr. E. R. 
P. Janvrin prepared a similar abstract for the land-birds. Mr. 
Nichols also carefully revised and checked the manuscript. 
My thanks for such great assistance is extended to both. 
Migration dates are given in considerable detail, but au- 
thority and locality is given only for those previously un- 
published. Dates in brackets are regarded as casual. Three 
■• Local Regions" will be found under Long [sland a- follow.-: 



42 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

a. Orient Region. This Region includes the township 
of Southold from Laurel to Orient Point and Gardiner's 
Island. Mr. Roy Latham had prepared a report, based on 
his many years' observation up to January, 1921, for future 
publication, and has kindly permitted the Linnsean Society 
to use the important data it contains. The extraordinary 
abundance and variety of bird-life at Orient has already been 
made famous b}^ Mr. Latham through his Christmas Censuses 
in Bird-Lore. Mr. Latham's report is here published 
practically verbatim. He records 283 species, and supplies 
much new information and many new records, hitherto 
unpublished. He is the authority for all statements and 
records not otherwise credited. 

b. Mastic Region. An area of about five square miles 
situated on the south shore about the center of the island. 
The bird-life is tj^pical of the coastal plain where untouched 
by summer resorts or tourist centers. The list is chiefly the 
intermittent observations of Mr. J. T. Nichols during the past 
twenty-five years, and he is responsible for all statements and 
records. Migration dates are of no particular significance in 
this locality and are largely omitted. A total of 227 species is 
recorded. 

c. Long Beach. The nearest place to New York City 
where the bird-life of the seacoast can be studied to advan- 
tage. Its peculiar interest and value as a station, however, 
lies in the records for land-birds. The observations at Long 
Beach prove conclusively that the outer beaches are a migra- 
tory highway to some extent even for characteristically wood- 
land birds. There is not a single tree on the beach, which 
boasts a few small patches of bay-berry as its best cover. 
Nevertheless most of the land-birds of Long Island have been 
recorded. Over one hundred species have been recorded in 
the shrubbery of one of the summer cottages, known to local 
students as the " Oasis." Long Beach is, therefore, one of our 
two stations for determining the extent of the migration of 



INTRODUCTION 43 

summer resident and permanent resident Land-birds, as the 
number breeding on the beach is exceedingly small. 1 am 
particularly indebted to Mr. E. P. Bicknell for preparing 

an abstract of his observations. He has visited the beach 
weekly throughout the year for over ten years, and has 
amassed an incomparable migration record. It is not too 
much to say that his observations exceed in value and com- 
pleteness that of all other observers combined, and many 
experienced students have visited Long Beach frequently in 
i he last fifteen years. Of far greater importance than the 
preparation of his report is Mr. Bicknell's generosity in 
permitting the use of his records, as he was planning separate 
publication. A total of 239 species is recorded. 

New York State. For lack of -a more convenient term, 
the balance of New York State is here referred to, including 
Staten Island. New York City, Bronx and Westchester 
Counties. It is here that the greatest changes for the worse 
have taken place. In recent years this is particularly true of 
Staten Island, which fifteen years ago was chiefly unspoiled 
country. It is now almost ruined for birds. The only rural 
country remaining in this section is in northern Westchester 
County, about the breeding birds of which we have little 
definite information at present. I am indebted to Mr. 
Courtenay Brandreth of Ossining for valuable notes on the 
water-birds of the Hudson, which excellently supplement 
those made by Dr. A. K. Fisher 50 to 'M) years ago. In the 
time of Mearns and Fisher this river was a great highway 
for these birds. This is now a thing of the past, but many 
species still occur in fair numbers on the Tappan Zee. North- 
ern Westchester County has a colder winter climate than 
New York City. As a result the fall migration in particular 
i- concluded earlier, and several Bpecies, BUCfa as the White- 
throated Sparrow, are unknown there in winter, or casual, 
instead of regular. Migration dates are not given, unless they 
are better than those obtained in the "Local Regions," 
T\\M of which will be found, as follow-: 



44 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

a. Central Park. Probably no locality in America has 
been visited so often, so regularly, and by so many people, 
as Central Park. It is an ideal station for studying the migra- 
tion of birds, and is unquestionably the best place for the 
insectivorous transients in the Region. Astonishing as this 
statement may seem, it is amply justified by the facts, and 
Warblers, for instance, are more abundant here individually 
and specifically than anywhere else. It is an oasis in a vast 
desert of city roofs, in which the tired hosts must alight to 
rest as the day breaks, and where the great variety of shrub- 
bery and trees affords an ample food supply and shelter. 
The Ramble, an area of about 2 acres between 72nd and 77th 
Streets, and particularly remote from the main carriage 
drives, is the best place. The great majority of the 186 species 
recorded from the Park have been seen here. The relatively 
small size of this list is explained by the almost total absence 
of water-birds. Many species are, of course, rare or casual, 
such as nearly all the permanent residents, and all species 
preferring aquatic or open country habitats. These birds 
have particularly decreased as transients in the last eight 
years, during which many trees and shrubs have died, reduc- 
ing the available cover. The chief factor is, however, the 
great increase in the number of people using the Park. Ten 
years ago one could spend a whole morning in the Ramble, 
and scarcely see a soul. Now it is certain to be full of people 
after 10 o'clock, except in bad weather. As a result, the 
eighteen native species nesting in 1908 are now reduced to 8. 
In 1908, 22 species wintered, several in numbers. Last winter 
no native species were found. While this is regretted by 
those who have been Park enthusiasts for many years, it has 
if anything improved the Park as a station for migrating 
birds. Every individual seen can be determined with certainty 
as a transient, or is definitely known not to be one. As an 
example, I may take the Scarlet Tanager. In the country 
where it is a common summer resident, its arrival in spring 



i\ ratoDi i now 45 

and its departure in tall can, of course, be determined, But 
it is quite impossible to determine with certainty that migra- 
ting individuals are passing through this Region in maximum 

numbers about May Kith and until May 25th, or that the 
species starts moving south in late August or early September. 
These questions can be answered in Central Park. Accord- 
ingly migration records are given in the greatest detail. 

The decrease of birds mentioned above has not, however, 
affected the regular transients, which are as abundant as ever. 
Those who can possibly do so are advised to visit the Ramble 
as frequently as possible from April 1st to May 30th and from 
the first week in August to the 1 end of October. If they are 
energetic enough they should go in the early morning, 
especially in May. Later in the day Ihey are certain to miss 
many species, as the birds are scared and scattered by the 
crowds. Many days will of course be very barren, as now- 
adays there are practically no birds in between flights. On 
May 10, 1922, 66 species were observed in the Ramble, of 
which 60 were transients. It would be utterly impossible 
definitely to duplicate such a list of transients in one day 
anywhere else in the Region. Between the dates given 
above over one hundred species can be seen annually. 

In the brief space available I cannot adequately describe 
the wealth of material, founded on daily observation, avail- 
able for the present report. For instance, Miss Anne A. 
( "minis, a most reliable and conservative student, visited the 
Park more than 250 times annually between 1S95 and 1915, 
a record of consistent observation probably unequalled in 
this country. Ever since 1907, when my observations com- 
menced, dozens of observers have hunted in the Ramble every 
spring. The dozens last spring were totally different from the 
dozens eight years ago, and all were totally different people 
from the dozen- in 1907. but while their interest lasted I 
-aw most of them every day and collected the migration 

records of interest thai I knew to be reliable. Every year 



46 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

there have been those who kindly cooperated in my effort 
to obtain complete records, and who interrogated mutual 
acquaintances whom I missed, and handed on the information 
of interest. 

b. Bronx Region. Includes the whole Borough of the 
Bronx and north to a line connecting Yonkers and New 
Rochelle. There has been less consistent observation here 
than in any other " Local Region," but it is becoming an 
increasingly popular stamping ground for bird-lovers, who 
are unable to go further afield. In spite of the fact that one- 
half of its area is now utterly unsuited for birds, and that no 
unspoiled country remains within its borders, the list of 227 
species recorded shows how adaptable or how long-suffering 
are many species. The great majority of water-birds are now 
of rare occurrence, and the migration dates for many species 
are not at all representative. Mr. L. N. Nichols was of 
particular assistance in the preparation of this list. He is now 
the leader in this region, and abstracted not only his own 
notes, but all those of the present generation of local observers. 

New Jersey. It is in northern New Jersey that the great- 
est variation in climate occurs in our Region. In the hill 
country of the northwestern sections, the winter is unques- 
tionably colder than near the coast; it comes earlier, and 
spring is later. As a result the fall migration is concluded 
much earlier, and many species which winter regularly near 
Plainfield and the lowlands adjacent to the Hudson River 
Valley are unknown or casual further inland. On the other 
hand the summer climate is warmer, far removed from the 
tempering influence of cool ocean breezes. During a heat 
wave, for instance, the temperature is 5 to 10 degrees hotter 
in northern Sussex County than in New York City, where it 
is ten degrees warmer than at the eastern end of Long 
Island. During a cold wave in winter these figures are ex- 
actly reversed. Perhaps this is a partial explanation of the 
abundance of several Carolinian species in northwestern 



INTRODUCTION 1< 

New Jersey, and the more frequent occurrence there of the 
irregular winter visitants. As yet there is little or no detailed 

information of the migration in this remote section, some of 
which is still unvisited at any season of the year. Large 
areas are relatively difficult of access, and some primeval 
timber -till remains. Discoveries of interest undoubtedly 
await those who will take the trouble to go there. 

In most of the area observation is so incomplete compared 
with Englewood that migration dates are given only when 
better than those obtained at this station. 

a. Englewood Region. This Region includes that 
section of Bergen County between Closter and Demarest on 
the north, Bogota, Palisades Park and Fort Lee on the 
south. Of the total of 232 species definitely recorded, 230 
have been observed in a section near Englewood which an 
active man can cover in a day. Observation has been 
continuous for over 40 years. The best locality in the whole 
territory for freshwater ducks, excepting Gardiner's Island, 
is to be found in the marshes of Overpeck ('reek. The low 
rich woodlands are the best place for Warblers, excepting 
only ( Vntral Park. 

The Local Collection 

Those who are just beginning the study of our local birds 
art- earnestly recommended to visit the Local Collection in 
the American Museum of Natural History, which is in the 
alcove of the second floor. No written description or 
colored plate can give such a clear mental picture of a bird 
as an actual specimen, expertly mounted in a life-like pose; 
and clear mental pictures enormously simplify the problems 
of identification. This collection contains all the species of 
birds which occur with any degree of regularity near New 
York City, and the different -exes and plumages are repre- 
sented, it i< divided into two parts. A systematic -eric- 
arranged in the order followed in this book, will enable the 



48 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

visitor to find any particular species readily and compare it 
with its immediate relatives. In four special cases there is a 
seasonal collection, which exhibits mounted specimens of 
the bird-life from month to month. The first two cases 
contain the permanent residents, which are always present. 
The third case contains the summer residents. In March 
only those species which arrive from the south in that month 
are shown, in April the new arrivals are added, and so on 
until June, when all the summer residents have arrived. This 
case is accordingly empty during the winter months. The 
fourth case, nearest the window, contains the regular tran- 
sients and winter visitants. As each species arrives or de- 
parts, it is added or withdrawn. In June, when the summer 
resident case is full, there are no transients or winter residents 
present, and the fourth case is accordingly empty. The 
irregular winter visitants are added only in those winters 
when they are present. In this way a few minutes' inspection 
will enable the visitor to see mounted specimens of all the 
species of birds present near the City at the time of the visit. 

Changes in Bird-Life 

It is apparent that the growth of a great city, the develop- 
ment of many suburbs and summer resorts, must have pro- 
foundly changed the original character of the territory 
covered by this Handbook. In early colonial times the vast 
coastal marshes were replaced inland by a forest which 
stretched unbroken to the Prairies. Game of all kinds 
abounded. The woods were full of Wild Turkeys, also Pigeons 
in season. Presumably the Pileated Woodpecker was gener- 
ally distributed. The marshes were stocked with wild-fowl 
in great variety and abundance, including Pelicans, Cranes, 
and Swans. The bird-fauna, however, of these times must 
ever remain outside the field of exact knowledge. 

Ornithological history in our territory may definitely be 
said to begin about one hundred years ago with the work of 



INTRODUCTION 49 

Giraud and his friends on Long Island. This may be called 
the close of the period of greatest abundance, and lasted to 
about 1885. During this period the remnants of the original 

forest disappeared, market hunting on a large scale greatly 
decreased the number of what game birds remained, the 

demands of the millinery trade practically exterminated the 
Tern and Shore-bird colonies, and the popularity of many 
smaller birds as cage pets affected certain species like the 
Bobolink and Mockingbird. 

The next twenty-five years saw changes of a different 
sort due to different causes. The rapid growth of the city, 
and the development of suburbs, led to the draining of 
marshes and the clearing of land still suitable for many kinds 
of birds. The rapid increase of a low-class foreign population, 
for whom everything with feathers was game, greatly affected 
many common species which had become adapted to the 
vicinity of man. The successful introduction of the English 
Sparrow began during this period seriously to harm those 
species which were unable to compete with it. These factors 
still persist at the present time and will undoubtedly continue. 
The introduction of the Starling in addition promises to work 
even greater havoc with native species than the English 
Sparrow. The following list contains those which are defi- 
nitely known to have decreased or disappeared in historical 
times in the ornithological sense. Those marked with an 
-k *) have decreased markedly in the last twenty years. 

fdiughing Gull Baldpate 

Gull-billed Tern Green-winged Teal 

Caspian Tom Blue-winged Teal 

Forster'fl Tern *Wood Duck 

Common Tern *Bufflenead 

Roseate Tern Labrador Duck 

!• is( Tern Ruddy Duck 

Black Skimmer Whistling Swan 

Hooded Merganser "Least Bittern 

Mallard Snowy Egret 



50 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

♦Florida Gallinule Heath Hen 

Avocet Passenger Pigeon 

Black-necked Stilt Fish Hawk 

♦Woodcock *Barn Owl 
Dowitcher Pileated Woodpecker 

Knot *Acadian Flycatcher 

Pectoral Sandpiper *Least Flycatcher 
Marbled Godwit Raven 

Hudsonian Godwit Bobolink 

Upland Plover *Cardinal 
Long-billed Curlew Dickcissel 

Eskimo Curlew Summer Tanager 

Golden Plover *Purple Martin 

Piping Plover *Cliff Swallow 

Wilson's Plover *Warbling Vireo 

Oyster-catcher *Yellow-throated Vireo 

*Bob-white *White-eyed Vireo 

*Ruffed Grouse *Kentucky Warbler 

Fortunately there is a brighter side to the picture. The 
abolition of market hunting, the enactment and enforcement 
of wise game laws, especially the abolition of spring shooting, 
have had a marked effect. Numerous birds are now abso- 
lutely protected throughout the year, and the term " game- 
bird" is applied to a small remnant of species only. The 
millinery trade in native birds has been killed, and the pos- 
session of native song-birds as cage pets has long been 
contrary to law, and the craze has died out. Much of this is 
due to the activity of the National Association of Audubon 
Societies for the protection of birds, led by a few able, far- 
sighted and enthusiastic men. There is perhaps no better 
example of an utterly unpopular cause turned into a more 
brilliant success. Be this as it may, the labors of these men, 
and the wise laws they have advocated, are slowly but surely 
bearing fruit. In the last fifteen years there has been a 
marked and gratifying increase of certain species, acquain- 
tance with which locally was in my boyhood almost outside 
the bounds of reasonable hope. It will be noted that some 



INTRODUCTION 51 

of these Bpecies occur in both lists. The Laughing Gull, for 
example, has undoubtedly increased in the last fifteen years, 
but is still much less common than one hundred years ago. 
The list follows: 

Glaucous Gull American Egret 

Iceland Gull Little Blue Heron 

Black-backed Gull Dowitcher 

Herring Gull Knot 

Laughing Gull Pectoral Sandpiper 

Common Tern Piping Plover 

Least Tern Evening Grosbeak 

Baldpate Tennessee Warbler 

Green-winged Teal Cape May Warbler 

Pintail Bay-breasted Warbler 

It is perhaps human nature to take for granted that which 
one has. and to sigh for what one has not. This is particularly 
true of the bird-student who is often not at all interested in 
the many common species, but is ever striving to see the rarer 
ones, with which he is not acquainted. If this attitude be 
unduly indulged, his hobby colors his whole mental outlook. 
Civilization itself and its progress becomes an evil, which he 
resents with pathetic futility. Thinking of what he has lost 
or might have had, he misses the wealth of variety with which 
Nature has endowed this region. Man and his works were 
suddenly turned loose in a peaceful wilderness. How sudden 
and terrible a catastrophe to the native birds! Over a suffi- 
ciently long period, the survival of any species depends upon 
it- adaptability to a changing environment, but how acid the 
test which man has furnished in the New World. There is no 
doubt that some could not endure this test; they have utterly 
disappeared from tin- region. Many others are retreating as a 
great city sends out ever-6tretching tentacles into the rural 
districts. No bird can live on asphalt and concrete. But if 
city block.- are contrasted with primeval forest, most <»t this 
area may be regarded as a half-way compromise. This com- 
promise the meat majority of our birds have accepted. While 



52 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

definite historical evidence is lacking, it is highly probable 
that most of the common species are far more abundant 
individually today than two hundred and fifty years ago. 
This is the invariable outcome of the sharp struggle for 
existence, precipitated by a suddenly changed environment. 
The failures disappear, the successful are rewarded in that 
they nourish as never before, and their unconscious goal, the 
maintenance of their race, is assured. 

However, a word of warning must be uttered, lest these 
remarks engender undue optimism. The sharp struggle of 
our native species to maintain themselves is not over; the 
problem is still present; their environment is constantly 
changing for the worse. Man, who is responsible, owes them 
all the protection and help in his power. Economically they 
afford him invaluable assistance, and if he will take a little 
trouble they will open up a world of aesthetic enjoyment for 
him, which will enrich all the years of his life. The country 
where twenty-five years ago I learned to know the commoner 
birds has been obliterated. The cottagers on the Palisades 
near Fort Lee have forgotten that their homes have replaced 
woods teeming with bird-life; the bathers on Rockaway 
Beach would be astonished to learn that the Gulls are a dim 
reminder of the hundred species of water-birds we used to 
find there. May the time never come when I can hear only 
the harsh chatter of Starlings from my house in the suburbs. 
May the time never come when I stand some May morning 
on the beach and miss the little Sandpipers trotting innocently 
ahead of the tide, and gaze out to sea over a birdless ocean. 
May the time never come when the woods and fields are so far 
distant, that reaching them is difficult for most city dwellers. 
Should this time come, our native birds, a priceless heritage, 
which it has taken mysterious forces and laws many ages to 
evolve, will have disappeared, never to return again. 



List of 

Principal Works of Assistance in Studying the Birds of 

the Vicinity of New York City 

GENERAL 

1. Reed, C. A. Bird-Guide (pocket size); Part I, water 

birds; Part II, land birds; many colored illustrations 
(Doubleday, 1905-6). 

2. Hoffmann, R. A. Guide to the Birds of New England 

and Eastern New York (Houghton, Mifflin, 1904). 
The best manual for identifying the common birds of 
the region covered, in life. Contains a good discussion 
of the life-zones. 

3. Chapman, F. M. Handbook of the Birds of Eastern 

North America, revised edition (Appleton's, 1912). 
Indispensable for all people seriously interested in 
bird study, and a book which no student has ever 
outgrown. Gives a summary of the migration and 
nesting dates of birds near New York City, in the 
introduction. 

4. The Auk; a quarterly journal of Ornithology published 

by the American Ornithologists' Union. Its volumes 
contain numerous articles and notes on the birds of 
this region, particularly the records of rarities. This 
magazine is indispensable for serious students. 

5. Bird-Lore, a Bi-Monthly Magazine devoted to the Study 

and Protection of Birds, edited by Frank M. Chap- 
man. No local student can afford to be without this 
magazine. The " Notes from Field and Study" con- 
tain many observations of local interest. Christmas 
Bird ( !ensuses from many localities in this Region are 
published annually in the January issue. Of special 

value are the Season reports from representative 
areas throughout the United State-. The New York 
Region report is now written by J. T. Nichols. In this 

53 



54 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

way one can obtain an excellent summary of the 
local bird-life every two months and contrast it 
with that of points just to the south and the north. 

NEW YORK 

1844. Giraud, J. P., Jr. The Birds of Long Island, . . 
New York. Now out of print and scarce. An 
excellent and accurate account of valuable histori- 
cal interest. 

1906. Chapman, F. M. The Birds of the Vicinity of New 

York City. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Guide Leaflet, 
No. 22. Out of print. Gives full references for all 
published records, and a very complete bibliog- 
raphy. 

1907. Braislin, W. C. A List of the Birds of Long Island, 

N. Y. Abst. Proc. Linnsean Society of N. Y. for 
1907. An excellent and up-to-date report in 
everything except migration dates. Full refer- 
ences to all published records and a complete 
bibliography. 

1910-14. Eaton, E. H. Birds of New York, Vol. I, Water 
and Game Birds; Vol. II, Land Birds. Published 
by the New York State Museum, Albany. Beau- 
tiful colored plates of every species by Fuertes, 
which can be obtained separately. The best and 
most complete account of the birds of a state 
ever published. Full references to all published 
records. Migration tables for every county, and 
every local list of importance is abstracted. 
Among others Dutcher's Long Island Notes and 
Dr. Fisher's observations at Ossining (Sing Sing) 
are published complete for the first time. The 
information on Long Island birds is far more 
complete than Braislin's list. 



BIBLIOOKAI'HY 55 

NEW JERSEY 

1900. Chapman, F. M. (See New York.) 

1909. Stone, W. The Birds of New Jersey. Ann. Rep. 
X. J, State Museum. Contains a complete sum- 
mary of all the information for the sections in our 
Region available at that time. Full references 
and a complete bibliography. 

1909. Baily, W. L. Breeding Birds of Passaic and Sussex 
Counties. Cassinia, pp. 29-36. The only infor- 
mation as yet published on the summer bird-life 
of this little known section. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 
NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Holboell's Grebe (Colymbus holboelli) 

A rather common migrant along the coast, scarcer in 
winter, most numerous at the eastern end of Long Island. 
Of rare or casual occurrence inland. Subject to considerable 
variation in numbers from year to year. Well-marked flights 
are occasionally noted in late winter or spring near New 
York City. Seldom seen before November 1 or after April 15. 

Holboell's Grebe is readily recognizable from our other 
Grebes by its much larger size. In winter plumage it lacks the 
sharp contrast of black and white on the side of the head 
characteristic of the Horned Grebe, but in breeding dress this 
character is reversed in the two species. In flight at a distance 
observers are apt to confuse Holboell's Grebe with the female 
Red-breasted Merganser. The Grebe, however, moves its 
wings less rapidly, has an even more attenuated neck, and 
holds the head and neck bent downward slightly, an excellent 
field mark by which the two birds can be distinguished at the 
distance of at least a quarter mile. 

Long Island. Irregular winter visitant, commonest during 
spring and fall. October 19, 1904 (Rockaway Point, W. H. Wieg- 
mann) and October 7, 1918 (Peconic, Latham) to May 13, 1917 
(Long Beach, Janvrin). Casual in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, 
March 16, 1918 (Fleischer). 

Orient. Winter visitant, October 7, 1918 to May 6, 
1917. Average, November 20 to March 23. 
Mastic. Uncommon winter visitant. 
Long Beach. Common transient, rare in winter, some- 
times abundant in late February, late March, or early April. 
October 23, 1910 (Griscom) to May 13, 1917 (Janvrin). 
New York State. Rare off Staten Island (Chapin); rare 
near Ossining on the Hudson, about 15 records in 15 years (Courte- 
nay Brandreth); very rare elsewhere. 

Central Park. Casual on the Reservoir, April 6 to 11, 
1916 (Hix and L. N. Nichols). 

56 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 57 

Bronx Region. Very rare or casual; three records, 

November 1, L905 (W. H. Wiegmann and Hix); October 1"). 

1010 (Wiegmann and Hix) ; April 4, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Hare in Newark Bay (Urner); casual inland, 

occurring chiefly in April. Recorded from Morristown (R. C. 

Caskey and Boonton (April 1, 1916, R. C. Murphy). 

Englewood Region. Casual visitor on the Hudson River, 
March 8, 1914 (Griscom, J. M. Johnson, S. V. LaDow) and 
Overpeck Creek, April 2 to 7, 1916 (Rogers and Weber). A 
single bird on the Nordhoff Ice Pond, June 10 to 24, 1905 
(Hix). 

Horned Grebe (Colymbus auritus) 
The Horned Grebe is one of the most characteristic winter 
birds of our outer beaches, and rare indeed is the day spent 
along the ocean front at this season that one or more of these 
little birds is not observed diving "like a flash" either in the 
surf or just outside it. Its small size and slender head, neck, 
and bill will distinguish it from any other water-bird except 
the Pied-billed Grebe. The latter has no white patch in the 
wing, no white on side of head, neck, and breast, and the bill 
is much stouter with a curved culmen. 

A common migrant and winter resident along the coast, 
sometimes positively abundant. Occasional on the larger 
bodies of water inland, but less so than formerly, at least on 
the Hudson River. Arrives about October 15 and leaves the 
first week in May. 

Long Island. Common winter visitant, abundant in migra- 
tion, September 23 to May 30; casual in summer. 

Orient. Common winter resident, September 23, 1918 to 
May 25, 1906. Average, October 12 to May 10. Casual in 
summer. Orient. East Marion, and Gardiner's Island. 
MA8T1C. Fairly common winter visitant. 
LONG BEACH. Common winter resident, October 1, 1918 
(Bicknell) to May 19, 1921 (Bicknell); casual August 3, 1922 
fBicknell). 
New York State. Regular off Staten Island, formerly com- 
mon on the Hudson, now rare except near ( >B8 ininu; where H 18 still 

a common transient (Courtenay Brandreth); noted there, ai late 
as May 24, 1922 (Brandreth). 



58 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Central Park. Casual on the Reservoir, December 27, 
1909 (Rogers); December 25, 1919 (L. N. Nichols); January 
1, 1922 (L. N. Nichols). 

Bronx Region. Rare visitor on the Sound, casual on 

Jerome Reservoir, not recorded from the Hudson since 1880. 

Only three recent records, January 15, 1916 and January 19, 

1919 (L. N. Nichols); March 19, 1914 (Jerome Reservoir, 

Hix). 

New Jersey. Rare on Newark Bay, few records elsewhere 

inland, but data from the larger lakes are lacking. A regular 

migrant on the Reservoir at Boonton (Carter). 

Englewood Region. Very rare transient. On the Hudson 
River, October 27, 1909 (Griscom); Overpeck Creek, October 
31, 1909, specimen taken (Weber); April 3, 1921 (Griscom and 
Janvrin). 

Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) 

This is preeminently our fresh-water Grebe, and prefers 
marshes, ponds, and sluggish streams, where aquatic vegeta- 
tion is abundant. It does not object to salt water, but is 
rarely seen in the open, deep water of our bays, and seldom if 
ever in the ocean itself. The note of this bird strongly sug- 
gests the cow-cow-cow call of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but is 
very loud and sonorous. Much work remains to be done to 
settle its status in our area as a summer resident. I 

An irregular migrant, normally uncommon especially in 
spring, and less common on Long Island than in northern 
New Jersey and the Hudson Valley. Flights occasionally 
occur, as in the spring of 1921, when the species is commonly 
observed throughout the area. Most often seen in April and 
late October. Very rare in winter after December 1. Status 
as a summer resident in doubt. Reported as breeding on 
Long Island by Giraud, at Lake Hopatcong (Rhoads), rarely 
near Morristown (Thurber), but no definite records existed 
until 1906, when a colony was found nesting in the Newark 
marshes by Messrs. Abbott, Hann, and Callender, which con- 
tained at least five pairs. This colom r is now destroyed. A 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 59 

pair bred in 1909 at Orient, L. I. (Latham). At the present 
time no definite breeding colony is known in our area, but 
vast reaches of the Newark and Haekensack marshes are 
unexplored, and the larger lakes in Northern New Jersey 
would well repay investigation, as this species was noted in 
early July 1920 at Swartswood Lake (Griscom). There is a 
reasonable possibility, therefore, that it may yet be found to 
breed regularly in northern New Jersey and sporadically at 
least on Long Island. 

Long Island. Locally common transient, rare in summer and 
winter. April to May 1; (July 21) August 15 to December 15. 

Orient. Frequent in migration, rare in summer and 
winter. April 20, 1917 to May 1, 1908; August 28, 1911 to 
November 3. 1919. Bred at Orient, 1909. 

Mastic. Common transient. Noted July 21, 1917. 
Long Beach. Rare or casual transient, few records. August 
16, 1917 (Bicknell) to October 12, 1921 (Griscom, Johnson, 
and Charles Johnston). One found dead, February 23, 1914 
(Weber). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Rare transient, observed about once in 
three years. April 11, 1914 (Hix) to April 21, 1914 (Griscom); 
September 23, 1921 (Griscom) to November 6, 1904 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Rare transient, only two recent spring 

records. April 22, 1915 (S. H. Chubb) to April 28, 1917 (L. 

X. Nichols); September 19, 1915 (L. N. Nichols) to October 

20. 1917 (C. L. Lewis). 

New Jersey. Occurring throughout the area as an uncommon 

>l>ring and common fall transient, occasionally in considerable 

numbers. Will probably be found breeding locally. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient, especially in 
spring, occasionally numerous. March 27, 1921 (Griscom and 
Janvrin) to April 21, 1911 (Griscom); August 21, 1909 (Hix) 
to November 3, 1916 (Weber). 

Loon {(la via immer) Fig. 1 
Loon- arc a familiar sight along the outer beaches in all 
except the Slimmer months, and in late spring and fall are 
constantly flying up or down the coast high overhead, looking 



60 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

like gigantic Mergansers, with slower wing-beats, however, 
than any duck. On still, calm days, their weird laughter comes 
to one over the silent waters, bringing an involuntary picture 
of some dark lake, framed by the solemn spires of the spruces, 
breathing the loneliness and seclusion sought by this bird in 
its northern breeding grounds. 

A common winter resident, abundant in migrations along 
the coast of Long Island. Occurring more rarely as a 
migrant on the Hudson River, and the larger lakes and 
reservoirs inland, but like the Canada Goose not infrequent^ 
seen flying overhead almost anywhere inland. More abun- 
dant and generally distributed in May than any other month, 
and usually present in our area from September to June. 
Non-breeding birds are occasionally noted in summer. 

Long Island. Common winter visitant, abundant in migra- 
tion, non-breeding birds occasional in summer. August 10 to 
June 20; always present from early September to June. 

Orient. Common winter resident, frequently summering. 
August 28, 1905 to June 19, 1908, average September 20 to 
June 6. 

Mastic. Common in migration, fairly common in winter. 
Noted July 10, 1921. 

Long Beach. Common in migrations, uncommon in mid- 
winter. August 12, 1920 (Bicknell) to June 14, 1917 (Bicknell) ; 
noted June 23 and July 4, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Noted on Croton Lake late June 1916 
(Brandreth). 

Central Park. Occasionally noted flying over; once on 
the Reservoir. May 4, 1913 and May 10, 1914 (Griscom); 
May 6, 1919 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Rare on the Reservoirs and the Sound. 

April 25 to May 15, 1914 (Chubb); September 17, 1917 (E. G. 

Nichols) to December 17, 1915 (L. N. Nichols); February 9, 

1922 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Regularly noted flying overhead in late April 

and May, occasionally alighting on the larger lakes and reservoirs. 

Noted as late as June 1, 1919 on Culver's Lake (Miller and Griscom). 

Apparently very rare in the fall, and unknown almost everywhere 

at that season. 




,• by Courirtiay Brati'lr.tti 



Fig. 1 . I oon. 

in 



. 



62 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Englewood Region. Regular in spring, but almost 
never alights; only one fall record. April 20, 1912 (Griscom, 
LaDow) to May 17, 1914 (J. T. Nichols); November 23, 1913 

(Griscom). 

Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica) 
An accidental visitant from the northwest. One record, 
Sand's Point, Long Island, April 29, 1893. Recorded by 
Dutcher as the Black-throated Loon and passed as such in the 
literature until 1917, when W. DeW. Miller reidentified the 
skin in the American Museum of Natural History at the 
request of F. Seymour Hersey, who was investigating the 
status of the Black-throated Loon in North America. (See 
Auk, 1917, pp. 283-290.) 

Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) 
This species is much less frequent in our area than the 
common Loon. The adult in breeding plumage with a red 
throat is rarely seen. In winter plumage the upper parts are 
spotted with white instead of margined with grayish, as in the 
common Loon. It is a much smaller bird, and Eaton has 
pointed out its best field character, the slenderer bill, slightly 
concave in the region of the nostrils, giving it an uptilted 
appearance at a great distance. 

Uncommon migrant along the coast, occasional in winter 

and summer. There are two old records for the Hudson 

River, and Fisher gives it as a casual transient at Ossining 

without definite data. Otherwise no records from the interior. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, uncommon in winter, 

most numerous in November. September 14 to May 11, casually 

as early as August 24 to June 30. 

Orient^ Not common transient, occasional in winter and 
summer. -October 18, 1912 to May 17, 1918, average No- 
vember 8 to May 6. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Uncommon transient, decidedly rare in 
winter, September 19, 1872 (N. T. Lawrence) and October 6, 
1921 (Bicknell) to May 29, 1919 (Bicknell). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 63 

New York State. Specimen taken off Staten Island, No- 
vembers, 1907 (Chapin). Otherwise unknown. 

New Jersey. Unknown in our area. One or two reports 
based on siiiht records entirely unreliable. 

Puffin (Fratercula arcticd) 
The comical little Puffin with its huge bill, dumpy body, 
and whirring flight, is a very rare winter visitant to Long 
Island. It was reported b} T De Kay, Giraud, and Lawrence 
without definite data. The definite records are Center 
Moriches, December 15, 1882; Montauk, March 30, 1902; 
one picked up dead on the beach at Montauk, spring of 1915 
(Weber, Abst. Proc. Linnsean Society, N. Y., 1917, p. 5). 

Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle) 
A very rare winter visitant to Long Island. There is an 
old specimen labelled "Long Island" in the Lawrence Col- 
lection. Seen January 1, 2, and February 22, 1921 near 
Montauk (Griscom, Crosby, and Janvrin, Auk, 1922, p. 118). 
Undoubtedly the same bird, and seen all three times along the 
Bame stretch of shore. Another individual seen March 12, 
1922 just off shore at Montauk Point (Griscom and LaDow). 
This species and the Puffin prefer a bold and rocky coast, 
and it is possible that extended observation at Montauk, 
where alone these conditions prevail, might show that they 
occur less rarely. 

Brunnich's Murre (Uria lomvi<n 
This species and the next two live at sea during the winter 
and approach the coast only when blown in by gales. The 
majority of specimens recorded are. consequently, picked up 
dead or exhausted on the shore. The besl way to observe 
these birds Is, therefore, to go off shore in a fishing vessel or a 
motor boat, a chilly and uncomfortable proceeding. On the 
wing this species and the Razor-bill are distinguishable at a 



64 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

moderate distance by the heavier, stouter bill of the latter. 
On the water the tail of the Razor-bill is cocked up in the air. 

Brunnieh's Murre is an irregular winter visitant off the 
coast of Long Island, probably occurring every year, occa- 
sionally in numbers, from November to March. It is of 
casual occurrence on the Hudson, Ossining, December 11, 
1894 (A. K. Fisher), and Fort Lee Ferry, winter of 1910-1911 
(J. T. Nichols). The species has occurred twice at Princeton, 
just outside our area. Stone records several shot at Perth 
Amboy, January 1890, and another reported to him by Bab- 
son on the reservoir at Orange, December 24, 1899. One seen 
between the Battery and Staten Island, December 25, 1908 
and collected two days later (Chapin). 

Long Island. Irregular winter visitant, November 22 to 
March 24. 

Orient. Rare winter visitant, December to February 1, 
1902. 

Long Beach. Three shot off the beach in December 1892; 
two shot off Point Lookout a good many years ago by C. H. 
Lott (Bicknell MS.). 

Razor-billed Auk (Alca tor da) 
An irregular winter visitant to Long Island waters, but 
doubtless occurring every winter off shore from November to 
March. There are 17 definite records, and in addition the 
statement by Captain Scott in Dutcher's notes that it was an 
occasional winter visitant at Montauk Point, flocks seen 10- 
15 times. The most recent observations are a bird seen by 
Dr. Wm. H. Wiegmann under most favorable circumstances 
at Manhattan Beach in February, 1921, and another seen to 
swim ashore at Long Beach January 18, 1922 (E. P. Bicknell), 
and presented to the American Museum. Its breast feathers 
were thickly clotted with oil, and the bird was helpless and 
exhausted. 

Long Island. Irregular winter visitant, November 2 to 
Februarv 6. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 65 

Orient. Rare ami irregular winter visitant, January 12, 
1904 and January 26, L887 I Worthington). 

Long Beach. One record, January 18, 1922 (Bicknell). 

Dovekie (Alle alle) 
Like the last two species an irregular winter visitant from 
November to March off Long Island, but is apparently less 
often driven to shore by severe weather. There are some 20 
records in the last 40 years. Casual in summer off Long 
Island, and only one record inland, Ossining, December 5, 
1S98 (A. K. Fisher). 

Long Island. Irregular winter visitant, casual in June, 
August, and September. October 31, 1911 (D. H. Miller — speci- 
ment sent to Dr. Dwight) to March 24. 

Orient. Rare, irregular wnater visitant, January 22, 
1901 to February 14, 1914. 
Mastic. One record. 

Long Beach. Several records. Two November 23, 1891 
(X. T. Lawrence); one found dead May 30, 1911 (Griscom, 
Hix. Rogers); another found exhausted and smeared with oil 
January 25, 1922 (Hix); coast guards report other specimens 
on February 5, 1921 and mid-December 1921 (Bicknell). 

Skua (Megalestris skua) 
Accidental visitant. Two records^ one found dead on the 
beach at Amagansett, March 17, 1886; another specimen 
struck the Montauk Point Light, August 10, 1896, and its 
wing was sent to the Biological Survey in Washington, where 
it was identified by Dr. A. K. Fisher. 

Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus) 
The Jaegers are the robbers among seabirds, and are 
generally seen chasing the smaller (lulls and Terns, compelling 
them to drop the food they have secured. In life they 
strongly resemble the Gulls, but have a swifter, more powerful 
and hawk-like flight, with more rapid wing beats. While 
their plumage- vary in many puzzling ways, the dark phase 
i- darker than any immature Gull, the light phase is always 



66 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

strongly dark above and light below, and immature birds are 
always noticeably barred below, never true of immature 
Gulls. 

With us Jaegers are eminently pelagic migrants, and are 
infrequently seen from the coast. The best place to observe 
them is the fishing banks off Montauk Point, but they occur 
regularly almost anywhere along the south shore of Long 
Island from 3-5 miles off-shore, and are commonly observed 
from fishing vessels and passing steamers between August 
and December. In the spring they are apparently much 
rarer. Their numbers, in part at least, depend upon the 
abundance of fish, resulting in occasional flights when they 
are decidedly common, as in 1888 and 1910. The adult in the 
light phase is much scarcer than other plumages. 

Of the three species the Pomarine is the largest, but 
young birds are no larger than adult Parasitic Jaegers. 
There is no essential difference in plumage between the two 
to serve as a reliable field character, but the elongated 
central tail feathers are twisted and wide in the Pomarine, 
and narrow and pointed in the Parasitic. This is an excellent 
character in adult birds, but the elongation of these feathers is 
greatly reduced in young birds, and consequently the distinc- 
tion becomes difficult to make out. 

The Pomarine Jaeger is an uncommon but regular fall 
transient off the coast of Long Island. Apparently very rare 
in spring, and there is only one definite record. Casual at 
Ossining, October 18, 1877 (A. K. Fisher). 

Long Island. Uncommon fall transient, August 2 tor October 
30. Very rare in spring, but one definite record, May 16, 1918, 
Long Beach (E. P. Bicknell). Casually as early as July 7. 

Orient. Rare fall transient, August 6, 1888 to October 
7, 1888. 

Long Beach. Rare; May 16, 1918. (Bicknell); August 
10, 1913 (Hix) to mid-October 1872 (N. T. Lawrence). 



awmi \ ill) UST OF THE BIRDS 6] 

Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus) 
Much the commonest species, and the one which mosl 
often approaches the coast. Adults of this species and the 
Long-tailed Jaeger arc easily separated by the much longer 
central pair of tail feathers of the latter, but immature birds 
are exceedingly difficult to distinguish, and it is possible only 
under the most favorable circumstances of proximity. The 
Long-tailed is smaller, with the shafts of most of the primaries 
white, changing gradually to brownish. The axillars of the 
Long-tailed Jaeger are usually blacker and more narrowly 
barred with white. 

Long Island. Regular and fairly common fall transient, 
chiefly off-shore. July 25, 1914 (Roy Latham) to November 15. 
Very rare in spring, only three definite records, June 1873 (Law- 
rence); April 30 (Braislin); June 9, 1917, Orient (Roy Latham). 

Orient. Rare transient, more regular in September and 
October; June 9, 1917; July 25, 1914 to October 30, 1914. 

Mastic. Jaegers uncommon, the species doubtful; one 
Parasitic collected. 

Long Beach. Rare and irregular fall transient. August 
14, 1921 (R. Friedmann) to November 8, 1921 (Bicknell and 
Charles Johnston). 

Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus) 
Fortunate indeed are the few who have been privileged 
to see the adult of this species, with its long tail feathers 
Moating in the breeze, as a migrant off the Atlantic Coast; 
one of the least known and most graceful of our sea birds. 
It is apparently even more pelagic than the other species, or 
else it has a different and unknown migration route. It is 
more than probable, however, that the immature bird has 
frequently escaped detection by collectors. 

Long Island. Very rare fall migrant. For years an immature 
specimen in the Lawrence Collection labelled Long Island w:is the 
only record for New York State. On August 26, 1913 Thurston 
shot an immature bird off Fire Island now in the Dwighl collection. 

EL C. Murphy saw an adult with hotli the other Jaegers off 
Bandy Hook, September 7. L918, bu1 w&e unable t.» colled it. 



68 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Ivory Gull (Pagophila alba) 
An accidental visitant from the arctic. One record, 
Sayville, Long Island, January 5, 1893. Mr. A. H. Helme 
has written "that he once saw a bird of this species flying 
about Mt. Sinai harbor." (Eaton, Birds of New York.) 

Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) 
The Kittiwake is our most pelagic Gull, and is infre- 
quently seen from the shore. It is, however, an abundant 
migrant and common winter visitant off-shore from the 
middle of November to March. There are no records or 
reliable observations away from the coast. Inexperienced 
observers think they see this little Gull more often than they 
do. It is larger than the Bonaparte's, but smaller than the 
Ring-billed Gull, with a more graceful flight and more rapid 
wing-beats. It always has black legs. The immature bird 
resembles Bonaparte's Gull in the same plumage, but has a 
dark bar on the back of the neck instead of a dark spot back 
of the eye. The adult should be identified with great caution 
on our beaches. 

Long Island. Common winter visitant, mostly off-shore, 
November 4 to March 21. An exceptionally early arrival October 
13, 1912. 

Orient. Rare, irregular winter visitant, November 23, 
1907 to February 28, 1912. 

Long Beach. Rare and irregular in fall, winter, and 
spring. October 13 and 27, 1912 (Griscom); November 6, 
1917 (Bicknell) to March 12, 1911 (Griscom) and March 17, 
1921 (Bicknell). 

Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) 
With the steady increase of Herring and Black-backed 
Gulls in recent years the Glaucous and Iceland Gulls have 
become regular winter visitors, and are observed annually 
among the countless thousands of the other species which 
throng New York Harbor and the neighboring beaches. 



awhia ill) LIST OF ill 1 : BIRDS 69 

Indeed it is more than likely that many individuals arc un- 
detected. The two species have similar plumages, but there 
is never any black in the primaries, which readily dis- 
tinguishes them from other Gulls. The immature plumage 
has a pale cream-colored appearance in life, very different 
from the dirty grayish brown of the immature Herring Gull. 
In the second year they are pure white. The adult plumage 
with a pale gray mantle is rarely seen. To distinguish the two 
species is not particularly difficult. The Glaucous Gull is 
usually larger than a Herring Gull, and is always more 
stockily and heavily built. The Iceland is the same size as 
the Herring or a little smaller, and always has a much slen- 
derer bill than the Glaucous Gull, a difference which is almost 
as striking as the difference in the bills of the Hairy and 
Downy Woodpeckers, and when once learned and observed 
becomes a reliable diagnostic character. 

Uncommon but regular winter visitant to the coast of 
Long Island and New York Harbor, rarely seen much before 
Christmas, but lingering into May. Rare in Long Island 
Sound. Casual at Ossining, January 19, 1889. 

Long Island. Uncommon winter visitant, always in increased 
numbers in severe winters; November 2 to May 26. 

Orient. Rare winter visitant, November 2, 1920 to 
March 29, 1908. Average arrival November 25. 

Long Beach. Observed almost every winter; November 
16, 1919 (LaDow and Rogers) to May 26, 1921 (E. P. Bick- 
nell and L. N. Nichols) and June 6, 1921 (Bicknell . 

Iceland Gull (Larus leucopterus) 
Lesfi common than the Glaucous Gull, but probably 
reaches Long Island annually. Numerous observal ions in the 
last five years from Long [aland and the lower Hudson Valley. 
Then- was a marked flight the winter of 1921-22. 

Long Island. Ran winter visitant, November 10 to May 28, 
1922. Jones Beach ( r<»l>y. Griscom, Janvrin, Johnson . < >nly two 
records for Long bland Bound, Miller's Place. November 30, 1888, 
and winter of 1803 A. II. Helme . 



70 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Orient. Rare, irregular winter visitant, December 24, 
1907 to March 4, 1918. 

Long Beach. Several records in past few years; No- 
vember 10, 1921 (Bicknell) to May 6, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Seen on the Hudson as late as April 16, 
1922 (Griscom). 

Central Park. Casual on the Reservoir, with Herring 
Gulls, March 29, 1912 (Griscom and LaDow). 

Bronx Region. One record, Rye, March 3, 1894 (Porter). 
New Jersey. Present on Newark Bay near Elizabethport, 
January to April 1, 1922 (Urner). 

Englewood Region. One definite and positive identifica- 
tion of an immature bird, February 1, 1920 on the Hudson 
from the foot of the Palisades near Englewood by C. H. 
Rogers and George E. Hix, the first observation of this species 
in the state. A bird seen May 12, 1918 (Rogers) in the same 
locality, and another February 13, 1915 (J. T. Nichols) from 
the Fort Lee Ferry, were probably, but not positively, this 
species. 

Kumlien's Gull (Larus kumlieni) 
A very rare winter visitant. Only one definite record, an 
immature bird shot 5 miles off Rockaway Beach, March 8, 
1898; an immature bird seen May 28, 1922 on Jones Beach 
was probably, but not positively, this species (Griscom). 
There is a possibility that with the increase of the other white- 
winged Gulls, this species may be detected occasionally. 
New England observers state that the gray spots on the 
primaries, which distinguish it from the Iceland Gull, are 
easily made out under favorable circumstances. 

Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) 
This, the largest of our local Gulls, is a common winter 
resident on the coast, but is scarce in the harbor and the 
lower Hudson, and casual elsewhere. The greater size, 
heavier build, and more leisurely wing-beats distinguish it at 
great distances from the Herring Gull. The immature bird is 
almost always noticeably paler than the corresponding stages 
of the Herring Gull. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 71 

Long Island. Common winter resident, frequently abundanl 

at the western end in severe weather. Rarely arrives in numbers 
much before Christmas. Casual in summer. September 12 to 
May 30. 

ORIENT. Nb1 common winter resident, September 12, 
1909 to April 25, 1916. Average arrival, October 1; average 
departure, April 1. 

Mastic. Common winter resident. 

Long Beach. Common winter resident, often abundant. 
August 22. 1918 (Bicknell) to May 30, 1920 (Rogers, Granger, 
and Janvrin). Immature birds now frequently summer 
(Bicknell) ; August 14, 1910 (Weber), perhaps an early migrant. 
Formerly rare before November and after April. 
New York State. Regular in the Bay and the lower Hudson. 
Central Park. Casual on the reservoir, January 22, 
1907 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Casual winter visitant; 7 records: 6 
on the Sound, 1 on Jerome Reservoir; December 6, 1915 (Hix) 
to February 20, 1922 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Rare in Newark Bay, unrecorded inland. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon on the Hudson, seldom 
occurring above Fort Lee Ferry, December 21, 1910 (Griscom) 
to March 7, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow). Casual on Overpeck 
( 'reck. 2 records. 

Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) 
An abundant winter resident and common non-breeding; 
summer resident on Long Island. Innumerable multitudes 
winter near Now York ( !ity. Migrants arrive from the north 
in August. After May 10, only stragglers remain on the 
Hudson River. Inland in New Jersey it is rare or casual. 

Long Island. Abundanl winter resident, common non-breed- 
ing summer resident, most numerous at all seasons at the western 
end. Arrives in August and departs commonly in May. 

New York State. Present throughout the year on the Sound, 

in the harbor and on the River from early August to the end of May. 
CENTRAL PARK. Common on the reservoirs or flying 
over. August 26, 1922 (Griscom to May 8, 1922 (Griscom . 

New Jersey. Away from the vicinity of the harbor, decreasing 
rapidly in numbers. Occasionally seen flying over at Plainfield 



72 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

(Miller). Taken once at Whippany, Morris County, May 2, 1886 
(Thurber). One seen at Budd's Lake, September 1903 (R. C. 
Caskey). Occasional near Montclair (Howland); regular on the 
Reservoir at Boonton (Carter). Recorded March 2, 1920 near 
Andover, Sussex Co. (F. Blanche Hill). 

Englewood Region. Abundant winter visitant, August 
15, 1921 (Bernard Fread) to May 23, 1920 (Rogers). 



Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) 

Few birds are more frequently misidentified than this 
species, due to failure to understand its plumages and those 
of the Herring Gull, and few species are harder to identify 
positively. When direct comparison is possible, the smaller 
size of the Ring-billed is obvious. Under favorable circum- 
stances the color of the legs is diagnostic, yellowish green 
in this species, flesh color in the Herring Gull. No other color 
character is reliable. All but fully adult Herring Gulls 
have a dark ring, spot or tip to the bill, and immature Ring- 
billed Gulls too closely resemble second year plumages of the 
Herring. There are still students who apparently disbelieve 
these facts, but they should examine museum specimens. 

In spite of these handicaps to observation, there is no 
doubt that this species is a common migrant in Long Island 
waters. For a number of years observers suspected its occa- 
sional presence in winter, but the discovery in 1911 that the 
great majority of observations were unreliable at every season 
of the year, prevented the data at hand from being accepted. 
Fortunately Thurston collected a specimen January 1, 1914 
at Fire Island, and another specimen taken January 26, 1892 
at Miller Place (Helme) has since been discovered in the 
Dwight collection. Subsequent observation shows that this 
species winters occasionally, at least, at the western end of the 
island. It has been collected and observed off Staten Island, 
but is unknown from the Hudson River in recent years, 
although Fisher reports it as a casual migrant at Ossining. 



ANNOTATED LIST <>l THE BIRDS ~ ; > 

Long Island. Common transient, uncommon in winter, 
sua] m summer; August 8 to May 29, 1021, Jones Beach (Gris- 
com and J. M. Johnson). 

Orient. Hare transient, irregular in summer. 
Mastic. Fairly common transient; a few birds winter; 
has arrived as early as August 8, 1915. 

Long Beach. ( !ommon transient, a few individuals usually 
wintering and summering, August 24, 1919 (M. S. Crosby) to 
May 28, 1911 (Griseom). 
New York State. 

Bronx Region. One positive record; February 9, 1922 
on the Sound with Herring Gulls (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Frequently observed on Newark Bay near 
Elizabethport from August 2, 1922 to May 1, 1922 (Urner). No 
reliable records elsewhere in our area. 

Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla) Fig. 2 
The Laughing Gull is easily identified in any plumage at 
great distances by its small size and darker mantle and wings. 
It has had a chequered career in this vicinity. Formerly a 
common summer resident on Long Island, it rapidly decreased 
due to persecution for the millinery trade, and is not posi- 
tively known to have nested since 1888 (Dutcher). Twenty 
years ago it was a very rare spring transient, the immature 
birds regularly noted in July, August and September. In 
the past ten years it has been steadily increasing in a most 
gratifying way, is now a regular spring and common fall 
transient, and there is good reason to hope that it will be 
found nesting on Great South Bay in the near future. The 
fall of 1921 witnessed a great flight of these beautiful birds. 
For the first time in the memory of the present generation it 
oinmon in the harbor and the lower Hudson, a familiar 
sight from ferries and piers, and wandered up the river as 
far a- Dyckinan Street. Normally departing in early October 
it lingered a month later and was last -ecu November 6 
in Newark Hay by Mr. ( 'liarles A. Truer. There was an even 
bigger flight in the tall of 1922. Both seasons it appeared in 
numbers up the BudsoD River in Haverstraw Bay. 



74 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Now common on Long Island Sound; elsewhere 
a not uncommon and regular transient, most numerous in Sep- 
tember. April 26, 1913, Rockaway Point (J. T. Nichols and W. 
H. Wiegmann) to June 2; June 30, 1918 (Mastic) to October 12; 
October 28, 1880 (W. W. Cooke) ; an occasional bird through June, 
and the species may be found breeding in the near future. 

Orient. Increasing summer visitant. May 23, 1917 to 
October 12, 1914. Formerly bred. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient visitant. 
Long Beach. Formerly very rare, now a regular transient 
in May and September. April 29, 1916 (J. T. Nichols) to 
June 2, 1918 (Janvrin); September 1, 1919 (Bicknell, Crosby) 
to September 22, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common in the harbor and the lower 
Hudson in the fall of 1921 and 1922; also common both seasons 
in Haverstraw Bay (Brandreth) ; has occurred every fall in recent 
years up to the middle of September. 

Bronx Region. One record, October 17, 1921 (L. N. 
Nichols). 
New Jersey. Reported as common in Newark Bay from 
August 19 to November 6, 1921, never previously recorded (Urner); 
also abundant there in 1922. Thurber lists this species as "not 
uncommon in early spring" at Morristown. This remarkable 
statement is not supported by specimens in his collection, and is too 
improbable to be credited. 

Englewood Region. Two records; two birds on the 
Hudson just off the Englewood Ferry slip, September 25, 1921 
(Griscom); also four birds September 17, 1922 in same locality 
(Griscom and LaDow). 

Bonaparte's Gull (Larus Philadelphia) 
This, the smallest of our Gulls, is readily distinguished by 
its size, its rapid, graceful flight, and the large amount of 
white in the primaries. It is a common fall transient, less so 
in spring, and decidedly uncommon in midwinter. It is 
decidedly irregular in the time of its appearance, one year 
common in November, and another year occurring chiefly 
in late December. It is of regular occurrence in the Lower 
Bay, but is now very rare on the lower Hudson. Fisher called 
it a rather rare transient at Ossining years ago, and Mearns 



■■■■■■■■^MHHHM 



V 




( 












M 



5 t- 






76 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

a winter resident, abundant in autumn, near Cornwall, a 
rather surprising statement, as the river freezes solid in that 
section every winter. 

Long Island. Common transient, uncommon in winter, 
October 5, 1913 (Cold Spring Harbor, J. T. Nichols) to January 
5; April to May 24; casual in June and July; undoubted migrants 
sometimes appear in August and September. 

Orient. Irregularly common fall transient, rare in winter 
and spring. October 27, 1911 to May 20, 1907. Average 
arrival, November 15. Casual in August, 1920. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient visitant; recorded August 
3 and 16, 1919. 

Long Beach. Irregularly common spring and fall tran- 
sient, frequent in mid winter; September 23, 1920 (Bicknell) 
and October 9, 1910 (Griscom) to January 5, 1913 (Griscom); 
April 10, 1916 (Hix) to May 24, 1914 (Hix) and June 2, 1921 
(Bicknell). Also recorded July 28, 1921 and August 11, 1921 
(Bicknell). 

New York State. Very rare or casual in our area, except in 
the lower bay. 

Bronx Region. Very rare; two records, December 27, 
1913 (Hix) and February 9, 1922 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Rare in Newark Bay, August 20, 1922 and 
November 6, 1921 to January 15, 1922, and April 15, 1922 to May 
13, 1922 (Urner) ; casual or unknown elsewhere. 

Englewood Region. Very rare: twice Hudson River, 
April 3, 1921 and April 22, 1922, a single bird each time 
(Griscom, Janvrin, and LaDow); twice on Overpeck Creek, 
April 5, 1913 (Griscom) and April 21, 1910 (Griscom). 

Little Gull (Larus minutus) 
Accidental visitant from northern Europe. Two Long 
Island records, Fire Island, September 15, 1887 and Rocka- 
way, May 10, 1902. 

Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini) 
Accidental visitant. Two Long Island records; Raynor 
South, July, 1837 and Gardiner's Bay, October 6, 1899. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 77 

Caspian Tern (Sterna cuspid \ 
In the days when this species bred in Labrador and the 
Magdalen Islands, it was undoubtedly a regular, if uncommon 
migrant on the coast of Long Island. There are, however, 
only nine published records of its occurrence, one Bpring 
record, May 11, 1S98. The fall dates range from July 21 
and August 10 to September 13. Not yet recorded are two 
specimens in the Lawrence collection; Raynor South, 
August 10. 1831, and an immature bird found in Fulton 
Market. October 10, 1856, from "Long Island." The dis- 
appearance of, or great decrease in, the northeastern breeding 
colonies undoubtedly accounts for the present rarity of this 
splendid Tern on Long Island. The records show that it 
occurred regularly up to 1890, twice in 1898, and the last 
specimen was taken in 1900. Since then I know of only three 
observations in Long Island waters, and its status at present 
is a rare or casual transient. Its great size and large red bill 
will render it easily recognizable by the observer, who is so 
fortunate as to see it in life. 

Long Island. Formerly uncommon but regular, now a rare 
or casual transient. One spring record, May 11, 1898; July 21 
and August 10 to September 28. Recent observations are given 
below. 

Mastic. September 8, 1914 (J. T. Nichols and B. S. 
Bowdish . 

Long Beach. Two records. Sept ember 28, 1916 and August 
30. 1921 (Bicknell). 

Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) 

Accidental visitant from the south. One record, Raynor 
South, Long Island, August 27, 1831. 

Common Tern Sterna hirundo) 
Dull indeed and insensible is he who does not appreciate 
the graceful beauty of these harmless swallows of the sea, as 
they stream down our coasts or hover over our beaches. 



78 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Unfortunately for the bird student, several species are ex- 
ceedingly difficult to identify in life, and when immature or in 
winter plumage are indistinguishable. Few of our local 
birds have suffered more from persecution, and twenty years 
ago they were on the verge of extinction. The Common 
Tern was an abundant summer resident on Long Island in the 
days of Giraud. It last nested on the South Shore in 1884. 
Four colonies are known at the eastern end of Long Island. 
Recent efficient protection has seen a gratifying increase in 
these birds, and for the last ten years their numbers have 
steadily grown. Twenty years ago at the western end of the 
island, it was very rare in spring, uncommon but regular in 
fall. Now it is regular in spring and abundant from early 
August to November, remaining later in numbers every year, 
and common in the harbor and the lower Hudson, a familiar 
sight from the ferries. Above 125th Street it is casual. It is 
recorded as casual at Ossining (Fisher), but Mr. Brandreth 
now regards it as a regular transient there in August and 
September. These statements about the present day status 
of the Common Tern are based entirely on observation. 
While the great majority of these observations cannot be 
regarded for a moment as scientifically accurate identifica- 
tions, this species is so well known to outnumber enormously 
all our others combined, that it would be captious to base 
its status on the relatively few specimens taken locally, or to 
pretend that all the birds in the harbor might be Forster's, 
Arctic, and Roseate Terns. 

Long Island. Common transient, local summer resident; 
increasing. Middle of April (Giraud); May 1 to October 15, 
exceptionally to November 6. 

Orient. Locally abundant summer resident, a common 
summer visitant throughout. May 1, 1910 to October 2, 
1912; average May 12 to September 22. Breeds on Fisher's 
Island, Gull Island, Gardiner's Island, and Orient. 
Mastic. Common transient visitant. 
Long Beach. Now a regular spring and common fall 
transient; May 4, 1922 (Bicknell) to June 16, 1919 (Bicknell); 



\\v >i ATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 79 

Juno 30, 1922 and July 5, 1919 (Bicknell) to October 24, 1920 
(Janvrin) and November 6, 1917 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Regular fall transient in New York Bay, 

but scarce in the Hudson River; noted as early as August 3, 1919 
(L. N. Nichols). 

CENTRAL PARK. Casual; a bird seen flying over the hake 
August 22, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. One record, September 6, 1919 (C. L. 
Lew 
New Jersey. Regular fall transient in Newark Bay, Jul}' 31, 
1916 to October 3, 1920 and October 30, 1921; only two spring 
records (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Recorded from the Hudson only, 
usually rare, occasionally in some numbers; August 15, 1908 
(Hix) to September 22, 1912 (Hix). 

Arctic Tern (Sterna paradis&a) 
Apparently a casual visitor to the coast; one record, 
Ram Island Shoals, July 1, 1884 (Dutcher). Almost entirely 
pelagic on migration. On October 5, 1912 I saw hundreds of 
Terns Hying south over the ocean 90 miles east of Montauk, 
which may well have been this species. The adult in breeding 
plumage can be identified at close range by its all-red bill, the 
more deeply forked tail and much grayer underparts. Other 
plumages and ages are indistinguishable 4 in life from the 
( "(iinmon Tern. 

Long Beach. Mr. E. P. Bicknell informs me that he saw an 
adult at close range on September 1, 1919. 

Roseate Tern (Sterna dougatti) 
An uncommon migrant and local summer resident at the 
D <-nd of Long Island, slowly increasing; for years un- 
known at the western end, now rare. This species, in summer 
plumage, is readily distinguishable from the ( lommon Tern in 
life by the black bill, pure white underparts, and the long 
outer tail feathers, which seem to stream in the wind. The 
single harsh note, each, is quite different from the note- of 

the ( 'ommon Tern, and can be heard above the uproar made 



80 BIKDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

by its relative. Young birds in the fall cannot safely be 
identified by color characters. 
Long Island. 

Orient. Not common summer resident, May 20, 1915 to 
September 15, 1915. A few pairs breed on Gardiner's Island 
with Common Terns. 

Long Beach. Mr. Bicknell has four records in the last 
five years; August 9, 1917; August 19, 1920; August 4 and 
18, 1921. 

Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) 
This pretty little Tern is easily recognized by its small 
size, appearing about half the size of the Common Tern in 
life. In breeding plumage its white forehead and yellow, 
black-tipped bill are additional characters, and its usual note, 
a shrill yip, yip, is diagnostic. It is usually very tame. 
Formerly a common summer resident on Long Island, it has 
not been known definitely to breed since 1882. Constant 
persecution reduced this species to the verge of extinction, 
and for years it was a very rare bird. In the last five years, 
however, it has been seen annually at the western end of 
Long Island, and a pair seen June 25, 1916 on Jones Beach 
by R. L. Peavey may have been breeding. 

Long Island. Now an uncommon transient, May 18 to June 
27; July 28 to September 15. 

Orient. Occasional visitant in late summer, August 1, 
1902 to August 27, 1913. Bred formerly. 
Mastic. Rare transient, one record. 
Long Beach. Now a regular transient, May 18, 1916 
(Bicknell) to June 27, 1919 (Bicknell); July 16, 1922 (Hix) to 
September 4, 1921 (Friedmann). 

Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) 
A tropical species of accidental occurrence, which invaded 
New York and New England chiefly in 1876 and 1878. Two 
records; Lake Ronkonkoma, Long Island, September 13, 
1878; Montauk, September 18, 1883. 



A.wo I \ I ED LIST OF THE BIRDS SI 

Black Tern (Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis) 

The Black Tern in adult plumage can be confused with 
do other species. The young in the fall are always a much 

darker gray above than other Terns. This western species i> 
preeminently a bird of the interior and characteristic of the 
prairies. It oceans in our area as a regular fall migrant along 
the coast, apparently completely changing its habits, as here 
it is purely casual in the interior. Indeed 1 have seen large 
numbers at sea off the Jersey coast far from land. The 
numbers vary greatly from year to year, and sometimes it is 
abundant, as in L882, 1884, 19(H), and 1919. The dates 
range from early .Inly to the middle of ( )ctoher. but August to 
early September is the extent of the migration in ordinary 
years. Observers can see it from any ferry in the Harbor at 
this season with Common Terns. 

Long Island. Common fall transient. July 12 to September 
22; casual in spring; May 29. 1921, .Jones Beach (Griscom and 
J. M. Johnson . 

Okiknt. Rare, irregular fall transient. August 2, 1914 to 
September 9. 1914. 

MASTIC. Common fall transient. 

LONG BEACH. Regular fall transient. August 'A. 1922 

(Bicknell to September 22. 1919 (Bicknell). One shot .lime 

Is. 1873 (X. T. Lawrence); one in breeding plumage observed 

at leisure .June 3, 1922 (Charles Johnston). 

New York State. Regular in the Harbor. July 13, 1920 (L. X. 

Xichols to October 12. 1906 (Chapin). Casual at Ossining many 

years ago (Fisher . two recent records there (Brandreth . 

New Jersey. Purely a casual visitor away from the coast and 
the harbor; an adult on Swartswood Lake. August 14, 1921 
( iriscom . 

EnglewOOD REGION. Noted a few times in August from 
Fori Lee Ferry. August 15, 1906 (Hix) to August 28, 1921 
Griscom ; once on Overpeck Creek (Weber). 

Black Skimmer (Rynchops nigra) Fig. 3 
An occasional summer visitant to Long Island yean ago, 
when this curious bird bred commonly in southern New 



82 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Jersey. Eaton gives five records, the dates ranging from 
May 6 to September 3, the last in 1898. There are only two 
recent records, and the Skimmer is now a casual visitant in 
spring and summer; but as it has again reestablished itself 
as a breeding bird in southern New Jersey, it might occur 
more frequently in Long Island waters. One bird around 
Point-o'-Beach, September 5-8, 1913, collected (G. K. 
Noble). 

Long Island. 

Long Beach. One recent record, May 25, 1919 (Griscom 
and Janvrin, Auk, 1920, p. 126). Specimens are recorded off 
the beach July 22, 1876 and September 3, 1876 by Newbold 
T. Lawrence in his notes (fide Bicknell). 

Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) 
Accidental visitant from the northern part of the North 
Atlantic. One was found exhausted at Ridge wood, N. J., 
December, 1891. 

Mediterranean Shearwater (Puffinus kuhlii kuhlii) 
In the Auk for January 1922, page 58, Dr. Robert Cush- 
man Murphy records four specimens of this European rela- 
tive of Cory's Shearwater in the Dwight Collection, taken on 
Long Island; two birds at Montauk Point, August 15, 1907, 
and two off Amityville, October 4, 1902. For the present at 
least it may be regarded as an accidental visitant from 
Europe. 

Cory's Shearwater (Puffinus borealis) 
An uncommon but regular summer visitor to the seas near 
the coast of Long Island, but rarely approaching within sight 
of land, a notable exception in the fall of the years 1886 and 
1887 in Gardiner's Bay. It was abundant off Montauk Point, 
August 8, 1916 (Murphy and Harper). The generally gray 
effect of the side of the head distinguishes this species in life 
from the Greater Shearwater, which has the side of the head 



84 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

contrasted black and white. (For further details on this sub- 
ject see Griscom, Auk, January, 1922, p. 103). 

Long Island. Uncommon but regular summer visitor off-shore, 
August 6 to November 29. Specimens have been taken on eight 
different occasions, chiefly at the eastern end of the Island. 

Orient. Recorded late summer and fall. August 6, 1888, 
Little Gull Island (Dutcher) to October 20, 1887 (Dutcher). 

Long Beach. One found dead and in perfect condition 
October 31, 1918 (Bicknell); another seen on November 5, 
1918 (Bicknell). 

Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) 

So far as known this species has exactly the same status 
as the last, but fewer specimens have been collected near 
land. It is occasionally seen in numbers off Montauk Point, 
and has been rarely observed as far west as Long; Beach and 
the Cholera Banks (Hix). 

Long Island. Uncommon summer visitant, varying in num- 
bers, June 27 to October 31. 

Orient. Rare summer and fall visitant. June 27, 1915 to 
September 25, 1913. 

Long Beach. Casual visitant within sight of land; Oct. 
6, 1918 (Willard G. Van Name) to October 31, 1918 (Bicknell). 
Three Shearwaters seen far out on October 3, 1921 may have 
been this species (Bicknell). 

Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) 

Accidental from European seas. A specimen was picked 
up dead at Fire Island Beach, August 30, 1917 by Henry 
Thurston, and is now in the D wight collection. The first 
definite North American record, excepting Greenland. 

Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus Iherminieri) 

Accidental visitant from the south. One record, near 
Heliport , Long Island, August 1, 1887 (Dutcher). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 85 

Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) 
This species has the same habits as our two other species 
and is usually found associated with them, hut is much less 
common. Oddly enough, however, it has been observed from 
the shore more often than the others. At a distance it appeal's 
all black and is unmistakable. 

Long Island. Rare summer visitant. May 29 to October 13. 
There is a specimen in the Lawrence Collection taken by Giraud 
on Long Island. The Dutcher Collection contains two specimens, 
taken respectively at Amityville, .June 19, 1895, and Gardiner's 
Island, .June 23, 1895. More recently taken at Montauk, August 
15. 1907 (.1. A. Weber); seen off the beach at Mastic, October 13, 
1913; seen off Jones Beach. May 29. 1921 (Oriscotn and .J. M. 
Johnson i. 

ORIENT. One record. Gardiner's Island, as above. 
Mastic One record as above. 

LONG BEACH. One picked up dead May 30, 1921 and 
presented to the Museum by Mr. George E. Hix; another 
found dead and much decomposed on .July 7, 1921 (Bicknell). 

Black-capped Petrel (JEstrelata hasitata) 

Accidental. One record, Quogue, July, 1850. 

Leach's Petrel (Oceanodroma Uucorhoa) 
A pelagic species, occurring in this latitude during its 
migrations, about which little is known. There are only six 
definite records tor Long Island. 

Leach's Petrel may OCCUT more commonly than is sup- 
posed, as it could be overlooked very easily among the 
abundant Wilson's Petrels, its forked tail is not noticeable 
except under favorable circumstances, hut it is distinctly 
larger and browner than its relative. 

Long Island. Status nol satisfactorily determined. Five old 

records, May 1 to .June 15; .July 27; H. ('. Murphy shot two 
Specimens from the Sound beach, near Mt. Sinai. October 21 and 
22, 1904. a record overlooked by both Braislin and Baton. 

New Jersey. A specimen was "caught in Blysian Fields, 
Hoboken. November 3, 1861 by Wm. Cooper" and presented to 
1 teorge X. Lawrence, and is now m the American Museum. 



86 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Wilson's Petrel (Oceanites oceanicus) Fig. 4 

This species is a common summer visitor off-shore, regu- 
larly entering the Sound and the Harbor and sometimes 
observed from the beaches in large numbers. The blackish 
coloration, white rump, long thin wings and fluttering, hover- 
ing flight just above the water, render them unmistakable. 

Long Island. Common summer visitant, May 29 to September 
14; most numerous in July and August. 

Orient. Irregularly common summer visitant, May 29, 
1915 to September 11, 1916. 

Mastic. Occasionally seen off the beach. Numerous on 
June 30, 1913. 

Long Beach. Abundant a mile or two off-shore; seen 

from the beach on several occasions June 16, 1919 to August 

18, 1921 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Regular, often abundant in the harbor, 

noted as late as September 6, 1907 (Chapin). Rarely seen above 

the Battery. 

New Jersey. One record for Newark Bay, June 16, 1916 
(Urner). 

Englewood Region. Known to have ascended the Hud- 
son as far as Fort Lee Ferry on one occasion, first week in 
August, 1915 (Chapman). 

Booby (Sula leucogastra) 

Accidental from the tropics. One record, Moriches Bay, 
Long Island, many years ago. 

Gannet (Sula bassana) 

The Gannet Occurs as a common transient off-shore, but is 
regularly seen from the ocean beaches, and on rare occasions 
fishes in the surf. It can be readily identified at great dis- 
tances, whether the white adult or brown immature, by its 
great size, broad wings, slow powerful wing-beats, and its 
flight, which is in great curves. The long triangular bill is 
carried downward, preventing confusion with a Cormorant. 
It thinks nothing of diving head first into the water from a 







i WW 



ftit' K 



! I J I V 






/■' 



I l 



I Ml 



' ^ 




88 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

height of fifty feet or more, and the resulting splash can be 
seen a quarter of a mile away. 

Long Island. Common transient off-shore, very rare in mid- 
winter. (March 3) March 23 to June 2; October 5 to January 5; 
casual in August and September. 

Orient. Rare visitant, October 29, 1906 to December 30, 
1915; April 7, 1912 (Gardiner's Island, Griscom and Harper). 
Mastic. Regular transient off-shore. 

Long Beach. Common transient, chiefly in April and 
November. March 3, 1917 (J. T. Nichols) to May 19, 1921 
(Bicknell) and June 2, 1921 (Bicknell). October 5, 1919 
(Crosby) to January 5, 1913 (Griscom). One mid-winter 
record, January 24, 1922 (Griscom). Recorded August 4 and 
September 8, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Casual off Staten Island, September 29, 
1905 (Chapin). 
New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. Casual on the Hudson opposite 
Dyckman Street Ferry, October 16, 1915 (J. T. Nichols). 

Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) 

This species does not winter regularly south of Cormorant 
Rock off the Rhode Island coast. On rare occasions, however, 
it reaches the Orient Point region, chiefly in the fall, seldom 
remaining until mid-winter. This is undoubtedly responsible 
for the idea of the older ornithologists that it was a transient. 
The two species of Cormorants are difficult to distinguish in 
life. The common one is the Double-crested, and there is no 
reasonable doubt that the birds seen off the Long Island 
beaches are the latter species. Adults of the two species 
cannot be separated in life unless seen sitting side by side, 
when the greater size of carbo is evident. Immature birds 
are, however, readily separable, if a good view of the under- 
pays can be secured. In the Double-crested the throat and 
breast are light brownish, in marked contrast with the black- 
ish belly. The throat and breast of carbo are similarly colored, 
but there is a rapid change to white on the abdomen and belly. 



/ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 89 

Long Island. There is only one definite record for the south 
shore of Long Island, a specimen taken October 1~>, 1904 off 
Amagansetl by G. 11. Mulford, now in the Dwight collection. 

ORIENT. Rare, irregular visitant in fall and winter. Not 
recorded in several years. September 24, 1888 (Little Cull 
Island, specimen taken) to February 24, 1911. 

Long Beach. One seen October 12, 1917 (Bicknell). 
Several years ago G, E. Hix saw a Cormorant "with 
mostly white underparts," which must have been this species, 
but he was unfortunately unacquainted with its distinguish- 
ing characters at the time. 

Double-crested Cormorant (Phdlaerocorax awritus) 

A common migrant on the coast, the height of the migra- 
tion in late May and October. Very rare in winter, castial in 
summer. Casual on the Hudson River and elsewhere inland. 
Long Island. Common transient, March M to June 29; 
August 10 to Dec. 14. Occasional in mid-summer, July 12, 
1911 off Roekaway (GriSCom); very rare in winter. 

Orient. Common transient, occasional in summer. A 
record or two in winter. August 28, 1913 (average September 
10) to November 22, 1919 (average November 12); spring 
arrival April 6, 1905 to May 2, 1910; departure May 10, 1910 
to June 10, 1912. December 9, 1918. 
Mastic. Common transient. 

Long Beach. Common transient; March 31, 1912 (Gris- 

com) to June 27, 1919 (Bicknell); August 10, 1919 (Bicknell 

and Crosby) to December 14, 1913 (Griscom). Very rare in 

winter, January 7. 1920 (Janvrin). 

New York State. Casual on the Hudson, Ossining, June 22, 

1876 (Fisher). Mr. Brandreth has seen four single birds there in 

recent years, and knows of another captured in a fish-weir. 

New Jersey. Casual at Littleton, Morris Co., October 1880 
CThurben. 

White Pelican (PeUcanus erythrorhynchos) 
In colonial times the White Pelican was apparently of 
regular occurrence in the Northeast. It is now purely acci- 
dental. There is an old specimen taken in ( Janarsie Bay many 

years a<zo in the collection of the Long Island Historical 



90 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Society. Another specimen taken at Roslyn, May 11, 1885. 
Dr. C. C. Abbott claimed to have seen three of these birds 
flying off Sandy Hook in February 1864, but his observa- 
tions are known to have been so unreliable that this cannot 
be accepted as a definite record. The date renders the 
suspicion unavoidable that the birds were Gannets. 

Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) 
Accidental straggler from the South. A specimen was 
shot off Sandy Hook about 1837. Seen August 28, 1902 at 
East Marion (Latham) and May 26, 1912, Jones Beach 
(Johnson and Griscom, Auk, 1912, p. 389). 

Frigate Bird (Fregata aquila) 
Accidental straggler from the tropics. Two records. 
Faulkner's Island, 1859 (Grinnell) and Gardiner's Island, 
August 4, 1886 (Dutcher). 

American Merganser (Mergus americanus) 
This fine species is an uncommon winter visitant to Long 
Island, very common on the Hudson River, and occurs 
regularly on all the larger lakes and reservoirs in our area. 
It is preeminently a fresh-water duck, and is not so partial to 
salt water as the Red-breasted Merganser. By all odds the 
best place to see this bird is the Hudson River from the 
Palisades Interstate Park, where it is sometimes positively 
abundant during severe cold waves, when the river is frozen 
solid further north. It is increasing around New York City, 
and now lingers in the spring much later than formerly. 

Long Island. Uncommon winter visitant, more numerous 
locally (October 15) November 4 to April 29. 

Orient. Uncommon winter visitant. November 26, 
1910 (Miller and Griscom) to April 29, 1917. Average arrival 
about December 1. 

Mastic. Common winter visitant, November to April 
24, 1920. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIKDS 91 

Long Beach. Casual; April 15, 1917 (Janvrin); January 
13, 1921 iBieknell). 

New York State. 

CENTRAL Park. Very rare visitor to the Reservoir; 
January 22, 1907 (Hix); February 2 and April 9, 1909 (Gris- 
eom ); March 3, 1910 (Grisoom); April 10, 1916 (L. N. 
Nichols). 

Bronx Region. Regular winter visitant, often common. 

December 6, 1913 (Hix) to April 8, 1916 (L. N. Nichols); 

casual October 11, 1920 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Rare migrant at Morristown (Thurber); a 

common visitor to the Reservoir at Boonton (Carter). Regular on 

Newark Bay I Truer). 

Exglewood Region. Common winter visitant on the 
Hudson and Overpeck Creek, seldom in any numbers before 
Christmas. November 16, 1911 JGriscom) to April 25, 1920 
(Griscom). A female seen May 12, 1918 (J. M. Johnson) was 
probably but not positively this species. 

Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) 
An abundant migrant and common winter resident on 
Long Island, but of very rare occurrence on the inland waters 
of our area. Mearns and Fisher regarded this species as very 
common on the Hudson fifty years ago, but this is most 
emphatically not the case today, and the greatest care should 
be taken by observers in identifying this species away from 
salt water. The drakes of the two Mergansers are unmistak- 
able, but females and young, in this species, have lighter 
colored heads, and there is a gradual transition from the color 
of the head to the whitish throat and underparts, whereas in 
the American Merganser this change is abrupt. These 
characters, however, are not easy to make out, and require 
very close range or direct comparison. 

Long Island. Common winter resident, abundant transient J 
barren birds occasional in mid-summer. September 15 to June 15- 
Orient. Usually common in winter, always common in 
Spring and fall. Rare in summer. September 20, 1919 to 
June 11. 1911. Average arrival, October 15; average depar- 
ture, M;: 



92 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Common transient, rare in winter; October to 
June 1, 1918. 

Long Beach. Abundant transient, regular in winter, 

frequently summering; September 23, 1917 (L. N. Nichols) 

to June 18, 1921 (Janvrin). 

New York State. Regular off Staten Island (Chapin and 

Cleaves); very rare on the Hudson except in the Tappan Zee 

section, where it occurs irregularly (Brandreth). 

Central Park. Casual visitor to the Reservoir, April 16, 
1909 (Griscom); October 25, 1909 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Rare winter visitant to the Sound; re- 
ported three times in December (L. N. Nichols); once in 
January (C. L. Lewis). 
New Jersey. Occasional in spring on Newark Bay (Urner). 
Of casual occurrence on the reservoir at Boonton, April 18, 1921 and 
May 5, 1920 (Carter). No other records away from the coast 
except at Englewood. 

Englewood Region. Very rare visitant. One record for 
the Hudson, April 5, 1914 (A. A. Saunders and Griscom). One 
record for Overpeck Creek, spring of 1917 (J. A. Weber). 

Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) 
According to old records this beautiful duck was rather 
rare on Long Island, but common elsewhere near New York 
City in suitable localities. Its status on Long Island does not 
seem to have changed materially, but elsewhere it is now a 
very rare bird, and ten years have gone by with scarcely a 
record near the city. The last three years, however, indicate 
a decided increase. The drake is absolutely unmistakable; 
the female and young are much smaller than the other two 
Mergansers and much darker. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, rare in winter, casual in 
summer. Now very rare at the western end of the island, only two 
recent records. Hempstead, March 11, 1917 (J. T. Nichols) and 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn, November 15, 1914 (Fleischer). March 
11 to May; November 2 to December 14. June 13, 1891, 2 9 at 
Canarsie. 

Orient. Sometimes common fall transient, rare in winter 
and spring. November 2, 1913 to April 5, 1912 (Gardiner's 
Island, Harper and Griscom). Once in summer, June and 
July 1906. 



AWniA I ED LIST OF THE BIBDS 93 

M otic. November 2. L919, fairly common. 
New York State. Formerly a common winter resident on the 
Hudson (Meams, l ss l : a rare transient in March at Ossining 
(Fisher . Collected on Staten Island. November 2, 1908 (Chapirj . 

Now very rare. 

Central Park. Casual. November 17 to 23, 1921 (Gris- 
oom and Laidlaw Williams . 

Bronx Region. Casual on the .Jerome Reservoir, March 

17 and 20. 1914 (Chubb, Miller. Rogers); February 20. 1915 

f.I. M. Johnson . 

New Jersey. Formerly a rare transient at Morristown 

(Thurber, 1887 : rare at Summit (Harm, 1905). Mr. Chas. A. 

(Jrner has the following records for Newark Hay; March 5, 1921; 

November 12 and 20. 1921; February 25 to March 22. 1922; he 

knows of only one record in the preceding 20 years. One record on 

the Boonton Reservoir (Carter). 

EngleWOOO REGION. Formerly a common transient 
'Chapman, from notes of Cornelius Demarest made prior 
to 1880). No other records until March 28, 1920 (Griscom and 
Janvrin) and March 0. 1921 (Griscom and Granger), both on 
Overpeck Creek. 

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) 
Even in Giraud's day the Mallard was not regarded as a 
common duck on Long Island, where it is still a regular 
transient in small numbers at the eastern end, hut much rarer 
at the western end. Twenty-five years ago it was an event 
to record this species near New York City, hut thanks to the 
abolition of spiing shooting, it is now seen annually in spring 
in favorable places in northern New .Jersey, such as the ( )ver- 
jM'ck marshes in the Knglewood region. 'Fame birds, originat- 
ing from the Zoological Garden, now occur throughout the 
year in Van Cortlandt Park, on the Bronx River, etc., and 
mu>T not be confused with realty wild birds. In our region the 
Mallard almost invariably associates with the Black Duck. 
as a rule a few pairs at most mingling with their abundant 
relative. Drakes cannot be overlooked by their general 
light gray effect and absence of conspicuous white wing 
patches; Females are light chocolate brown with a white wing 



94 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

stripe and stand out as several shades lighter than Black 
Ducks. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, rare in winter. A few- 
birds breed, undoubtedly feral. March 11, 1922 (Mont auk, Gris- 
com and LaDow) to May 6; August 12 to December 20. 

Orient. Uncommon transient and winter visitant, October 
8, 1908 to May 6, 1907. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient; August 12, 1917 is 
the earliest fall date; the latest spring is April 28, 1917. 

Long Beach. Very rare; March 26, 1911 (Griscom, Hix, 

and Rogers) ; March 23 and 30, 1922 (Bicknell) ; December 20, 

1917 (Bicknell), and November 16, 1921 (Bicknell); two late 

January and one early February record (Bicknell); summer 

records refer to feral birds. 

New York State. Apparently now very rare. No recent 

records in our area, except near Ossining, where it is uncommon 

(Brandreth) . 

Bronx Region. Feral birds are now common throughout 
the year, and truly wild birds cannot be satisfactorily differ- 
entiated. 

New Jersey. Reported as fairly common formerly at Morris- 
town (Thurber); as uncommon at Summit (Hann). Unknown at 
Boonton (Carter); at Montclair (Howland). Uncommon but 
regular on the Newark Marshes (Urner). The earliest fall arrival 
date before me is September 18, 1921, Newark Marshes (Urner). 
Englewood Region. Uncomon transient, rare in winter, 
most numerous in spring. March 7, 1910 (Griscom and 
LaDow) to April 23, 1922 (Griscom); October 11, 1911 (Gris- 
com and LaDow) to December 4, 1904 (Hix). 

Black Duck (Anas rubripes) 

The most abundant and best known of our fresh-water 
ducks, though the term is misleading so far as this species is 
concerned, as it does not hesitate to put right out to sea. 
It breeds commonly on the eastern half of Long Island, and 
now a few pairs nest every year as far west as Long Beach. 
Truly wild birds are not definitely known to breed along the 
Hudson, as they formerly did commonly. In northern New 
Jersey there is no definite proof of nesting at the present time, 






A\\<>1 ATKI) LIST OF Till-: BINDS 95 

but Black 1 hicks have been recorded in June and July on the 
Newark Hay marshes (Urner), on Overpeck Creek (Griscom 
and Weber). Swart swood Lake (Griscom), and Lake Mashi- 
pacong in the Kittatinny Ridge (Griscom), which must have 
nested somewhere in the vicinity. A pair bred on the 
Reservoir at Boonton in 1916 (Carter). 

Long Island. Abundant resident, comparatively few breeding. 
Orient. Common resident on Gardiner's Island; a 
common winter and a rare summer resident elsewhere. 

Mastic. Fairly common permanent resident, abundant in 
migration. 

Long Beach. Abundant winter resident, now breeding 
regularly. Nest and 12 eggs found April 14, 1918 (Janvrin); 
another nest with 7 eggs, May 26, 1918 (Janvrin). 
New York State. Common summer resident near Ossining 
(Brandreth). probably feral birds. 

Central Park. Feral birds are resident on the Park 
lakes. They are descended from wild birds. 

Bronx Region. Feral birds are now resident throughout 
the area. 

New Jersey. Occurs on migration throughout the area, its 
abundance entirely dependent upon the suitability of habitat. 
There is much suitable breeding territory in northwestern New 
Jersey that is virtually unexplored. 

Englewood Region. Abundant transient, and fairly 
common on the Hudson in winter; bred formerly (Cornelius 
Demarest); noted June 1920 (Weber); September 24, 1904 
(Hix and Wiegmann) to May 16, 1920 (Granger, Griscom, 
Janvrin;. 

Gadwall {ChauLelasmus streperus) 

The Gadwall is a western species of rare occurrence in this 
vicinity, and there is no historical evidence to show that it was 
ever common. EatOD mentions only four specimens from 
Long Island, but >i.\ additional specimen- have been recorded 
since 1910, mostly shot at the South Side Club with Black 
Ducks. A- is usual with the fresh-water ducks, the drake i- 
quite immistakable, but the female is exceedingly difficult to 
distinguish in life, and i- usually confused with :i Pintail or 



96 BIRDS OP THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Baldpate. Grayer than a Bald pate, it has long pointed wings, 
and a "long-geared" appearance on the wing, like a small 
Pintail 

Long Island. Rare transient, October 16 to December 13; 
April 9 and 10. 

Orient. Casual in f;ill and winter, October 17, L908 to 
April 10, 1910. 

Mastic. One record. 



European Widgeon (Mareca penelope) 

This handsome duck was formerly supposed t<> be an 
accidental visitant from the Old World, but is now known to 
occur regularly in North America. On Long Island it is a 
rare migrant or winter resident, and is undoubtedly of more 
frequent occurrence than the Shoveller. It is almost invar- 
ably associated with Baldpate, and is most likely to occur in 
places where that species is abundant, such as Gardiner's 
Island. I have seen seven drakes in lour visits to this water- 
fowl paradise during the heieM of the migration of the Bald- 
pate; there are numerous other records, and there is little 
doubt that it occurs there annually. The drake cannot he 
confused for an instant with any other species, hut females or 
immature are not distinguishable in life from Baldpate. 

Long Island. Rare transient or winter visitant, September 

12 to April 7. 

Orient. Rare winter visitant. October s, 1908 to April 
7, 1912, Gardiner's Island (Harper and Griscom). 

MASTIC. Hare; has occurred as early as September 12, 
1915 (.1. T. Nichols and (Jriscorn). 
New York State. 

BRONX REGION. A most satisfactory observation of ;i fine 

drake and a supposed female. February 9, 1922 on Pelham 
Hay (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. Casual; one record, spring of 1H80 
or issi (Cornelius Demarest). 'See Chapman, Auk, 1889; 
p. 302.) 



\\ \iir\ i i i) i 1ST OF i mi: BIRDS !>7 

Baldpate (M(H(f(i unit ricttmi) 

The ponds of ( Gardiner's [eland are indelibly associated in 
my mind with this trim and graceful duck. Here H is posi- 
tively abundant, and 1 have seen it in numbers rivaling the 
winter Hocks of ( Currituck Sound. Elsewhere on Long island 
H i looal, rare in most plaoes, fairly oommon in others. 
Twenty-five years ago near New 5f ork City it was a verj rare 
bird, l»iii now can be Been annually in the spring in b few 
favored spots, such as Overpeclc Creek. The Baldpate is 
graceful and slender in shape, and is smaller than t he Mallard. 
The drake has b large amounl of shown white on the wing 
coverts, which will identify it at greal distances in connection 

with its shape. The leinnle resemhles :i Mallard, DUt h:is n, 

distinct white patch in the wing rattler than b stripe, and is 
lighter on the belly. Both sexes are loquacious, and the drake 

luis :i mellow whist line; wlitir, wlinr, irhru\ which c:nries ;i 

considerable distance. 

Long Island. Fairlj oomi transient, occasional In winter) 

March 3 to ipril L6; August «.i to December 21, 1920 (Gardiner'i 
bland, ( Iriscom I. 

Orxbnt. \ w inter visitant, oommon <>n Gardiner's island, 
rare elsewhere. October 80, 1910 to \|>ni 14, 1916, Once 
tagu i '». 1806 (Plum bland, \. II. Helme), 
Mastii I ^Minion fall 1 1 an lent 
Long Bi tea \<> rare, perhaps only i casual visitant 
durinf migration March 8 1921 Bii knell I to \prH L5, 
1917 (Janvrin); October 12, I'.'-i (Qriscom, Johnson, and 
Johnston I. 

New York State. Formerly I oommon tran lent on the 
Hudson M> ii n and Fishei , non rare, and verj fen recent 
ords, pi iiik only. 

Bronx EIsoion. Wild birds reported to have Mown into 
the Duck Pond at the Zoological Garden on i fen occasions, 
but do n oord prs si ved ,( Randall). 

New Jersey. Formerly ran at Morri town (Thurbei . no 
recent observation Fairlj common In prinfl on thi n ervoii 
at Boonton Cartel \"v, regulai but uncommon In prins in 
tli« Mm hi i rnei where ii Ims lingered .is lute mm 



98 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

April 30, 1921. Very rare in fall; recorded October 8 and 22, 1922 

on the Newark Marshes (Urner). 

"" Englewood Region. Uncommon transient in spring, a 
few birds occurring annually; rare in fall. February 27, 1921 
(Griscom) to April 25, 1920 (Willard G. Van Name); October 
29, 1912 (LaDow and Griscom). Formerly common (Cornelius 
Demarest); now increasing. 

European Teal (Nettion crecca) 
Accidental from the Old World. J. G. Bell reported 
several specimens from Long Island taken in 1858 and earlier. 
Two birds shot out of a flock of Green-winged Teal at Merrick, 
L. I., about December 17, 1900. 

Green-winged Teal (Nettion carolinense) 
This Teal can always be recognized by its small size, 
extremely rapid flight, and the entire absence of white in the 
wing. It is shyer and more retiring than other fresh-water 
ducks, and prefers to skulk in the reeds close to shore, rarely 
coming out into open water. Few waterfowl have decreased 
more in this vicinity than our two Teal, which fifty years 
ago were abundant or common throughout. The present 
species is uncommon on Long Island, and ten years ago was 
practically unknown in the rest of this area. The cessation 
of spring shooting is beginning to have its effects, however, 
and since 1914 the Green-wing has been recorded in a few 
favorable localities in northern New Jersey each spring. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, occasional in winter, 
casual in summer. March 8 to May 3; September 4 to December 
25; rare after November. 

Orient. Rare and irregular visitant, occasional in summer. 
October 4, 1904 to April 17, 1917. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient, arriving as early as 
September 4, 1916 and noted in spring as late as May 3, 1919. 
Long Beach. Very rare, perhaps casual; October 12, 
1921 (Griscom, Johnson, and Johnston), October 25, 1921 
(C. H. Lott), and December 6, 1917 (Bicknell); March 9 to 
23, 1922 (Bicknell). 



ANNOTATED LIST <)F THE BIRDS 99 

New York State. Formerly common transient on the Hudson 
Mearns, Fisher). No recent records. 

Bronx Region. Reported Beveral times in the Zoological 

Garden (Crandall), Imt no definite record preserved. 
New Jersey. Up to thirty years ago, of regular occurrence 
throughout. Then practically unknown until 1915. Now uncom- 
mon spring migrant Newark Marshes (I'men; two recent spring 
records at Boonton (Carter). More birds seen during the spring 
of 1922 in northern New Jersey than in the preceding twenty years 
combined. The latest date is April 19, 1914 at Runvon I Miller). 
Only three recent fall records, November 20, 1921. Newark Bay 
marshes. 

Englewooo Region. Formerly common (Cornelius 
Demarest); not recorded again until April 3, 1915 (J. T. 
Nichols and (Iriscom); 3 on March 31, 1917, one collected 
(J. A. Weber); pair March 20, 1921 (Griscom); 7 on April :i, 
1921 (Janvrin and Griscom). Seen several times in 1922, the 
last April 6 (M. S. Crosby). An observation of 6 birds seen 
on December 2, 1906, published in the Linmean Society 
Abstract of Proceedings, is regarded as unsatisfactory by its 
author. No definite fall records until 1922; flock of S Octo- 
ber 15 (Hix), and 1 on November 26 (Griscom and LaDow). 

Blue-winged Teal {Querquedula discors) 
This species can be distinguished from other ducks by its 
small size, and from the Green-winged Teal by the large 
amount of light bluish gray on the fore pari of the wing. 
Its history in our area is much the same as that of its relative, 
but it is not BO uncommon on Long Island. It is even rarer, 
on the other hand, in New .Jersey and the balance of New 
York State, and lias not as yet shown the slightest sigE of in- 
creas?. It is the Hist of the ducks to arrive in fall on Long 
Island, an.d the last to arrive in spring, rare before April and 
seldom seen alter October. It is the only species for which 
there is no winter record. 

Long Island. Not uncommon transient locally. Said to 
have bred many yean March 9 March 24 t<» May •">; 

August 12 August 28 to November 12 December 12). 

Orient. Occasional transient, September in. 1910 to 
November 24, 1915: March 9, 1900 



100 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Common transient in the fall, arriving as early 
as August 12, 1917; once in spring, April 16, 1922. 

Long Beach. Very rare transient; August 28 (Braislin) 
to September 10, 1916 (Hix); May 5, 1912 (Charles Johnston 
and Griscom). 
New York State. Formerly common on the Hudson, no recent 
records. 

Bronx Region. Very rare; April 16 to 26, 1905 (Beebe and 
Wiegmann); March 18, 1914 on Jerome Reservoir (Wiegmann). 
New Jersey. Formerly common, now very rare. One recent 
record at Boonton (Carter); September 19, 1920, Newark Marshes 
(Urner); a pair on the Dead River near Mt. Bethel, April 2, 1911 
(Griscom and LaDow) . Otherwise unrecorded near the city except 
at Englewood. 

Englewood Region. Formerly common (Cornelius 
Demarest). Now rare. April 3, 1920 (Griscom) to April 
14, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow); October 15, 1922 (Hix) 
to October 28, 1911 (Griscom and LaDow). 

Shoveller (Spatula clypeata) 
The drake Shoveller is unmistakable even at a great dis- 
tance. Its tremendous bill gives it a queer effect forward, 
and the striking dark and white pattern of its plumage, with 
the great amount of white in the wing, is readily observed. 
The female looks much like a Blue-winged Teal with a very 
long bill. This species has always been rare on Long Island, 
and it is not without significance that it has never been seen 
there by the present-day field ornithologists. Indeed it is 
doubtful if it occurs as frequently as the European Widgeon. 
Long Island. Rare transient. February 12 to March 19; 
October 1 to November 29. 

Mastic. Rare visitant; October 14, 1916 (two birds 
killed by Dr. Rolfe Floyd). 
New York State. One record at Ossining in October (Fisher) ; 
three birds shot there in the fall in the past 7 years (Brandreth). 
Bronx Region. A fine drake seen on the Baychester 
marshes March 22, 1920 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. Casual on Overpeck Creek. Listed 
by Cornelius Demarest. Mr. J. A. Weber has seen a specimen 



ANNOTATED list OF THE BIRDS 101 

killed in the fall about l"> yean ago. One drake observed 
April 3, 1921 (Janvrin and Griscom, Auk. 1922, p. 100 , 

Pintail (Dafila acuta) 

When once the finer points of shape arc Learned in ducks, 
this species can be recognized at any distance by its long 
neck, thin body and narrow tapering wings, which have no 
white patch or stripe. The general color effect is decidedly 
gray. While strangely erratic in numbers, it is generally 
commoner in spring, and has shown a marked increase in 
recent years. Its preference for marshes and smaller bodies 
of quiet water accounts for its rarity at the eastern end of 
Long Island. 

Long Island. Common transient, rare in winter; locally 
scarce at the eastern end; February 15 to May 3; August 12 to 
December 24. 

Orient. Rare in fall, winter, and spring; September 23, 
1914 to March 28, 1909. 

Mastic. Common transient, arriving in the fall as early 
as August 12, 1917, and remaining in the spring as late as May 
3, 1919. 

Long Beach. Rare transient; March 7, 1918 to April 10, 
1919; September 2, 1920 to December 20, 1917; January 25, 
February s and 15, 1917 (all observations by Bicknellj. 
New York State. Formerly a common transient on the 
Hudson at Ossining (Fisher); now very rare in our area. 

Bronx Region. Very rare transient, one recent record, 
March 18 and 17, 1918 (Hix and L. X. Nichols). 
New Jersey. A regular spring migrant now in several Localities, 
common on Overpeck Creek and the Newark marshes (Urner). 
Common at Boonton (Carter). Rather erratic in numbers from year 
to year, but steadily increasing, flocks of several hundred birds 
noted in recent years. Only two fall records in many yean. 
Noted as early as February 13, 1922 ( Urner j. 

Englewood Region. Common spring transient, but 
erratic, sometimes abundant; February 27, L921 (Griscom) 
to April 30, 1922 ("Griscom); no fall record between December 
3, l«M)i CWiegmann and October 15, 1922 Bis . 



102 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) 

Formerly a common summer resident throughout the 
area. Now nests in a few scattered localities, and is un- 
common to very rare as a transient. It is essentially a species 
of woodland swamps or forest-bordered streams, and always 
nests in hollow trees. The last few years of protection have 
yielded results, and this retiring bird is now noted more fre- 
quently, chiefly in late August and early September. The 
gorgeous drake is unmistakable, but the female is an obscure 
duck with a white wing patch and a white eye-ring. The 
note, a plaintive, whistled oo-eek, is characteristic. The 
swamp at Van Cortlandt Park is the best place near New 
York City to observe the Wood Duck. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient; rare in summer; breeds 
locally; March 23 to May 6; July 21 to November 27, and casually 
to December 16. 

Orient. Rare visitant, except Gardiner's Island where it 
probably still breeds. A pair noted during the summer of 
1920. December 16, 1908 is the latest date. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient; may breed. Noted May 
6, 1916 and July 21, 1918. 
New York State. Formerly common, now very rare and 
local. 

Central Park. Very rare visitant, formerly much more 
frequent. The recent records are September 21, 1904 (Bilder- 
see), September 18, 1909 (Hix) to early October, 1909 (Anne A. 
Crolius); May 6, 1910 (Griscom); September 29 to October 

8, 1917 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Still breeds regularly in the swamp at 
Van Cortlandt Park. Arrives as early as March 27, 1920 (E. 
G. Nichols) . Migrants were unquestionably present September 

9, 1916 (C. L. Lewis). The latest date is November 11, 1916 
(Hix). As many as forty birds have been seen in a flock. 

New Jersey. Formerly common throughout, and reported as 
having wintered on the Hackensack marshes (R. T. Morris). 
Now extirpated, or rare and local. Much suitable breeding terri- . 
tory in northwestern New Jersey is unexplored, however. Still 
breeds near Elizabeth (Urner), near Boonton (Carter), near New- 
foundland (Miller), at Culver's Lake (Miller and Griscom). 



\\\(»! \ I I l) US! OF i Hi BIRDS KKi 

Regular m ■ migrant in the last fen years at Ridgewood (Johnson 
Extreme dates are February 20, 1021 t<> November 7, 1921 Dear 
Elisabeth I IJrner . 

Englewood Region. Formerly b common breeder 
(Cornelius Demaresl ; oon very rare, only two recent records, 
tagusl 17. 1013 (Hi* , and April 25, 1915 (Johnson) 

Redhead | Mania americana) 

No I hick has a more varied or irregular status in our area 
than this fine species. In parts of eastern Long Island it is 
locally a common transient . such as on ( iardiner's Island and 
the Greal Pond at Montauk. It also occurs regularly on 
Bast, Moriches, and Great South Bays. But elsewhere in the 
region it is a very rare bird, and fortunate indeed is the 
observer who sees this bird anywhere near New York ( "itv. 

The red head of the drake appears black at any consider- 
able distance, but it can be told from a Scaup by the gray, 
instead of white, wing-stripe. The female is more uniformly 
brownish than the Scaup, and has no white ring around the 
base of the bill. 

Long Island. Common transient, uncommon in winter; 
irregular and local. February 15 to April 1">; September 30 to 
Jan uar; 

ORIENT. Fairly common winter visitant at (iardiner's 
bland; elsewhere irregular and rare. October t>. 1906 to 
April 12. 1912. 

M LBTH . Uncommon transient, rare in winter. 
Long Beach. Very rare; seen several times formerly (C. 
11. Lott ; March 12. 1911 (Griscom and LaDon 
New York State. Formerly a common transient on the Hud- 
son at Ossming (Fisher . -till fairly common (Brandreth); almost 
unknown elsewhere. 

Central Park. Casual on the Reservoir, January l. 1903 
Rog 

Bronx Region. Casual on Jerome Reservoir, March 21 
to April 4. 1914 (numerous obser v ers : January 10, 1915 
P mgburn ■ 
New Jersey, Practically unknown throughout the area. 



104 ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 

Englewood Region. Local duck hunters report birds of 
this species occasionally, but there is no evidence to credit these 
statements. One definite record, October 9, 1921 (Griscom 
and Johnson). 

Canvasback (Marila valisineria) Fig. 5 
The status of the Canvasback in this region is like that of 
the Redhead, except that it is rare in the few places where 
that species is common. Consequently, the almost regular 
occurrence of this rare duck on the Jerome Reservoir, New 
York City, is one of the phenomena of local ornithology, 
for which I have no explanation to offer. The larger size, the 
sloping profile of head and bill, and the shining whiteness of 
the back will always distinguish it even at long distance. 

Long Island. Rare and local transient, February 11 to April 
16; October 11 to December 24. 

Orient. One record, November 23 to 25, 1907 (Gardiner's 
Island, Chapman). 

Mastic. Rare transient, October 11, 1916 to December 24, 
1916. 

Long Beach. Reported by C. H. Lott as seen formerly 

now and then, and one during the winter of 1920-21. 

New York State. Given as a rare transient formerly at Ossin- 

ing (Fisher) ; Mr. Courtenay Brandreth informs me that in the past 

two years it has shown a marked increase there; very rare elsewhere; 

a recent record is Staten Island, January 20, 1918 (Cleaves). 

Bronx Region. The Jerome Reservoir records are as 
follows: Middle of January to March 28, 1914 (seen by almost 
every observer of note); December 31, 1914 (Griscom and 
A. A. Saunders) to March 21, 1915 (L. N. Nichols); December 
25, 1916 (L. N. Nichols); March 17, 1921 (L. N. Nichols); 
December 1, 1921 (L. N. Nichols). One record for Pelham 
Bay, February 9, 1922 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. Formerly occasional in the fall 
(Cornelius Demarest); now \ery rare or casual; 10 drakes on 
Overpeck Creek, March 5, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow); pair 
shot on the Creek, November, 1917 (Weber, who writes he saw 
the heads); two on the Hudson, Januarj^ 27, 1912 (Griscom 
and Hix). 



106 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Scaup Duck (Mania marila) 
The Scaup Duck is an abundant transient and common 
winter visitant on Long Island, but is now rare or uncommon 
at the extreme western end in the section of the seaside re- 
sorts. Elsewhere in our territory the lack of shooting makes 
it practically impossible to differentiate between this species 
and the Lesser Scaup. The females are absolutely indistin- 
guishable in life. The drakes differ in the gloss of the head, 
greenish in the Scaup, purplish in the Lesser Scaup, but it 
requires the most extraordinary combination of proximity and 
bright light to see this character, and such a chance comes 
only a few times in a decade. As a rule the Lesser Scaup is 
the more frequent species on smaller bodies of water and 
creeks, and many observers consequently imagine that it is 
the Greater Scaup which they see off the ocean beaches and 
in the bays of Long Island, but unfortunately the facts do 
not bear out this comfortable theory. In other words the 
two species cannot be identified on the basis of the size of the 
body of water in which they are seen. Some skins in museums 
are unidentifiable. Comparison of size with other species of 
ducks is also utterly untrustworthy. 

Long Island. Abundant transient, common in winter. 
September 1 to May 30. This or the next species occasional in 
summer. 

Orient. Abundant winter resident ; occasional in summer. 
September 12, 1907 to May 19, 1916. Average, October 10 
to April 25. 

Mastic. Abundant transient. 

Long Beach. Up to ten years ago Scaups were common 
winter residents; they are now relatively uncommon. On three 
occasions birds believed to be Lesser Scaups have been iden- 
tified as such with reasonable surety. The extreme dates 
are September 20, 1909 (Griscom) to May 30, 1911 (Griscom 
and LaDow), and June 8, 1915 (Bicknell), but in no case is 
the species known. 
New York State. Both species are reported as common on the 
Hudson at Ossining (Fisher and Brandreth). Scaups are now rare 
elsewhere on the river in our area, and data regarding the two 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 107 

speciee are lacking. They are seen chiefly in late March and early 
November. Scaups arc regular in Bmall numbers in the Lower Bay, 
I nit the status of the two species is not known. 

Central Pakk. Casual on the Reservoir, two records. 

March 29. 1912 I Mix . and April 6, 1913 (Fleischer), the specie- 

indeterminable in both cases. 

Bronx Region. Scaups are regular but uncommon winter 

visitants on the Sound, species never satisfactorily determined; 

October 21, 1905 ( Wiegmann to April 12, 1918 (E. G. Nichols). 

Both specie's were' present on the .Jerome Reservoir. March lo 

to April 4. 1914. and both species were positively identified by 

numerous observers. 
New Jersey. Scaups occur regularly on Newark Bay. hut the 
status of the two species is unknown. No data available for inland 
localities except Boonton, where they are fairly common on the 
Reservoir Carter . 

Lesser Scaup (Mania affinis) 
For general comment sec the preceding species. Records 
given below refer definitely to this species. 

Long Island. Abundant transient, uncommon in winter; 
October 1 to May 20. 

ORIENT. Rather rare transient and winter visitant; 
October 20. 1905 to May 20. 1916. 
Mastic Common transient. 

Long Beach. I do not know of any absolutely certain 
identification of this species. 
New York State. 

Bronx REGION. Positively identified on the Jerome Reser- 
voir. March 24 to April 4. 1914 (Griscom, Johnson). 
New Jersey. 

EngLEWOOD REGION. Scaups are regular transients on 
Overpeck Creek, common in spring, less so in fall. February 
27. 1921 Griscom to May is. 1913 (Griscom, LaDow, and 
LenspcD ; casual June 8, 1909 (Griscom and LaDow); about 

October b"). 1910 'shot by local hunter) to November 1. 1910 

-hot by local hunter- . Numerous birds killed on the ("reck 
have been examined, and have been invariably the I.. 
S lip Griscom and Weber . There is no evidence that the 
Greater occurs and it i- reasonably certain th.it the jjreat 

majority <>f bird- seen are the L esse r. 



108 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Ring-necked Duck (Marila collaris) 

There is still some doubt about the exact status of this 
species on Long Island. Giraud, whose account shows that 
he was thoroughly familiar with it, states that "a few are 
seen almost every spring and autumn along the south shore 
of Long Island," and De Kay makes approximately the same 
comment. Dutcher, however, regarded it as accidental, and 
gave three definite records, the only dates being April 27 
and November 3. It most certainly cannot be regarded as 
strictly accidental, and it would be easily overlooked among 
the large number of Scaup Ducks. The female looks like a 
small Redhead, and is very difficult to distinguish from a 
Scaup. The male, however, is easily recognized, when sitting 
on the water, by its tufted, puffy head, black back, and darker 
bill. The wing stripe is gray, not white. 

Long Island. Probably a very rare or casual transient. Only 
three records. Observers should look out for this bird most care- 
fully. A single individual, possibly crippled, was observed several 
times near Port Jefferson from mid-October, 1918 to March 16, 
1919 (Theodore Dreier). 

Golden-eye (C languid clangula americana) 

The Golden-eye or Whistler is one of the most conspicuous 
winter waterfowl on the bays of Long Island. At the western 
end, however, it is decidedly uncommon, occurring chiefly 
after severe cold waves, when it is temporarily frozen out of 
more suitable quarters. On the Hudson it is now rare, and 
occurs rarely or casually on smaller bodies of water inland. 
It is preeminently a cold weather duck, rarely arriving in 
numbers before December, and only stragglers remain after 
April 1. It is, therefore, quite surprising that inland records 
are chiefly in April. 

Perhaps the best place near New York City to see the 
Whistler is Princes Bay, Staten Island, where a few birds 
occur every winter. The puffy head, short neck, large amount 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 109 

of white in the wing, the rapid wing-beats, and the musical 
whistling of the wings, all help to identify this species almosl 
to the limit of vision. 

Long Island. Common winter visitant, (October 18) Novem- 
ber 3 to April 19 (April 27). One June record. 

Orient. Common winter visitant. October 18, 1912 to 
April 22, 1917; average, November 12 to April 5. One June 
record at Orient. 

Mastic. Common winter visitant, November to April 
27. 1919. 

Long Beach. Rather rare; seldom noted except during 

severe cold waves, and leaving immediately after the weather 

moderates. November 3, 1921 (Bicknell) to April 14, 1918 

Janvrin I. 

New York State. Regular but uncommon on the Lower Bay. 

Now rare on the Hudson in our area except at Ossining, occurring 

chiefly in midwinter; rare on the Sound. 

Bronx Region. Rare winter visitant on the Sound, 

November 26, 1911 (Hix.i to April 12, 1918 (E. G. Nichols); 

occasional on the Jerome Reservoir, observed as late as April 

15. 1914 (J. Kieran). 

New Jersey. Of regular occurrence on Newark Bay (Urner); 

one mid-April record on the Reservoir at Boonton (Carter) Casual 

on a small pond near Plainfield. May 18, 1913 (Miller). Data 

lacking from the lakes of northern New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. Usually rare, sometimes common on 
the Hudson in January and February 'Griscom, J. T. Nichols, 
and others ; very rare on Overpeck Creek, perhaps only 
Rial; a pair July 28, 1911, male collected (Weber); April 
11. 1920 Griscom and Janvrin); a pair April 9, 1922 (Griscom 
and LaioUaw Williams . November 12, 1922 Bis . 

Barbow's Golden-Eye (( "languid islandica) 
Accidental visitant from tbe far north. One specimen 
taken on Long Island many years ago Lb in the collection of 

the Long Island Historical Society. Mr. Latbani, however, 

writing from Orient, states thai it is occasional in winter 
there from .January 5, L909 to March 3, 1918. It is to be 
hoped thai tbi< most interesting statement will be confirmed 



110 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

by specimens. There is every possibility that the status of 
this species may be analogous to that of the Black Guillemot. 
Unfortunately its identification in life is difficult, instead of 
easy, and only the adult male is identifiable. The white spot 
before the eye is larger and somewhat crescent-shaped, 
instead of round. This is readily visible at close range 
and in good light. 

Bufflehead (Charitonetta albeola) 
This, the smallest and most graceful of our Sea Ducks, is 
unfortunately nowhere common in our area except at the 
eastern end of Long Island, but occurs inland a little oftener 
than the Whistler. There is every reason to believe that its 
numbers are steadily decreasing. The male is unmistakable 
at a reasonable distance, but the female is a small edition of 
the Golden-eye, unless the white spot back of the eye is 
visible. Observers occasionally report flocks of " hundreds" 
near New York City. Such birds are almost certainly other 
species. 

Long Island. Fairly common winter visitant on the eastern 
half of the island, rare at the western end near New York City. 
October 1 to April 20. Casually as early as September 16, and as 
late as May 13. 

Orient. Common winter resident, October 27, 1917 to 
May 10, 1910; average, November 15 to April 15. 
Mastic. Uncommon winter visitant. 
Long Beach. Very rare, usually present for a few days in 
midwinter after severe cold, and leaving as soon as the 
weather moderates. Noted November 25, 1920 (Crosby, 
Griscom, and Janvrin) ; not recorded after February. 
New York State. Formerly fairly common on the Hudson at 
Ossining (Fisher), now rare (Brandreth). Still occurs off Staten 
Island and on the Sound. 

Bronx Region. Rare on the Sound, decreasing; De- 
cember 7, 1921 to March 24, 1922 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Now very rare or casual in our area. Casual on 
the Reservoir at Boonton, April 2, 1922 (Carter); January 7, 
1922 on Newark Bay (Urner). 






r S 



<m 




M-~(|ii:i\\ . 
Ml 






112 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Englewood Region. Probably only a casual migrant and 
winter visitant. One record on the Hudson, January 27, 1912 
(Griscom and Hix); on Overpeck Creek, October 20, 1907 
(Hix and Rogers); November 11, 1916 (Weber); October 20, 
1912 (Griscom and S. V. LaDow); March 20, 1921 (Griscom); 
April 16, 1922 (Griscom and Johnson). 

Old-squaw (Harelda hyemalis) Fig. 6 
The grotesquely shaped and strikingly patterned Old- 
squaw is one of our commonest winter sea ducks, and is a 
characteristic species off the ocean beaches. Its stumpy 
body, thin neck, and long narrow wings render identification 
easy at great distances. Away from the coast it is rare or 
unknown. 

Long Island. Abundant winter visitant, stragglers occurring 
in summer; October 15 to May 27. 

Orient. Abundant winter visitant, recorded in June, 
July, August, and September; October 15, 1908 to May 23 
1913; average, October 25 to May 10. 
Mastic. Uncommon winter visitant. 
Long Beach. Common winter visitant, October 25, 1917 
(C. H. Lott) to May 27, 1919 (Griscom and LaDow). 
Seldom seen in May and rarely common much before Christ- 
mas. Single birds noted June 28, 1917 and June 16, 1921 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Regular in the Lower Bay, and once ob- 
served between Staten Island and the Battery. Formerly fairly 
common on the Hudson at Ossining (Fisher), now rare, but 23 were 
killed in the fall of 1921 (Brandreth). Otherwise unknown. 

New Jersey. Given formerly as a rare migrant at Morristown 
(Thurber), but there are no specimens in his collection to confirm 
so unlikely a statement. One record for Newark Baj% January 1, 
1922 (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Casual; small flock on the Hudson, 
October 26, 1912 (LaDow); once on Overpeck Creek. April 
7, 1918 (Johnson). 

Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) 
A rare winter visitant to the eastern end of Long Island, 
where the coast is steep or rocky, casual elsewhere. There 



\\\.)i \ I id Lisr OP THE BIRDS 1 t3 

are about fifteen definite records, the last, February 27, 1918 
at Orient (Latham), and February 22, 1921 at Montauk 
Point (Crosby and Griscom). The male is absolutely un- 
mistakable, but the female is an obscure little duck, suggest- 
ing a large Bufflehead in shape, with two white spots on the 
side of the head. 

Long Island. Rare winter visitant. November 10 to February 
27. 

Orient. Rare winter visitant, November 11, 1S95 to 
February 27, 1918. 

Mastic One record, first week of November, 1915. 

American Eider (Somateria dresseri) 
A very rare winter visitant to Long Island. Eaton gives 
rive records, between November 8 and March 25, and I know 
of only one reliable observation, given below. There is little 
difficult}' in separating the adult males of the two Eiders. 
This species has most of the back, and the whole front part 
of the wing, white. The King Eider has the back mostly 
black, and the wing black with a conspicuous white patch. 
Females and young are generally inseparable in life, but the 
adult female King Eider is identifiable under favorable 
circumstances, in having the back and scapulars widely 
margined with ochraceous or rasty, giving a more contrasted 
Cblor effect. 

Long Island. Very rare winter visitant, November 8 to 
March 25. 

Oriknt. One record, February 2, 1902 at Orient. 
New York State. Casual at Oaaning, December 14,1894 \. 
K. Fisher . 

King Eider (Somateria spec tab ilia) 

Long Island. A regular winter visitant to extreme eastern 
Long [aland, usually rare, sometimes not uncommon. ( lasual on the 
South Shore and Peconic Bay. November 1 to April 27. ( Casual in 
( kstober. 

Orient. Rare winter visitant, December I, 1901 to March 

4. !•• 



114 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Casual, early October 1912, specimen taken by 
W. S. Dana. 

Long Beach. Mr. Bicknell writes me that C. H. Lott 
shot two Eiders off Point Lookout about fifteen years ago and 
another early in November 1921, a female or immature bird. 
In neither case was the species determined, but the King Eider 
is much more likelj\ 

American Scoter (Oidemia americana) 
This is our least abundant Scoter, rarely occurring in any 
large numbers, but it is observed more frequently at the 
extreme western end of Long Island than the Surf Scoter. 
There is much loose identification of Scoters off-shore by 
size and other trivial characters. Observers should remember 
that distinguishing them in life is quite critical, and requires 
close range and good light. Under such circumstances the 
drakes present little difficulty, but females and young should 
be positively named with the greatest caution. A winter trip 
to Montauk Point would render a student better acquainted 
with these birds than five seasons of squinting at them 
through a telescope from the beaches near the City, where 
they are usually way out at sea. 

Years ago Mearns, Fisher, and Stearns regarded all three 
Scoters as abundant migrants on the Hudson River, and Mr. 
Courtney Brandreth assures me that the White-winged is 
common, and the other two fairly common on the Tappan 
Zee at the present time. Elsewhere on the Hudson the White- 
winged Scoter is now a rare bird, not only in our area but also 
in Dutchess County to the north (Crosby) ; the other two 
species are unknown, and there are no records other than the 
statements of the gentlemen quoted. This is exactly in 
accord with the facts, as generally established at present, 
namely, that the White-winged Scoter is rare on small bodies 
of water inland, the American is very rare or casual, and the 
Surf Scoter is purely casual anywhere inland except the 
Great Lakes. That this species in particular should have been 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 115 

abundant on the Hudson River at one of its narrowest sec- 
tions fifty years ago is remarkable. We cannot help speculat- 
ing, therefore, whether in former years the Hudson may not 
have been a main highway to the breeding grounds of the 
northwest, now partially closed with the advent of railroads, 
boat traffic, and the sewage of many towns and cities. 

Long Island. Fairly common winter visitant, September 5 
to May 2o. Casual in summer. 

Orient. Uncommon winter resident, recorded in summer; 
September 20, 1907 to May 26, 1920. 
Mastic. Uncommon winter visitant. 
Long Beach. Uncommon, but regular transient, occa- 
sional in winter; September 5, 1910 (Hix and Rogers) to May 
30, 1918 (Bicknell); a few birds through the summer of 1921 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Unknown at the present time except on 
the Hudson near Ossining, though it might occur in the Lower 
Bay or on the Sound. 

New Jersey. Casual on Overpeck Creek, Bergen County, an 
adult male, October 15, 1922 (Hix). 

White-winged Scoteb (Oidemia deglandi) 
Our most abundant Scoter, and the only one known to 
occur regularly away from the coast at present. In flight 
the white wing patch makes it easily identifiable at great 
distances, but when sitting on the water, close range is 
absolutely necessary. 

Long Island. Abundant winter visitant, occasional, perhaps 
regular, in summer; (August 21) September 15 to June 10. 

Orient. Abundant winter resident, often common as a 
non-breeding species in summer. September 15, 1907 to June 
10, 1905; average, September 20 to May 20. 

Mastic. Common winter visitant, noted July 10, 1921. 

Long Beach. Common transient and winter visitant. 

August 23, 1917 (Bicknell) to June; a few during the summer of 

1921 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Occurs regularly in the Lower Bay and 

rarely (?) on the Sound; now very rare on the Blldson in our area 

except near Owning, where it is i common transient (Brandreth). 



116 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Bronx Region. Rare on the Sound, a positive identifica- 
tion, February 4, 1918 (Hix). Mr. L. N. Nichols, who has 
rendered invaluable assistance in preparing the account of this 
region, tells me that Scoters are occasionally seen on the. 
Sound, but he regards the identification of the species as un- 
satisfactory. Casual on the Jerome Reservoir, an adult male, 
March 21 to April 14, 1914 (numerous observers). 
New Jersey. An okLspecimen^from Culver's Lake, Sussex Co., 
now in the Dwight collection, but it may have come from some- 
where else, as the labelling of this collection is known to have been 
very careless. This species might occur casually on the larger lakes, 
from which I have no data. 

■ Englewood Region. Very rare on the Hudson; October 
19, 1910 (Griscom), March 15, 1913 (Griscom), in each case a 
small flock; casual on Overpeck Creek, a drake, May 14, 1920 
(Griscom). 

Surf Scoter (Oidemia pefspicillata) 
The Surf Scoter is the second in point of abundance on 
Long Island. At the eastern end it occasionally outnumbers 
the White-winged, but at the extreme western end is less 
common than the American. Mr. Chapin tells me that this 
species occurred regularly off Staten Island up to 1908, when 
his observations ceased. Otherwise unknown in our area. 

Long Island. Abundant winter visitant, occasional in summer; 
(September 1) October 10 to May 25 (June 4). 

Orient. Common winter resident, occasional in summer. 
September 9, 1907 to June 4, 1919. Average September 25 
to May 6. 

Mastic. Common winter resident. 

Long Beach. September 5, 1910 (Hix and Rogers) to 

May 31, 1915 (Janvrin); occasional in summer (Bicknell). 

New York State. Occurred regularly off Staten Island up to 

1908 when observation ceased (Chapin). Mr. Brandreth assures 

me that this species is still fairly common on the Tappan Zee section 

of the Hudson near Ossining. Otherwise unknown.] 

Ruddy Duck (Erismatura jamaicensis) 
The little Ruddy Duck is an irregular migrant to eastern 
Long Island, sometimes common in a few favored localities. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 117 

Near New York ( 'it y and elsewhere in our territory it has been 
for years a very rare bird. Perhaps the most favored spot 
near the City is Overpeck Creek in northern New Jersey, 
where it occurs occasionally in late March and early April. 
Adult males in full plumage are rarely seen, but the small 
size and dumpy shape are characteristic. On the water the 
tail is always cocked up like a Wren's, while in flight the 
short rounded wings and the rapid wing beats make it appear 
like a gigantic bumble-bee. It is often absuredly tame. 

Long Island. Irregular, sometimes common in fall, rare in 
mid-winter. (September 21) October 5 to January 1. Spring 
migration data arc scant, recorded May 13, May 22 and June 10. 

Orient. A rare and erratic species at Orient, more fre- 
quent on Gardiner's Island; October 27, 1909 to June 10, 
1910. 

Mastic. No record. 

Long Beach. Very rare; May 13, 1917 (Janvrin); 
December 25, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. A common transient at Ossining (Fisher 
and Brandreth); now very rare elsewhere. 

Central Park. Casual on the Reservoir, October 30, 

1911 (Griscom and Hi\ ), six birds, two males. They permitted 
a park attendant to row up twice, and shoot two. 

Bronx Region. Very rare; two records. February 21, 
191.5 (L. X. Nichols); December 25, 1921 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Formerly a rare transient at Morristown 
(Thurber). Now very rare or casual. One record on the BoontOD 
Reservoir. April 11, 1920 (Carter). One record near Montclair. 
April 23. 1915 (Howland). One record near Elizabeth, October 
24. 1920 (Urner . 

Englbwood Region. Very rare transient on the Hudson, 
on<- record, March 23, 1913 (W. W. Grant and Griscom ; 
formerly common on Overpeck ('reek, known as "Sleepy- 
head" (notes of Cornelius Demaresl made prior to t880 ; 

recorded casually on the Ice Pond at NordhotT. a pair .July 
31 to August 21, 1909 Hi\ ; Otherwise not recorded until 

1912; now a rare transient, chiefly in spring; October 20, 

1912 Griscom and LaDo* : November 21. L916 (Web 
bet 7. 1917 Weber ; \|.nl :; to May 18, L920 (numerous 

observer- ; March 27 and April 3, 1921 (Griscom and oth 

April 10, ! „«ori, and Laidlaw Willi 



118 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Lesser Snow Goose (Chen hyperboreus hyperboreus) 
This subspecies ranges even further west than the Greater 
Snow Goose, and is of accidental occurrence on the Atlantic 
coast. Two specimens, the dimensions of which fall within 
the limits given for this race, have been taken on Long Island, 
Shinnecock Bay, October 8, 1881, and Montauk Point, 
October 29, 1888. 

Mr. Chas. A. Urner has recorded one out of three birds 
killed on the Newark Marshes by his brother. The skin was 
too damaged for preservation, but the wing measurement 
corresponded to that given for this race. (Auk, 1921, p. 120). 

Greater Snow Goose (Chen hyperboreus nivalis) 
The Snow Goose is a decidedly rare transient on Long 
Island, and of casual occurrence elsewhere. Fortunately it is 
one of our rare species that could hardly be confused with 
any other. I follow Eaton in assuming that all sight records 
refer to this subspecies, as the Lesser Snow Goose is purely 
accidental on the Atlantic coast. 

Long Island. Rare transient, occasional in winter; April 
3 to April 17; September 28 to December (January 30). 

Orient. Rare visitant, October 1889 (Dutcher) to April 
17, 1919. 

Long Beach. Two records, November 24, 1901, several 

flocks seen flying west (reported to Braislin by a member of the 

life-saving crew); April 15, 1917, flock of 25 to 30 flying east 

over the Golf Links (Janvrin). 

New York State. Casual at Ossining, several hundred April 

8, 1882 (Fisher). 

Blue Goose (Chen cxrulescens) 
Another accidental visitant from the Northwest. Eaton 
gives four records for Long Island, one of them a sight 
record by Mr. Arthur H. Helme, who reports a flock of ten 
birds. Two recent captures are given by Grinnell from 
Montauk, a single bird November 1911 and five birds October 
1912. The adult Blue Goose is a dusky grayish bird with a 
white head and upper neck, and is unmistakable in life. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 119 

White-fronted Goose (Anser attnfrons gambeli) 

An accidental visitant from the West. Five specimens 
have been taken on Long Island in October, November, 
and March, and Mr. Arthur H. Holme reports a flock of 
eleven near Miller's Place, April 5, 1883. The generally gray 
color of this Goose, and the white belly, make it readily identifi- 
able in life. 

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) 
Thanks to its wariness the Wild Goose is still a common 
bird on Long Island, and may occasionally be seen flying high 
overhead almost anywhere inland. Few people are insen- 
sible to the charm of the wedge-shaped flock, honking sonor- 
ously as they wing their way northward, bound for some 
remote and unknown destination. 

Long Island. Common transient, regularly wintering locally; 
February 1.5 to May 7 (May 16, 1921, Easthampton, W. T. Hel- 
mut h, Jr.); (September 8) October 1 to January. 

Orient. Common transient ; irregular, sometimes common 
in winter. October 4, 1913 to May 5, 1915; average October 
10 to April 22. 

Mastic Fairly common winter visitant. 
Long Beach. Fairly common transient, frequently 
wintering, sometimes in numbers, as in 1911 to 1912 and 1913 
to 1914. Octol>er 7, 1918 (C. H. Lott) to May 7, 1922 (His . 
May 17. 1914 I Bi.-knell and May 29, 1919 M. 8. Crosby); 
earliest spring arrival February 15, 1917 (BickneD . 
New York State. Occasionally seen flying overhead, seldom 
alighting; no longer common on the Hudson. 

( kntkal PABJL Now very rarely seen flying over. May 2, 
1899 (Chub!) ; May 18, 1900 (Chubb ; October 11, 1904 
Six : November 21, 1918 (Chubb . 

Bkonx Region. Rare transient, seldom alighting. October 

L915 Mix and L N. Nichols] to December 22, 1909 (Gris- 

com and LaDow ; March 13. 1915 and March 15, L920 b. 

( l. and L. X. Nichok . 

New Jersey. Still regular transient, but seldom alighting. 

throughout our area. Fairly common at Montdair (Howland ; 

regular a< Boonton Carter ; uncommon on Newark Bay (Urner). 



\\\oi A l ID LIST OF l ill. BIRD8 i 2 1 

EjNglbwood Region. [Jnoommon transient, rarely alight- 
ing. October 7. 1 ( .H7 'Johnson and Rogers) to December • >. 
1919 Bowdish : March 18, L911 (Griscom) to May 3, 1914 
I rriscom . 

Brant (Branta bernicla glaucogastra) Pig. 7. 
The Brant is not hard to distinguish from its bigger 

relative. The wing heats are more rapid, the honking is less 
sonorous, and it is generally darker forward, with more white 
on the tail coverts. While a common bird on Long Island, it 
is more marine than the ( 'anada (loose, and alights in numbers 
in comparatively few places. Fisher records it as accidental 
at Ossining, and Mr. Courtenay Brandreth informs me that 
another was shot there in November, 1920. These are our 
only inland records. 

Long Island. Common transient, uncommon in winter. 

February 15 to May 28; (September 29) October 26 to January 1. 

Okiknt. Common winter visitant at Gardiner's Island; 

rare and irregular at Orient. November 25, 1912 to April 13, 

1919. 

Mastic. Uncommon. 

Long Beach. Uncommon transient, occasionally winter- 
ing. October 26, 1919 (Janvrin) to May 18, 1913 (Hix ; 
earliest spring arrival February 12. 1020 (Bicknell); casual in 
the fall as early as September 20, 1021 (Bicknell and October 
12. 1017 Bicknell . 

Black Brant (Branta nigricans) 
An accidental visitant from the far west. There are three 
record- for Long [aland; [slip, L840, Babylon, spring of L889, 
and near Babylon, March 31, L908 (Herrick, Auk. L908, p. 

the la-t apparently overlooked by Katon. 

Barnacle Goose (Brania leucapsis) 

An accidental vi>itant from Europe. There are two 

records for Long Island; Jamaica Bay, about October 20. 
1876 and Fire bland, October 12 to Pi. L919. See Forest 
and Stream, March 1920 



122 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Whistling Swan (Olor columbianus) 
In colonial times apparently a regular transient, now a 
very rare or casual visitant. There are only four definite 
records for Long Island, as summarized by Eaton, the dates 
ranging between November 5 and January 1. Casual at 
Scarboro late November, 1897 (Gerald H. Thayer). See 
page 382 for discussion of Mute Swan. 

Long Island. Very rare or casual transient, November 5 to 
January 1. 

Orient. Several records in fall and winter; November 15, 
1915 to February 7, 1914. [There is the possibility that one or 
more of these sight records may refer to the Mute Swan 
L. G.] 

White Ibis (Guam alba) 
Accidental visitant from the southern states. Two old 
records for Long Island, summer of 1836, and early March 
1843. 

Glossy Ibis (Plegadis autumnahs) 
Accidental visitant from the South. Two old records for 
Long Island, September 12, 1847 and October 10, 1848. 

Wood Ibis (Mycteria americana) 
Accidental visitant from the South. One record for Long 
Island in the Orient region, East Marion, June 21, 1890. 

American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) 
This shy and retiring Heron is still a fairly common tran- 
sient in our area in suitable localities, but is steadily decreas- 
ing as a summer resident, due to the constant draining and 
improvement of marsh lands. Those observers, who would 
really know the Bittern, must seek out a cat-tail marsh or 
reedy bog, and be prepared to get both wet and muddy. The 
bird may sometimes be located by its "pumping" in the 
spring, but this is rarely heard during the day. Many 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 123 

observers confuse young Night Herons with Bitterns. The 
latter have black-tipped wings, sharply streaked necks, and a 
buffy-brown, rather than a grayish-brown color effect. 

Bitterns arrive on their breeding grounds about the middle 
of April. Migrants can be found up to the end of May. In 
October and November they are common, and more generally 
distributed than any other time of the year. 

Long Island. Common transient, rare and local summer 
resident, rare in winter. (April 3) April 16 to November 18 (rarely 
to December and January). Nest with two young and two eggs 
found June 14, 1914 on Jones Beach (R. L. Peavey), and another 
found in the same place May 27, 1922 (Crosby, Griscom, Janvrin, 
Johnson). 

Orient. Formerly common, now a rare transient; one 
breeding record, Orient, 1910; occasionally winters. April 3, 
1907 to May 10, 1917; July 25, 1909 to December 6, 1912. 
Mastic. Fairly common transient, rare summer resident. 
Long Beach. Apparently uncommon in the spring, April 
12, 1917(Bicknell) to June 9, 1921 and July 7, 1921 (Bicknell); 
regular in the fall, August 16, 1919 (Hix and Rogers) to De- 
cember 24, 1920 (Bicknell); the 1921 dates indicate that the 
bird doubtless breeds. 
New York State. Now a rare transient in our area, and prob- 
ably extirpated as a summer resident. 

Central Park. Casual transient; May 10, 1886 (E. T. 
Adney); May 10, 1898 (S. H. Chubb); April 19, 1903 (C. G. 
Abbott and M. S. Crosby); May 17, 1917 (Janvrin). 

Bronx Region. Now a rare transient. Bred in 1917 in a 
swamp near the Gun Hill Road R. R. station. An early arrival 
date is April 5, 1913 (G. Kingsley Noble). Noted October 14, 
1905 (Hix) in a locality long since destroyed. 
New Jersey. In our area a fairly common transient, wherever 
suitable conditions still exist. Still 1 tree* ling locally near New York 
City, and increasing northwestward. In the more remote sections 
of Sussex and Warren Counties, almost every marsh, swamp, or 
bog contains a pair, and there is much suitable territory unex- 
plored, hut I have never Been it in the higher swamps of the Kit- 
Tatinv Ridge, Bearfort, or Wawayanda Mountains. Earliest spring 
arrival April 3, 1921 near Plainfield (Miller . 

i.kwooi) Region. Regular transient, commonest in 
fall; probably breeds in the Overpeck Marshes, where it has 




[Photograph by A. A. Allen 



Fig. 8. Least Bittern. 



124 



ANNOTATED LIST 01 THE BIRDS 125 

been heard pumping in June (Griscom and Weber). April 
13. 1914 (Bowdish) to May 18, 1919 (Griseom)j September 
25, 1921 Griseom and Johnson] to December 9, L919 (Weber). 

Least Bittern (Ixobrychus evil is) Fig;. 8. 

Few of our birds are more secretive and more easily over- 
looked than the Least Bittern. It prefers dense cat -tail 
marshes, and it is ordinarily a pure " fluke," if it is seen flying 
a short distance just above the reeds. As a result, its exact 
distribution and migration period in the region is unknown. 
Moreover, it is one of our breeding species which is apparently 
casual as a migrant away from its nesting grounds. 

Fifteen years ago several colonies were known near New 
York ( 'it v. and it was properly regarded as a common summer 
resident . The territory, however, on Long Island City and at 
Coney Island is now destroyed. Observers should make 
particular efforts to discover breeding colonies of this species, 
as much suitable marsh land remains, which has never been 
carefully explored. 

Long Island. Formerly a very local summer resident, but 
locally common. All the breeding stations near New York City 
now destroyed. Probably breeds on Jones Beach. Casual else- 
where. (April 27) May 14 to September 12, 1921 at Shinnecock 
C. Johnston) and September 21, 1922 at Lawrence (H. F. Stone). 
sua! December 12. 1895, Long Island City, specimen now in the 
American Museum. 

ORIENT. Casual transient, June 4, 1907. 
MYSTIC. Very rare transient, May 14, 1916 and August 
23, 1919. 

Long Beach. Casual, May 26, 1918 (Janvrin) and May 
30, 1918 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Status in our area not fully known. Un- 
known on Btaten Island (Chapin . Still breeds near Oaaining 
Brandreth). 

Brow Region. Bred in the swamp in Van Cortlandl 
Park in 1918 (Chubb and Lewis), noted first on May 30; 

reported in July, 1921 in ■ swamp north of Van Cortlandl 

(Bernard Fread, a young observer whose testimony in tbia 

. was convincing); noted Sep te mber 19, 1915 :it Clason 



126 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Point (L. N. Nichols). Formerly bred in the marshes near 
Dyckman Street, these localities now destroyed. 
New Jersey. The Newark Marshes colony explored by 
Messrs. Hann, Callender and Abbott is now destroyed. There 
are, however, vast stretches of the Newark and Hackensack 
marshes which are unexplored. Reported years ago as nesting at 
Morristown (Thurber), Paterson (J. H. Clark), Summit (Holmes, 
who found no nests). We do not know whether the bird is still to 
be found in these localities. Further north and west the Least 
Bittern breeds definitely near Newton, along the Paulin Kill. 

Englewood Region. Rare summer resident on the Over- 
peck Creek marshes. Found breeding twice (Weber), and 
specimen taken August 31, 1917; noted in late May, 1919 
(Rogers). 

Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias herodias) 
The Great Blue Heron, often called the Crane, is found 
throughout our area, as a transient, but is always commonest 
near the coast and of more general occurrence in fall. While 
occasionally noted in late June and early July, no definite 
breeding colony is known, but such may be looked for on 
Long Island and in extreme northern New Jersey. 

Long Island. Common transient; occasional in winter and 
also in summer; probably a rare and local breeder, but no definite 
colony known. March 24, 1910, Gardiner's Island (Griscom and 
LaDow) to June 12; July 12 to December 2, 1911, Gardiner's 
Island (Griscom, LaDow, Miller). 

Orient. Not common transient; rarely winters; recorded 
in summer. March 24, 1910 to June 12, 1914, average arrival 
April 10; July 12, 1909 to December 27, 1913. 

Mastic. Common transient, uncommon in winter, rare in 
summer, does not breed. 

Long Beach. Regular transient ; April 2, 1914 (Bicknell) 

to May 30, 1916 (Hix and L. N. Nichols) and June 28, 1917 

(Bicknell); July 9, 1916 (Bicknell) to December 7, 1916 

(Bicknell) ; several mid-winter records. 

New York State. Now a rare transient in our area, as settled 

conditions have destroyed its haunts. 

Central Park. Casual visitant; three records, August 9, 
1915 (Hix); May 17, 1917 (L. N. Nichols); September 1, 1917 
(Hix). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 127 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; April 8, 1917 (L. N. 

Nichols) to May 26, 1912 (L. N. Nichols); September 21, 

1919 (L. X. Nichols) to December 28, 1912 (Hix). 

New Jersey. So far as known an uncommon but regular 

transient throughout, but locally rare where sizable marshes or 

swamps are lacking. May possibly be found breeding. Extreme 

fall dates are July 4, 1920 to December 18, 1921 near Elizabeth 

(Urner). Recorded in mid-winter near Plainfield (Miller). 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient; July 16, 
March 29, 1914 (J. T. Nichols) to May 12, 1912 (Griscom); 
July 16, 1921 (Bernard Fread) to November 13, 1914 (J. T. 
Nichols). 

American Egret (Herodias egretta) 
In Giraud's day the Egret was regarded as an occasional 
summer visitor to Long Island, and bred in southern New 
Jersey. Plume hunters in the next sixty years reduced it to 
the verge of extinction, and it became a rare bird everywhere, 
while on Long Island it was definitely recorded only seven 
times between 1880 and 1900. However, adequate protection 
was afforded it in time in the South, and since 1915 it has 
showed a marked increase in this region, and probably occurs 
every summer on the south shore of Long Island. Away from 
the coast it is a very rare or casual visitor. Its pure white 
plumage and its size make it one of the most beautiful and 
conspicuous of our birds. 

Long Island. Rare summer visitant, probably occurring every 
year; about July 1 to October 1. 

Orient. Rare summer visitant; July 13, 1920 to August 
20, 1906. 

M ubttc. Rare summer visitant. 

Long Beach. August 14, 1921 (Friedmann) and reported 

several days later by a coast guard. 

New York State. One record near Ossining years ago (Fisher ; 
Mr. Brandretfa knows of two recent occurrences, the last in Sep- 
tember 1921, and has heard reports of five others baying been seen. 
Bronx Region. Three birds appeared July 16, 1916, in a 
small swamp just south of the Van Cortland! Park Subway 
station, and wen- discovered by Mr. 8. 1 1. Chubb. They be- 
came entirely accustomed to the crowd- and the roar of the 



128 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

traffic, and were successfully photographed with kodaks by 

several people. One remained until October 9. The next year 

a single bird reappeared, and was present July 19 to August 5 

(S. H. Chubb). 

New Jersey. Rare or casual summer visitor. Stone in the 

Birds of New Jersey (1909) gives only one record for our area, near 

Ridgewood, July 1902. Other records are Sussex, August 7, 1911 

(Kuser) and Bernardsville, August 5, 1915 (Kuser). C. C. Owen 

reports two shot at Maplewood, July 27, 1897. This record is 

given under the Little Blue Heron by Dr. Stone without explanation. 

One record near Raritan (Miller). Least rare on the marshes of 

Newark Bay; flock of 20 summer of 1907; August 4, 1917; July 

31 to September 18, 1921 (Urner). Two seen near Branchville, 

Sussex County, August 4, 1918 (G. Clyde Fisher, Auk, 1919, p. 101). 

Louisiana Heron (Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis) 
This southern species has occurred accidentally on one 
occasion on Long Island, a single specimen shot near Pat- 
chogue in the summer of 1836, as reported by Giraud. 

Little Blue Heron (Florida cserulea) 
Like the Egret, the Little Blue Heron is a rare summer 
visitant, perhaps a little commoner than its large relative on 
the coast, but equally rare inland. Strangely enough it 
occurs also very rarely in spring on Long Island, for which 
there is no ready explanation at hand. Adults in the blue 
plumage are much scarcer than white birds. 

There is an unnecessary amount of confusion in identify- 
ing these Herons. Observers seem inclined to magnify Little 
Blue Herons nto Egrets, and also occasionllay confuse the 
adult Little Blue and the Green Heron. Again small white 
Herons are assumed to be Snowy Egrets, a species long since 
extirpated in the northeastern states, and I have accepted 
no sight records of it. A white Little Blue Heron has green- 
ish-yellow legs and feet, the Snowy Egret has black legs and 
yellow feet, and it requires very close range to determine this 
accurately. Any small white Heron may safely be called a 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 129 

Little Blue. It should be remembered thai an Egret is about 
as big as a Great Blue Heron in life, and appears about twice 
size of a Little Blue. The Little Blue Heron appears 
slightly smaller in life than the Nighl Heron, but almost 
twice as big as a Green Heron. 

Long Island. Rare summer visitant. July 3 to September 5, 
1922 Montauk (Griscom and LaDow); very rare in spring; six 
records, April 3 to May (>. 

Orient. Rare summer visitant, July 3, 1920 to August 30, 
1916. 

Mastic. Uncommon summer visitant. July 15, 1917 to 
September; very rare in spring, May 6, 1916 (J. T. Nichols 
and Griscom). 

Long Beach. The coast guard men report having seen 
"small White Herons" on several occasions (Bicknell). 
New York State. Very rare or casual summer visitant, only 
one record, July 19, 1914, Staten Island (H. H. Cleaves). 

New Jersey. Rare or casual summer visitant. Reported at 
Lake Hopatcong, July 18, 1914 (R. F. Haulenbeck). Three records 
near Plainfield. the last a flock of 24, August 20, 1922 (Miller). 
Three birds near Elizabeth, August 29 to September 12, 1920; 
three more in the same place July 31, 1921; another on the salt 
marahea of Newark Bay, August 5, 1921 (Urner). 

Km.lewood Region. A white Heron with greenish legs, 
reported to J. T. Nichols at Oradell by Lewis W. Robinson 
some years ajr<>. is apparently this species. 

Green Heron (Butorides rirescens) Fig. 9 
This is our commonest and most widely distributed Heron, 
breeding contentedly almost anywhere where there is some 
water, and it is equally partial to salt and fresh. Its harsh 
call "ke-ow" i> more often heard than the bird is seen, but 
satisfactorily betrays its presence. Especially in August 
Green Herons are often heard migrating at night in extra- 
ordinary numbers. A few arrive the latter part of April, 
but the bulk of the breeding bird- do not arrive until the first 
week in May, and migrants are passing throughout the month. 
The Green Heron starts moving south early in August, and 
only stragglers remain after September 1 •">. 




Photograph by A. A. Allen 



Fig. 9. Green Heron. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS L31 

Long Island. Common summer resident. April 7 to October 
13, casually to November 1. Hare before April 20. 

Orient. Common summer resident, April 22, 1917 to 
November 1, 1908. Average, April 28 to October 5. 
M \stic. Common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Present throughout the summer, as it 
breeds nearby; April 7, 1917 (Janvrin) to October 12, 1917 
(Bicknell); rarely seen in April.. 
New York State. Still to be found nesting in the less settled 
portions of the area, regular on migration throughout. 

Central Park. A regular but uncommon transient, seen 
every spring and fall. April 25, 1921 (Granger) to May 29, 
L909 (Griscom); August 11, 1913 (Griscom) to September 26, 
L921 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Now a local summer resident, regular in 

migration. April 18, 1917 (L. N. Nichols) to October 12, 1911 

Wiegmann and Rogers). 

New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. Noted 

April 9, 1922 and October 12. 1917 in the Newark Marshes (Urner). 

Iv\(.lewood Region. Common summer resident, April 

13, 1913 (Griscom and N. F. Lenssen) to September 24, 1887 

(Chapman). 



Black-crowned Night Heron {Nycticorax nycticorax naevius I 

This species is common on Long Island and in all the 
coastal marshes, but inland occurs only as an uncommon 
migrant or local summer resident. Its usual habit is to nest 
in large rookeries. Such are unknown in our area at the 
•it time, and it is probable that the birds now breed at 
leasl in -mailer aggregations as a matter of safety. The 
harsh "quawk" of the Night Heron is often heard from the 
Bkyal eight, and cannot be mistaken for the note of any other 
bird. Immature birds are sometimes mistaken for Bitterns. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, rare in winter. No 

large rookeries now known. En fad the nesting of the Night Eeron 

mmetbing of a mystery. The few small nesting colonies located 

<1<> not account for the multitudes in every marsh on the island. 
March 16) April 6 to October 20 (December 1 . 



132 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Orient. Common summer resident, occasionally winters. 
March 16, 1902 to November 21, 1920. Average April 6 to 
October 25. 

Mastic. Common summer resident. 

Long Beach. Common in the marshes all summer; April 
28, 1921 (Bicknell) to October 30, 1921 (Janvrin and Johnston). 
New York State. No definite breeding colony known, but 
found all summer in the coastal marshes. 

Central Park. Regular transient, April 16, 1917 (Jan- 
vrin) to June 2, 1913 (Hix); August 4, 1908 (Griscom) to 
October 17, 1904 (Hix) . One old December record many years 
ago (Woodruff and Paine) ; occasionally found roosting in the 
Park during the summer. 

Bronx Region. Now a common permanent resident. In 
recent years increasing numbers of these birds have wintered 
around the lake in the Zoological Garden. No definite breed- 
ing colony known, but found throughout the summer in the 
marshes along the Sound. 
New Jersey. Common near the coast, decreasing inland, and 
rare or unknown in the hill country of the northern and western 
counties. I do not know whether the old rookeries near Morristown 
and Summit still exist. A colony of 50 pairs located in 1922 near 
Boonton (Carter). Another rookery near Picton (Miller). Earliest 
arrival March 22, 1922 in the Newark Marshes (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient visitant, and 
recorded in summer. April 5, 1914 (Bowdish) to November 8, 
1914 (Rogers); also December 3, 1915 (R. S. Lemmon). No 
definite breeding colony known. 

Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Nyctanassa violacea) 
A casual visitant from the South. Eaton cites four speci- 
mens taken on Long Island, chiefly in April. There are two 
additional sight records of adult birds, which are unmistak- 
able in life; another specimen, previously unrecorded, was 
shot July 7, 1902 at Coney Island by A. Finck and presented 
to this Museum; there is also a specimen in the Dwight col- 
lection, shot on Shelter Island July 31, 1903 by W. W. 
Worthington. 

Orient Region. Three records. Specimen taken in the 
fall about 1892; one observed May 4 to 7, 1905, and another 
April 9, 1912. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 133 

Mr. (has. A. Truer obtained most satisfactory studies of 
an immature bird on the Newark Marshes, August 16 and 
September 3, 1922. It was with the common Night Heron 
on both occasions. His report on the first occasion was 
immediately recognizable, and specimens in the Museum 
were thoroughly studied and compared. The observation of 
September 3 was, therefore, as conclusive as possible. 

King Rail (Rail us elegans) 

The exact status in this territory of the largest and most 
brightly colored of our Rails is still a matter of speculation. It 
is apparently excessively shy and secretive, and is unques- 
tionably more numerous than the few records would indicate. 

Long Island. Perhaps a rare summer resident, but there is no 
definite breeding record. Also occasional in winter. Dutcher 
records four specimens. Of these two were taken in summer, one 
on November 2, 1886, and the fourth struck Montauk Point 
Light on the remarkable date of March 3, 1887. Braislin (1907) 
was only able to add that he had heard of several instances where 
large and brightly colored Rails had been secured in autumnal 
rail-bird "shoots," but impossible of absolute identification. Only 
four other records have come to light since. On May 31, 1922, 
however, Mr. F. M. Schott found the nest and nine eggs of a large 
Rail in a fresh water cat-tail marsh near Astoria. Most unfortu- 
nately no bird was seen. I have examined these eggs, and while I 
could not identify them positively, the habitat is highly unlikely 
for a Clapper Rail. 

Orient. Known only as a rare winter visitant; December 
8, 1904; December 28, 1919; January 22, 1919 (See Auk, 
1920, p. 306). 

Mastic. One record, May 12, 1918. 

Unknown elsewhere in New York State in our area. 
New Jersey. Practically unknown in our area. A neat re- 
ported found in 1895 on the Passaic River below Summit ill. H. 
Hann), but the data given are unsatisfactory. Reported from the 
marshes of Newark Hay near Klizabethport . May 21, 1921 (Urner). 
A DCSt and nine eggs found in the Great Swamp about 1900 La- 
Rue K. Holm 

FLEWOOD RjBGION. One record, a male eaught in a 

muskrat trap December 11, 1919 (Weber) in the Qverpeck 



134 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Marshes. Local gunners call the King Rail regular in the fall, 
but the bird they mean is the Florida Gallinule. (Weber) 

Clapper Rail (Rallus crepitans) 
A common summer resident in our salt marshes, often 
heard but seldom seen. It is the noisiest of our Rails, calling 
throughout the day as well as at night, and one bird will often 
start a whole colony going. A few birds arrive early in April, 
but the bulk of the summer resident population does not 
arrive until the last of the month. 

Long Island. A common summer resident on the western end 
of the island, but rare east of Shinnecock. April 3 to December 5; 
occasional in winter. 

Orient. One breeding record; otherwise a rare, irregular 
visitant, occurring at any time of year. 
Mastic. No record. 

Long Beach. Common summer resident. Reported by the 

life-saving crew as heard calling March 21, 1919; otherwise not 

recorded until mid-April; noted November 2, 1915 (L. N. 

Nichols); one winter record, two birds January 28, 1912, one 

captured alive (Cleaves and Griscom). 

New York State. Probably still to be found on Staten Island, 

but most of the salt marsh now destroyed. Unrecorded from the 

salt marshes of the Sound in our area. Accidental at Ossining 

(Fisher). 

New Jersey. Rare and decreasing on the salt meadows of 
Newark Bay (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Accidental on the Overpeck Marshes 
September 1, 1913, specimen examined in the flesh by Dr. G. 
Clyde Fisher. 

Virginia Rail (Rallus virginianus) 
This is easily our commonest Rail and is found throughout 
the region in suitable habitats. While its presence is most 
readily detected by its notes, a pig-like grunting in a descend- 
ing scale, and a curious cut, cutta-cutta-cutta, it is more easily 
observed and flushed than any other species. It arrives from 
the south about the third week in April and is rarely seen 
after October. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS L35 

Long Island. Fairly common summer resident, rare in winter. 
April 10 to October 30. 

Orient. Not common summer resident; March 27, 1920 
to November 28, 1906. Frequently observed in winter. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Rare transient; April 28, 1921; May 6, 
1921; August 11. 1921 to September 22, 1921 (all by Bicknell). 
New York State. Still breeds where its habitats have not 
been destroyed. 

Bronx Region*. Now a rare and local summer resident. 

Formerly nested in the marshes around Dyckman Street 

Weber) and at West Farms up to 1910 (Griscom). These 

localities now totally destroyed. Still breeds in the swamp at 

Van Cortlandt Park, arrival April 26, 1921 (R. Friedmann). 

New Jersey. A summer resident throughout, where suitable 

habitats prevail. More generally distributed and locally less 

numerous northward and westward. The latest date before me is 

October 23, 1921 on the Newark meadows (Frner). 

EngLEWOOO Region. Common summer resident in the 
Overpeck Marshes. April 17. 1921 (Griscom and Johnson) to 
October 15, 1922 (His . 



Sora (Porzana Carolina) Fig. 10 

The status of the Sora in our territory still awaits satis- 
faetory determination. Until quite recently it nested in some 
of the marshes near New York City, but these are now 
destroyed. It i> besi known as a fall migrant in the larger 
marshes where wild rice grows, but is rare or undetected in 
spring. It should be found nesting in the marshes of northern 
New Jersey. The I hrerpeck Marshes are an excellent locality 
for this specie- in August and September, if the student is 
willing to splash around in the muck and reeds. When 
flushed, it closely resembles a Virginia Had in size and color, 
but lack- the rufous wing-coverts, and has ;i short, -traight 
bill instead of a long, curved one. In spring or early summer 
the call- betray a breeding colony, a clear whistled ker-wee, 

and a high-pitched whinny, suggesting a Semipalmated 
Sandpiper. 



136 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 



Long Island. Common transient, at least in the fall, for- 
merly breeding locally, and perhaps still doing so; rare in winter. 
April 28 to May; August to October 24. 

Orient. Rare fall transient. September 20, 1904 to 
September 30, 1914. 

Mastic. Uncommon fall transient. 

Long Beach. Casual; September 1 and 29, 1921 (Bicknell) 
and October 12, 1921 (Griscom, Johnson, and Johnston). 
New York State. Now extirpated as a summer resident, and 
very rare as a migrant, its haunts almost totally destroyed. Per- 
haps still to be found on Staten Island in the fall. Noted there 
April 27, 1907 (Chapin). 




Photograph by A. A. Allen 



Fig. 10. Sora. 



Bronx Region. Extirpated as a summer resident; only 
one recent record, August 15, 1917 (Chubb). 
New Jersey. An abundant transient in fall in the wild rice 
marshes, and perhaps breeding locally. Noted May 30, 1912 in 
the marshes south of Carlstadt (Griscom). Seen in summer at 
Singac, near Paterson (Miller). Breeds in the marshes of the 
Paulin Kill, near Newton, Sussex Co. (Hix, Rogers), and should be 
found in other favorable places in that part of the State. 

Englewood Region. Abundant fall transient, July 31, 
1887 (Chapman) to October 31, 1909 (Griscom and LaDow); 
a Rail flushed December 18, 1920 was probably but not 
positively this species (Weber). 



\\\<) l A rED LIST 01 THE BIRE8 \'M 

Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) 
This Kail is easily recognized in life by its small size, 
general yellowish appearance, and the white wing-patches. 
It is so secretive and so hard to flush, that the observer who 

has seen it in life may well consider himself fortunate. There 
can be no question that it is overlooked, but all suppositions 
that it nests anywhere in our area are absolutely unsupported 
by facts, and are contrary to the bird's known breeding range. 
It prefers grassy rather than cat-tail marshes, and is more 
frequent in fall than in spring. 

Long Island. Uncommon fall transient, August 30 to 
November 11; one winter record, January 17, 1894; apparently 
rare in spring, only two records; March 31, 1921, one found dead 
in a yard in Brooklyn and brought to the Brooklyn Museum; 
and April 29, 1887. 

Orient. One record, September 26, 1909. 
Long Beach. One flushed August 30, 1921 (Bicknell). 
Unknown otherwise in New York State in our area. 
New Jersey. Recorded by Thurber (1887) as very rare at 
Morristown on the authority of a Mr. Fairfield. One record at 
Hackensack, September 30, 1893 (George Richards). The only 
recent records for northern New Jersey are on the Overpeck 
Marshes. 

Englewood Region. Noted four times in 1920 between 
October 4 and November 25; specimen taken October 11 
Weber). 

Little Black Rail (Creciscus jamaia msis) Fig. 11 
One of the least known of North American birds, and 
harder to observe and study than a field mouse. It seems to 
prefer grassy meadow-. On the few occasions in life I have 

seen it on the wing, it looked about the size of a Bong Sparrow, 
or half the size of a Sora, which it resembles in shape and 
general color. In our area it is known definitely only from 
Long Island. 

Long Island. Seven records; Jamaica, spring of 1879; 
Cananie, spring 1884; South Oyster Bay , August 1,1884 Speci- 
meni taken in all three cases. Flushed in a grassy marsh on Jones 




J I 



a. * 






a> oo 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 139 

Beach, May 24, 1914 (Griscom, LaDow, and .Johnson, sec Auk, 

1915, p. 227); another flushed in practically the same place on 
Jones Beach, May 23, L 920 (Griscom and Janvrin); one flushed in a 
grassy meadow at Mastic, May 31, 1920 (J. T. Nichols). Two 
other individuals flushed, one of them twice, on the same stretch of 
meadows on Jones Reach, May 28, 1922 (Crosby, Griscom, Janvrin, 
Johnson). These dates are strong presumptive evidence that the 
hird nests on Long Island where it has been seen. The favored 
Jones Beach locality is a stretch of grassy meadow, which is com- 
paratively dry, and bordered by a growth of bushy swamp and 
patches of Phragmiies. Every time parties have spread out 
over this meadow and swept down it from end to end, one or more 
Hails have been flushed. They always fly to the reed-beds, which 
are often a hundred yards from where they are flushed, and where 
they completely disappear. I believe the bird probably nests in 
this thick growth and feeds out in the meadows. All efforts to 
flush it in the thicker growth have been useless, and the old 
"dodges'' of dragging with a rope or using a rake are here 
impossible. 

Corn Crake (Crex crex) 
An accidental visitant from Europe, which has occurred 
three times on Long Island, once in August and twice in 
November. 

Purple Gallinule (Ionomis martinicus) 

Now an accidental wanderer from the South. Eighty 
years ago Giraud regarded this species as extremely rare, but 
( 'nlonel Pike considered it plentiful. There are only two 
specimens in existence from Long Island, the last taken in 
L879. 

Florida Gallinule {Gallinuh (}<il<<d<n 
The Gallinule in tin- territory is an exceedingly local 
summer resident, requiring just the right habitat. It wants. 

apparently, a cat-tail swamp, where the water i- particularly 
deep, and where the dense bods of vegetation give way here 
and there To pond- or open Bpacefi of water. It is unknown or 



140 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

else a rare migrant in any other type of marsh. Unfortunately 
the suitable marshes are almost entirely in the immediate 
vicinity of New York City, and are constantly being drained 
or filled in to "improve" the neighborhood by providing 
another slum district on the outskirts of the metropolis. 
Flushing a Gallinule is very wet and muddy work indeed, 
but where they are known to breed, patient watching of some 
open space of water is at length rewarded by a glimpse of 
one or more birds swimming along the border with bobbing 
head and cocked-up tail. At such times they can be told 
from Coot by the bright red frontal shield and yellow-tipped 
bill, which are whitish in the latter. It is practically impos- 
sible to distinguish immature birds in life except under favor- 
able circumstances. Gallinules are much browner. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient. Bred formerly in the 
marshes of Long Island in several places; these localities now 
destroyed. At the present time no definite breeding colony known. 
Our earliest date in spring, May 20, does not represent the arrival 
of the species accurately. Latest fall date October 28. October is 
the likeliest month for migrants. 
Orient. Unknown. 
Mastic. Unknown. 
Long Beach. Unknown. 
New York State. Rare summer resident formerly at Ossining 
(Fisher); unknown now. Only one recent record. 

Bronx Region. One record, October 7, 1905 (Wiegmann 
and Hix) in a large swamp at West Farms, now long since des- 
troyed. No suitable habitat is believed to exist in this area 
at the present time. 
New Jersey. A colony discovered in 1906 in the Newark 
Marshes by Messrs. Abbott, Callender, and Hann. The only 
definite arrival date for this colony is April 16, 1910 (Griscom and 
LaDow). This section of the marshes is now destroyed. In July, 
1920 Mr. Charles H. Rogers discovered young Gallinules in suit- 
able marshes east of Kingsland, and in June 1922, adults and nest- 
lings were seen several times along the Erie R. R. just west of New 
Durham (Griscom). There is every reason to hope that Gallinules 
may be found nesting in other sections of the Hackensack Marshes, 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 141 

many of which are still unspoiled and unexplored. Thurber (1887) 
calls the Gallinule B rare summer visitor at Morristown, but gives 
no data, and there are no specimens in his collection. Formerly 
common in summer in the marshes near Elizabethport, last nesting 
in 1910 (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Apparently a rare but regular fall 
transient, and called King Rail by local gunners. Two birds 
collected August 31, 1917 may have bred (Weber), but the 
type of marsh is not suitable. Migrating dates are September 
17, 1921, and about October 15, 1910, birds shot in both cases. 

American Coot (Fulica americana) 
The Coot is best known in our area as a common transient 
on the bays and ponds of eastern Long Island. It also occurs 
regularly on the Hackensack Marshes in New Jersey. Else- 
where it is now rare or casual. One of the surprises of local 
ornithology was the discovery of a breeding colony in the 
Newark Marshes, as the bird does not nest in New England, 
and is rare and local in western New York. It is decidedly 
rare in spring, most likely to be noted about the middle of 
April. In the fall it is most numerous in October and 
November. 

Long Island. A transient, rare in spring, common in fall. 
Occurs chiefly on the larger bays of the South Shore and the ponds 
at the eastern end. Rare or casual elsewhere. Three winter records 
(Mastic and Mont auk;. Noted June 28 at Long Island City years 
ago, and may well have bred there with the Gallinules, but definite 
evidence lacking. Single birds have been noted on two other occa- 
sions in summer, August 15 at Moriches (Braislin) and July 4, 1919 
at Mastic (J. T. Nichols and R. C. Murphy). These occurrences 
are probably casual, and are not satisfactory evidence of breeding, 
as the localities arc unsuitable. March 23 to May 4; September 15 
to December 26. 

Orient. A common transient on Gardiner's Island (Gris- 
com), rare at Orient (Latham). April 5, 1912, Gardiner's 
Island (Griscomand Harper); October 20, 19(H), Orient (Harry 
< .. Latham; to December 3, 1911, Gardiner's Island (Griscom, 
LaDow, and Miller , 

MYSTIC. Transient visitant, rare in spring, common in 
fall; casual in summer; two winter records. May 4, 1 * » 1 * * ; 



142 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

September 15, 1918 to December 26, 1921 a flock; February 
12, 1916 a single bird; July 4, 1919. 

Long Beach. Casual migrant, April 21, 1912 (Griscom). 
New York State. Regarded as a common transient at Ossin- 
ing years ago (Fisher) ; now very rare in our area. 

Central Park. Casual many years ago. No records 
under modern conditions. 

Bronx Region. Now a very rare or casual migrant, the 

favorable habitats destroyed or ruined. October 7, 1905 

(Wiegmann and Hix) to November 11, 1916 (Hix). 

New Jersey. Thurber (1887) recorded the Coot as a rare 

breeder at Morristown, but gave no data. Found nesting with 

Gallinules in the Newark Marshes, May 30, 1907 by C. G. Abbott. 

Seen there as early as April 16, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow). As 

already noted in several places, this locality is now destroyed. 

This ends our knowledge of the Coot as a breeding bird in northern 

New Jersey. In various parts of the Hackensack Marshes it is a 

regular fall transient, but rare or unknown in spring. Seen April 

19, 1914 in the marshes east of Kingsland (Griscom). A rare 

transient at Montclair (Howland). We have no knowledge of its 

occurrence farther north and west, but it should be looked for on 

the larger lakes and marshes in the fall. 

Englewood Region. Fairly common in October on Over- 
peck Creek, unknown in spring. September 25, 1921 (Griscom 
and Johnson) to November 4, 1916 (Weber). 

Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) 
Phalaropes are Shore-birds that are able to swim, and 
during their migrations are among the most pelagic of our 
birds, occurring sometimes in great flocks one hundred or more 
miles from land. Near the coast, however, they are rare or 
uncommon, and their presence is usually due to storms. The 
Red Phalarope is either more pelagic than the Northern, or 
else it is less numerous, as there are a scant twenty records of 
its occurrence on Long Island. In spring plumage the two 
species are unmistakable, but in the fall they closely resemble 
each other, and can only be distinguished at close range b} T the 
different proportions of the bill, relative^ stout and thick at 
the base in the Red, excessively slender and needle-like in the 
Northern. 



144 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Rare or uncommon transient, April 30 to June 
5; August to November 28. An exceedingly early specimen, 
previously unrecorded, taken March 25, 1913 at Shelter Island by 
W. W. Worthington, now in the Dwight Collection. 
Mastic. One record. 

Long Beach. One shot in November 1890 (N. T. Law- 
rence); an adult female in full plumage on June 3, 1922 was 
watched "for 20 minutes at from 20 to 50 feet. ...the bird 
had been wounded and was unable to stand, alternately ffying 
and coming to rest on its breast" (Charles Johnston). 
New York State. Casual at Ossining, October 14, 1919, 
specimen taken by Courtenay Brandreth, and presented to the 
American Museum. 

New Jersey. Casual; one shot on the Hackensack River, June 
27, 1863 by C. C. Abbott, 

Northern Phalarope (Lobipes lobatus) Fig. 12 
This species occurs on the coast much more frequently 
than the Red Phalarope. When such a bird is found, it is 
usually riding lightly on the water, instead of standing on the 
shore with other Sandpipers. Compared with species of its 
own size, it is much slenderer in build, with a longer neck and 
slenderer bill than any Sandpiper. It is usually exceedingly 
tame. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient; (April 2) April 27 
to June 3; August 5 to October 22. 

Orient. One record, September 27, 1908. 
Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. One record, September 4, 1921 (Friedmann). 
New York State. Shot once, seen about six times in the last 
fifteen years near Ossining (Brandreth). 

Bronx Region. Casual; one record, August 26, 1911, on 
the flats near Watson's Woods at West Farms (Hix), a locality 
since destroyed. 

Wilson's Phalarope (Steganopus tricolor) 
This species of the western plains has occurred too often 
on Long Island to be regarded as accidental, but is certainly 
one of our rarest and most irregular fall transients. There is 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE HIKDS 145 

one spring record. It is thus in the same class as the Orange- 
crowned Warbler and the Philadelphia Vireo. It was known 

to Giraud as a rare bird in 1844. Fortunately it is not 
particularly difficult to distinguish this species from a North- 
ern Phalarope. It lacks the conspicuous white stripe in the 
wing of that species and is almost uniform fuscous-brown 
above, while the Northern Phalarope is distinctly variegated 
or streaked with blackish and whitish. Wilson's is also 
Blightly larger. 

Long Island. Very rare and irregular fall transient, 9 records, 
August 15 to October 15; casual in spring, June 1, 1887. 

Mastk . Twice, September 21, 1918 and August 23, 1920, 
single birds flocking with Lesser Yellowlegs. 

A very tame bird seen by Newbold T. Lawrence swimming 
in the East River at the foot of Pine Street October 15, 1879. 

Avocet (Rccurrirostra americana) 
A century ago this striking Shore-bird bred on the coast 
of New Jersey and was an occasional visitor to the shores of 
Long Island according to Giraud. Two specimens are in 
existence, the last taken in 1847. Dr. Stone records a few 
specimens in New Jersey up to 1908, but Eaton very properly 
regarded the Avocet as extinct in New York State. It is 
therefore with great pleasure that I can record a specimen 
which Mr. Roy Latham discovered August 1."), 1908 at 
< Mient. and which remained for a week. 

Woodcock (Philohela minor) 
The Woodcock is still a fairly common summer resident in 
the unsettled portions of the region, but is steadily decreasing. 
As ;t migrant it still occurs in places where it has ceased to 
breed. Flight- -till occur in the fall, but the great Qumbere of 
former day- are ;t thing of the past. It should be Looked for in 

low wooded areas, where soft mud afford- it a good feeding 

ground, and where countless borings are an evidence of its 

QCe. Sharp-eyed indeed is he wl, Woodcock on 



146 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

the ground. Ordinarily we get a glimpse of a dim brown 
shape with a long bill, a large head, a stocky build, and 
broader wings than any other Shore-bird. It is one of the 
first species to arrive in spring, and starts mating and nesting 
almost immediately. The harsh peent of the aerial perform- 
ance, heard at dusk, is responsible for the early Nighthawk 
records ! 

Long Island. Fairly common summer resident, occasional in 
winter; February 22 to December 8. 

Okient. Rare and local summer resident, more frequent 
during migration; recorded in winter. April 1, 1914 to 
December 7, 1919. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Casual during migration; October 30, 1919 
(Crosby); October 30, 1921 (Bicknell and Johnston); March 
3, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Still nesting locally on Staten Island and 
in northern Westchester County. Bewildered birds sometimes 
fly into shop windows in New York City. One found dead at the 
base of the Museum building, December 14, 1921. 

Central Park. Casual visitor, less rare fifty years ago; 
April 1, 1894 (Chubb); December 27, 1909 (Rogers); No- 
vember 6, 1917 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common summer resident. 
Still nesting near East Chester and Saw Mill Lane (L. N. 
Nichols). Rare transient elsewhere; April 15, 1916 (L. N. 
Nichols); October 8, 1911 to October 31, 1908 at Van Cort- 
landt Park (Griscom). 
New Jersey. Fairly common summer resident throughout, 
except near the Hudson River, where rare or extirpated. 

Englewood Region. Now a rare summer resident and 
uncommon transient, decreasing steadily. Probably still 
breeds in northern Bergen County, but not found in summer 
near Englewood since 1914 (Griscom). February 14, 1915 
(N. F. Lenssen) to December 31 (R. S. Lemmon). Average 
arrival March 15 to[20; rare after November 15. 

Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata) 
The Snipe is a common transient in our fresh-water 
marshes, occurring regularly in our most inland areas. It is 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 147 

entirely indifferent to brackish water, but is less frequently 
soon in pure salt marsh. It sometimes puts down in swamps, 
and I have even Hushed it from barberry thickets on a dry 
hillside. It flies away with a peculiarly erratic, zig-zag 
flight, uttering a harsh "scape" and the long bill and boldly 
striped appearance above render it unmistakable. Crippled 
birds are reported to have nested many years ago near 
Chatham. X. J. (Herrick), and a nest was more recently 
found near Newfoundland, X. J., by A. Radclyffe Dugmore, 
which is probably a genuine breeding record. Careful 
search may show that the Snipe breeds in locally favorable 
places in northwestern New Jersey. As a migrant the 
species is rare before April 1 and after May 1. In the fall it 
normally arrives with frosty weather in early September and 
lingers until its haunts are frozen, so that it is occasional in 
winter, especially on Long Island. 

Long Island. Common transient; occasional in winter. 
March 12 to May 23; (July 10) August 6 to December 5; most 
numerous in October. 

Orient. Usually rare, sometimes common transient, 
frequently seen in winter; March 12, 1904 to May 23, 1914; 
August 15, 1919 to December 5, 1918. 

Mastic . Fairly common transient, once in winter; noted 

as late as May 11, 1918; also July 17, 1920 and July 10, 1921. 

Long Beach. Casual during migration; three fall records, 

.September 22, 1921 to December 1, 1921 (Bicknell >; four 

spring records, April 5, 1917 to April 21, 1921 (Bicknell . 

New York State. Still a fairly common transient wherever 

suitable marshes <-\i-t. Recorded as early as March 21. 1915 on 

States Island ( "1<- B 

Bronx Region. Now a very rare transient, formerly com- 
mon; October 8, 1911 [Griscom and LaDow) to October 31, 
1910 (His ; Man-h 30, L919 Clarke I- Lewis ; one winter 
record at Riverdaie, February 24, L880 K. P. Bicknell . 
New Jersey. Still a fairly common transient throughout in 
favorable country. For breeding data, see above". Earliest fall 
arrival August 19, 1921 on th<- Newark Marshes Urner . 

lewooo Region. Common transient; March 17, 
1904 R. 8. Lemmon to May 17. 1914 Griscom, Johnson, 



148 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

and LaDow) ; September 23, 1909 (Griscom) to December 5, 
1921 (Laidlaw Williams). 

Dowitcher (Macrorhamphus griseus griseus) 
Many years ago the Dowitcher was an abundant tran- 
sient, occurring on the extensive mud-flats of the south shore 
of Long Island in dense flocks. Its excessive tameness in- 
sured its slaughter in large numbers, resulting in a marked 
decrease. Fifteen years ago it was a fairly common transient 
in favorable localities, but was very rare near New York 
City. The abolition of spring shooting was a great benefit to 
this, as well as our other rarer Shore-birds, and at the present 
writing the Dowitcher occurs regularly in late May at 
Long Beach and Jones Beach. There is no difficulty in identi- 
fying it even in the fall when the pinkish-brown underparts 
have changed to whitish. The very long bill, short legs, 
dark upper parts, and silvery lower back, rump and tail, are 
all conspicuous field-marks, and its excessive tameness 
practically insures a sufficiently close approach to see these 
characters with the naked eye. 

Near New York City the Dowitcher is now a certainty 
in the last week in May. It is one of our earliest fall migrants, 
and at that season is most often seen in July or the first half 
of August. There are no inland records. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, April 19 to June 12; 
June 29, July 1 to September 29. Rare where extensive mud-flats 
are lacking. 

Orient. Rare fall transient; July 15, 1908 to September 
15, 1919. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. May 6, 1921 and May 14, 1914 to June 
23, 1921 (Bicknell) ; June 29, 1922 and July 1, 1920 to Septem- 
ber 1, 1921 and October 1, 1918 (Bicknell). 
New Jersey. Recorded only from Newark Bay, a single bird 
May 31, 1920, and four on August 13, 1921 (Urner). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 149 

Long-billed Dowitcher (Macrorhamphusgriseus scolopaceus) 
This western subspecies of the last is apparently a rare 
fall transient on the coast of Long Island. It was well known 
to the early ornithologists, and apparently occurred in spring 
years ago. There are numerous records. It is practically 
impossible to identify this bird in life. Only size differences 
hold in the fall, and there is considerable sexual difference 
in the length of the bill. Thus males of this subspecies have 
shorter bills than females of the eastern bird. 

Long Island. Rare fall transient,- formerly in spring, March 
20, 1866; July 16 to November 2 (November 30). 
Mastic. One record, September 28, 1919. 

Stilt Sandpiper (M icropalama himantopus) 
This species was formerly considered a rare bird, due 
perhaps to its close superficial resemblance to the Summer 
Yellowlegs, with which it usually associates. It is now known 
as an irregular fall transient, sometimes absent, often fairly 
common, and occasionally occurring in marked flights. The 
Stilt Sandpiper is a smaller-bodied bird than the Lesser 
Yellowlegs, with even longer legs, which are distinctly green- 
is/i-yellow. Its ordinary call-note is " recognizably lower 
pitched and hoarser" (J. T. Nichols). 

Long Island. Fairly common fall transient, occasionally more 
numerous, July 10 to October 10; very rare in the spring, one 
record, May 18, 1885. 

Mastic. Uncommon fall transient, sometimes numerous. 
Noted as early as July 10, 1921. 
Long Beach. No record. 
The only record away from the coast is a single bird excellently 
seen at close range with Lesser Yellowlegs, September 19, 1909 on 
the tidal flats near Watson's Woods. West Farms, in the Bronx 
Region (Griscom and LaDow . 

Knot or Robin Snipe (Tringa canuius) 

Now an uncommon transient on Long Island, formerly 
abundant, but almost confined to the low coast of the South 



150 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Shore. Elsewhere very rare or unknown. The Robin Snipe 
has benefitted by the absence of spring shooting in recent 
years, and can now be seen every spring at Long Beach. It is 
the last spring transient to arrive, almost never recorded 
before May 25. The large size, relatively short bill, uniform 
light gray upper parts, and still lighter tail make the identi- 
fication of even immature birds a simple matter. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient; (April 29) May 15 to 
June 10 (June 27); July 15 to October 30. 

Orient. Very rare, irregular fall transient; August 10, 
1904 to September 30, 1906. 

MaStic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. In the last five years, Tegular in late May 
and increasing in numbers; rarely seen before May 25. Only 
four records in the fall; April 29, 1920 (Bicknell) to June 
27, 1920 (Bicknell); August 14, 1921 (Friedmann) to October 
14, 1917 (Janvrin); an exceedingly early bird noted July 6, 
1922 (Bicknell). 

Only three records away from the coast; an adult observed 
at close range with other Shore-birds May 30, 1909 on the flats 
near Watson's Woods, West Farms, in the Bronx Region 
(Griscom); a single bird in Newark Bay June 11, 1921, and a 
flock of ten August 4, 1921 (Urner). 

Purple Sandpiper (Arquatella maritima) 
Our only winter Shore-bird prefers a rock} 7 coast, and is an 
irregular visitant at the eastern extremity of Long Island. 
On the sandy beaches of the South Shore it is a very rare 
winter visitant, and is casual elsewhere. Its dark gray upper- 
parts, squat figure, and short orange legs, are distinctive. 

Long Island. Irregular and uncommon winter visitant, 
October 31 to March 25 and casually to May 4. 

Orient. Irregularly common winter visitant, November 
1, 1902 to February 28, 1904. 

Long Beach. Very rare visitant in late fall; November 2, 
1915 (L. N. Nichols); December 23, 1917 (Janvrin); 
November 20, 1921 (Hix); casual May 4, 1922 (E. P. Bicknell); 
a single bird in each case. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 151 

The only other records near New York City in recent years 
are Manhattan Beach, three birds on the breakwater November 
9, 1912 (W. II. Wiegmann), and casually on Staten Island, 
specimen taken November 3, 1908 (J. i\ Chapin). 

Pectoral Sandpiper (Pisobia metadata) 
This species, often called the Krieker, from its character- 
istic call-note, is preeminently a bird of grassy marshes, and is 
rarely seen on mud-Hats or sandbars. In plumage it is 
essentially a large edition of the Least Sandpiper, but a 
practised ear can readily distinguish the more usual call 
notes, which in this species suggest the Snipe and the Semi- 
palmated Sandpiper. Near New York City the Pectoral 
Sandpiper seems to be a decidedly rare bird at the present 
time, especially in spring, and it is almost certain that 
"hundreds" reported in late May from the outer beaches by 
inexperienced observers are Least Sandpipers that " looked" 
large and said "kriek-kriek!" In former years it was appar- 
ently commoner inland in our area than at the present time. 

Long Island. Rare spring, common fall transient ; March 22 
to May 30; July 6 to November 10. 

Orient. Hare transient; May 15, 1910; July 7, 1917 to 
October 1. 1911. 

Mastic. Uncommon spring, fairly common fall transient. 
LONG BEACH. Rare spring and fall transient, local condi- 
tions iinsuited to its requirements; May 4, 1922 (Bicknell), 
May 5. 1912 (Griscom), and May 28, 1911 (Griscom and 
I.;.I)ow ; August 2, 1917 (Bicknell i to November 7, 1911 
' rriscom . 
New York State. Formerly a rare fall transient .it Ossining 
Fisher . now unknown. 

Bronx Region. Formerly a rare visitant to the marshes 

near WatSOn'fl Wood- at We-t Farm-; May 26, 1906, (H« 

and Wiegmann); July 26, 1913 (Griscom) to October 12, 1912 
Griscom and LaDow . No record- since this Locality was 
destroyed. 

New Jersey. Reported as a rather common migrant at Morris- 
town 40 years ago Thurber . Now unknown except intheHacken- 
k and Newark Mar-he-; Mr. Urner reports it as rare between 



152 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

April 30, 1921 and May 31, 1922, and sometimes common from 

July 15, 1916 to September 18, 1921. 

Englewood Region. Very rare transient, only five 
records; April 6, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow) to May 3, 1913 
(Griscom and LaDow); August 7, 1912 (J. T. Nichols) to 
October 11, 1911 (Griscom and LaDow). 

White-rumped Sandpiper (Pisobia fuscicollis) 
The White-rumped Sandpiper is usually found with Least 
and Semipalmated Sandpipers, and is probably overlooked 
in the multitudes of those species. It is, however, larger, 
perhaps a shade paler in the fall, and the upper tail-coverts 
are pure white. Its call note is also quite different. There 
seems to be considerable misapprehension about the status of 
this species in spring, as neither Braislin nor Eaton mention 
it as occurring at this season. The facts are, however, that it 
is by no means rare in spring, and can be observed annually 
in May on the beaches near New York City, if sufficient 
scrutiny be given to the abundant flocks of "Peep." 

Long Island. Uncommon spring, fairly common fall transient, 
May 11 to June 10 (June 20); (July 4) July 20 to November 4. 

Orient. Rare fall transient, August 4, 1912 to October 
14, 1919. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient both spring and fall; noted 
as early as May 11, 1918. 

Long Beach. Uncommon transient, May 15, 1919 (Bick- 
nell) to June 20, 1918 (Bicknell); August 23, 1917 (Bicknell) to 
October 23, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow). 
New York State. Casual at Ossining in September many 
years ago (Fisher) . 

Bronx Region. Casual, one record, Watson's Woods, 
West Farms, August 26, 1911 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Reported only from Newark Bay; August 12 
and September 3, 1917; July 20 and August 24, 1919 (Urner). 

Baird's Sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi) 
This species is only known as a rare fall transient on Long 
Island, and there is one old spring record. It closely re- 



ANNOTATED LIST <>F THE BIRDS 153 

Bemblee other species of the genus, and is doubtless over- 
looked, as it is exceedingly difficult to distinguish in life, and 

this can only be done by those who are thoroughly familiar 
with the exact pattern of coloration of the Pectoral and 
White-rumped Sandpipers, and who could describe all three 
from memory in detail. Above Baird's and the White- 
rumped are practically identical, but Baird's has fuscous 
instead of white upper tail coverts. The Pectoral is browner 
than either with blackish tail coverts. Below all three species 
have an immaculate white chin. The throat and breast of the 
Pectoral have a brownish cast, with distinct fine blackish 
streaking. In the White-rumped these parts are white with 
iistinct and less extensive gray streaking. In Baird's 
these parts are buffy with or without indistinct darker 
streaking. 

Long Island. Rare fall Transient, August 14 to October 31; 
one spring record. May 2, 1878. 

Orient. Specimens have been taken between August 15, 
1909 and September 17. 1909. 

Long Beach. Specimen collected August 26, 1873 (New- 
bold T. Lawrence); one seen August 25, 1921 (Bicknell). 

Least Sandpiper (Pisobia minutilla) 
One of our most abundant Shore-birds, and one of the 
few which occurs occasionally inland. This species and the 
Tree Swallow are our earliest fall migrants. 

Long Island. Abundant transient; April 20 to May 30 (June 
12 : June 22; July 1 to October 18. 

Orient. Common Transient, occasionally remaining 
Through The summer. April 27, 1912 to June 12, 1908, average 
May 5 to June 5; June 27, 1910 to September 25. 1913. aver- 
age July »> to Sep tem ber 16. 

M \-ti< '. Common transient, arriving from The north as 
early as June 22. 192 1. 

Lohg Bkach. Common transient, April 21. 1921 (Bick- 
nell) to June 10, 1920 (Bicknell); June 22. L922,June27, I'M'.*. 
and July 1. 1920 all Bicknell to September 23. 1917 Janvrin , 
October 2. 1919, October 12 and is. 1917 Bicknell . 



154 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New York State. Reported as a fairly common transient at 
Ossining, one fall record as late as October 3 (Fisher). Regular on 
Staten Island. 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common transient. Now rare 

since the Shore-bird grounds near Watson's Woods were 

destroyed. May 4, 1910 (Griscom) to June 1, 1909 (Griscom); 

July 26, 1913 (Griscom) to September 19, 1909 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. Regular in the Newark Marshes, May 13, 1922 

to June 4, 1921; July 11, 1920 to September 19, 1920 (Urner). 

Very rare transient at Montclair (Howland), and uncommon near 

Plainfield, recorded chiefly in spring (Miller). 

Englewood Region. Fairly common transient; May 9, 
1920 (Lester Walsh) to May 27, 1917 (Weber); no observation 
in the fall on Overpeck Marshes, but probably occurs regularly 
in July and August; noted August 7, 1912 (J. T. Nichols). 

European Dunlin (Pelidna alpina alpina) 
An accidental straggler from Europe. One specimen 
taken on Shinnecock Bay, Long Island, September 15, 1892, 
and identified by Dr. F. M. Chapman. 

Red-backed Sandpiper; Dunlin (Pelidna alpina sakhalina) 
The Dunlin is much less common than formerly, and is 
now unknown away from the coast. As Giraud speaks of its 
excessive tameness, and cites an instance of fifty-two being 
killed at one discharge, this is quite understandable. For 
years the discovery of this species near New York City meant 
a red-letter day for the enthusiast. In the last ten years, 
however, it has shown a slight increase, and at the height of 
the Shore-bird migration in late May can be found on the 
Gilgo Flats on Jones Beach. For some curious reason it has 
always been commoner on the coast of southern New Jersey. 
The bird is absurdly tame, and I have kicked sand over them 
without arousing much interest. There is no difficulty, 
therefore, in making out the slightly decurved bill. It is the 
last of our transient Shore-birds to arrive in fall. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, rare in winter. April 
1 to June 20; (August 1) August 31 to November 31. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 155 

Orient. Rare spring, common fall transient. May 20, 
1913 to May 28, 1914; Augusl 1. 1919 to November 7, 1916. 
M \stic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Uncommon transient, formerly rare. April 

:-50. 1922 (Priedmann) and May 8, 1919 (Bicknell) to Juno 

20, 1918 (Bicknell I ; September 8, 1921 (Bicknell) to December 

25, 1914 (Fleischer); casually as early as August 9 and 23, 

1917 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Formerly regarded as a fairly common fall 

transient at Ossining (Fisher). Now unknown. No recent records 

anywhere in this area. 

Bronx Region. One record, October 12, 1912 (Griscom 

and LaDow), on the flats near Watson's Woods, a locality 

since destroyed. 

New Jersey. Unknown in our area, except from the Newark 

Bay Marshes; October 2 to October 16, 1921, and a flock of 40 on 

November 5, 1922 (Urner). 

Curlew Sandpiper (Erolia ferruginea) 
An accidental straggler from Europe. The bird was 
known to our early ornithologists, and Giraud states that 
about ten specimens had been obtained in Fulton Market, 
all from the ''ever productive shores of Long Island." More 
recently a female was taken May 24, 1883 on Shinnecock 
Bay, and another specimen was sent to Mr. Dutcher by mail 
June 9, 1891. presumably from Long Island. 

Semipalmated Sandpiper (Ereunetes pusillus) 
Perhaps our most abundant transient Shore-bird. There 
is no prettier picture than a flock of these trustful little 
"Peep" trotting down the beach or scattered over a mud-flat, 
busily searching for food. It is frequently difficult to distin- 
guish them from the Least Sandpiper. The latter is rustier 
on the back, and more si leaked below in the summer plumage, 
but these distinctions apply also to the Western Sandpiper. 

The Least always has greenish-yellow instead of black legs. 

What I regard as the besl distinguishing character between 
the two species, however, is the bill, which is stouter and 



156 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

thicker at the base in the Semipalmated Sandpiper. The usual 
call notes are also readily separable, that of the Least always 
having a strong ee sound. Such characters are available 
only to those students who know both birds well. The less 
experienced are advised to use the color of the legs only. 

An even more difficult proposition is to identify the West- 
ern Sandpiper. The greater average length of the bill is not 
a field character. There remains only color. In summer 
plumage the Western Sandpiper differs from the Semi- 
palmated exactly as does the Least, but this difference is 
slightly more intensified. I have yet to be convinced that it is 
possible to distinguish these two species satisfactorily in 
winter plumage, and it is certain that only the merest hand- 
ful of field ornithologists who have given special study to 
these birds, are competent to make a sight record of the 
Western Sandpiper, worthy of serious consideration. It is 
worth noting that slight as these characters appear on paper, 
the tameness of the birds frequently enables them to be 
observed. In a closely bunched flock in spring plumage, the 
rustier tone of a Western is quite noticeable at twenty-five 
feet, and should it be a female, the bill is appreciably longer. 

The Semipalmated Sandpiper arrives about the end of 
July on Long Island, but a few birds appear earlier. By the 
first week in September the great majority have passed 
south. As with nearly all Shore-birds, the height of the 
spring migration is the last week in May. In our area the 
bird is rare or unknown in inland localities. 

Long Island. Abundant transient. April 28 to June 13 (June 
22); (June 27) July 4 to October 15. 

Orient. Common transient; May 15, 1905 to June 4, 
1917; July 6, 1908 to October 2, 1912. 

Mastic. Irregular in spring, abundant in fall. 
Long Beach. Abundant transient, April 30, 1922 (Fried- 
mann) to June 28, 1917 (Bicknell) and July 2, 1921 (Bicknell); 
July 5, 1917 (Bicknell) to October 18, 1917 and October 26, 
1916 (Bicknell). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 157 

New York State . Reported as a common fall transient formerly 
at Osoning (Fisher), now occasional in August (Brandreth). Of 
regular occurrence on St at en Island. 

Bronx Region. Formerly a regular transient on the flats 
near Watson's Woods; May 10, 1912 (Griscom); July 26, 
1913 (Griscom) to October 3, 1908 (Hix). Not recorded since 
this locality was destroyed. 

New Jersey. Not recorded except near the Hudson River 
Valley. A regular transient on Newark Bay; May 6, 1922 to June 
18, 1921; July 31, 1921 to September 10, 1921 (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Fairly common transient, chiefly 
in spring apparently, but observation in the fall is too scanty. 
May 9, 1920 (Walsh) to May 26, 1917 (Weber); August 7, 
1912 (J. T. Nichols) to September 3, 1907 (Weber). 

Western Sandpiper (Ereunetes mauri) 
For comment see under the preceding species. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, sometimes abundant in 

fall. It should be noted that no specimens have ever been collected in 

spring. May 12 to June 6 and 20; (July 4) July 16 to October 12. 

Mastic. May 12, 1918 and June 2, 1918 (J. T. Nichols); 

uncommon, sometimes plentiful, in fall; July 4, 1918 an early 

date. 

Long Beach. Reported by Bicknell as satisfactorily 
identified on numerous occasions; April 25, 1919 to June 23, 
1921; July 2, 1921 to October 17, 1918; specimen collected 
October 12, 1917 (Murphy and J. T. Nichols). 

Sanderling (Calidris leucophaea) 
The Sanderling is preeminently the Shore-bird of the 
outer beaches, and flocks scurrying before the surf, line the 
whole BOUth shore of Long Island in May and August. It is 
comparatively uncommon on the bays and marshes, and is 
casual inland. Individuals not infrequently linger into 
early winter. 

Long Island. Common transient, a few in winter. March 15 
to June 14; (July 4) July 11 to December 8. 

Ohiknt. Hare fall transient. August 15, 1906 to November 

20. 1908. 



158 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Abundant transient, occasional in early 
winter. April 10, 1917 (Hix) to June 18, 1921 (Janvrin). 
July 11, 1918 (Bicknell) to January 4, 1910 (Griscom and 
LaDow). Mr. Bicknell has one late January, two February, 
but no March records. 
New York State. Regarded as a fairly common transient 
many years ago at Ossining (Fisher). Now unknown. 

Bronx Region. Casual on the Pelham Bay marshes May 

15, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Only one record in our area, a single bird October 

9, 1921 on the Newark Bay marshes (Urner). I cannot accept the 

old report of this species from New Brunswick by Dr. C. C. Abbott, 

whose records are well known to abound with obvious errors. 

Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa) 
Seventy-five j^ears ago this noble Shore-bird was a regular 
migrant in May, August, and September, though Giraud did 
not consider it abundant. In the seventies Mr. Newbold T. 
Lawrence mentions it as a regular migrant. By the time Mr. 
Dutcher was compiling his Long Island records it was a rare 
fall transient, and the last specimen known to him was shot 
in 1888. It is now a very rare straggler, and there are only 
five recent records. The two sight records were made by 
experienced field ornithologists, and deserve full credence. 
It is almost impossible to mis-identif} r this striking bird. 

Long Island. Formerly a regular transient in May, August, 
and September. In the eighties a rare fall transient, July 20 to 
September 15. Now a very rare straggler from the west. Two shot 
on Moriches Beach, August 10, 1910 by W. S. Dana. 

Orient. Recorded August 20, 1909 at Orient (Roy 
Latham). 

Mastic. A single bird excellently observed August 14, 
1920 (J. T. Nichols and C. H. Rogers). 

hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica) 
This species never seems to have been a common bird on 
Long Island, and in Giraud's time was less numerous than 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRI)> 159 

the Marbled Godwit. Between 1SS1 and 1893 there were 
about twenty-five definite records, and a large flight took 
place in late August, 1903. Since then only a few stragglers 
have been recorded. Evidence from the rest of the United 
States and its winter quarters in Argentina and Patagonia 
would seem to show that it is on the verge of extinction. 

Long Island. A rare fall transient, August 8 to October 9, 
now perhaps on the verge of extinction. Only four recent cap- 
tures. Two of these, previously unrecorded, are now in the Dwight 
collection; August 27. 1907 at Islip (Gerald X. Williams); Septem- 
ber 24, 1909 at Oak Island (H. C. Raven). Since this was written, 
Walden Pell reports a flight August 28, 1922 on Shinnecock Bay, 
the day after a two-day northeaster. "One Godwit lit in my 
decoys for some time; a single and a pair flew over also, and I 
observed a flock of four sitting on the Quogue Golf Course. In a 
different part of the bay they were reported even more commonly 
in flocks up to sixteen, and I saw two that were shot there, un- 
mistakably Hudsonian Godwits.** (Extract from letter to J. T. 
Nichols.) 

Mastic. Two specimens taken, August 21, 1915 and 
October 6, 1916. 

Greater Yellowlegs (Totanus melanoleucus) 
In spite of the fact that it is still a game bird, the Greater 
Yellowlegs has managed to hold its own, and is the only one 
of our larger Sandpipers which is still common and generally 
distributed. It also occurs occasionally inland. The long 
yellow legs, the slender body, and the constant bobbing when 
at rest, are as characteristic as its loud ringing notes, which 
are audible when the bird is beyond the range of vision. 

Long Island. Common transient, a possibility at any date in 
summer; ; March 9 March 21 to June 22; July 4 to November 28. 
In Spring scarce and irregular before the third week in April and 
after the fir.>t week in June; casual north and south bound dates 
meet about June 28. 

Orient. Common transient; April 6, L911 to June 20. 
191*1; average May 3 t«> June 6; June 30, L91/6 '•> November •'>. 
1920. 



160 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Common transient; recorded June 25 and July 
2, 1922, and Mr. Nichols believes no bird was present the few 
intervening days. 

Long Beach. Common transient; March 21, 1918 (Bick- 

nell) to June 8, 1918 (Bicknell) and casually to June 28, 1917 

(Bicknell); July 15, 1920 (Bicknell) to November 21, 1919 

(Bicknell), casually to December 7, 1916 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Still a regular transient where its habitats 

have not been destroyed, but much scarcer than formerly. 

Central Park. Casual, two records; early October 
1892 (F. M. Chapman); flock of nine May 9, 1915 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common transient, now rare 
but recorded annually. May 4, 1910 (Griscom) to June 1, 
1909 (Griscom); August 23, 1913 (Griscom) to October 31, 
1909 (Griscom, Rogers, Wiegmann). 
New Jersey. A regular transient on the Newark and Hacken- 
sack Marshes, noted April 8, 1922 to June 25 and July 2, 1921; 
July 29, 1916 to October 30, 1921 (Urner). Occurs rarely and 
irregularly further inland. Its status in the northwestern sec- 
tions unknown, 

Englewood Region. Uncommon but regular transient; 
April 17, 1921 (Griscom and Johnson) to May 26, 1917 (Weber) ; 
September 25, 1921 (Griscom and Johnson) to October 15, 
1922 (Hix). Undoubtedly arrives much earlier in the fall, 
but observations lacking. 

Lesser Yellowlegs ( Tot anus flavipes) 
The smaller Yellowlegs is a difficult bird to recognize, 
until the notes of both species are well known. The ordinary 
call note of this species is a "when" or " ' wheu-wlneu" rarely 
three, while that of the Greater is normally five "wheus." 
Size is of value only when the two species are together. 
Especial care is necessary in sight identifications in spring, 
when this species is rare, and I have rejected several such 
records, where the circumstances were not entirely satis- 
factory. This is no reflection on the observer, who can 
scarcely be held responsible for circumstances. The criterion 
to be used is direct comparison of the two species. In the fall 
this species has a shorter migration period than the Greater, 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 161 

but in favorable places is the commoner species of the two 
during this period. At the present time it is the scarcer 
Bpeeies inland in our area. 

Long Island. A transient, rare in spring, common in fall; 
April 3 April 23 to June 1; (June 24 and 27) July 4 to October 5 
October 28). 

Orient. Rare spring, not common fall transient; April 
23, 1907 to May 23. 1905; July 12, 1912 to October 4, 1904. 

Mastic. Rare spring, common fall transient; noted June 
27. 1920 and June 24, 1922 as a fall migrant, also July 4, 1920 
(Murphy and Nichols). 

Long Beach. Uncommon fall transient, July 7, 1921 

(Bicknell) to September 27, 1917 (Bicknell) and October 

is. 1917 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Formerly a fairly common fall transient at 

Ossining (Fisher). This species seems to have decreased much 

more than the Greater. Mr. Chapin tells me it was a rare bird on 

Staten Island fifteen years ago, and there are no recent records 

anywhere in our area. 

Central Park. A lone bird observed May 11, 1910 up- 
town (Griscomj, and subsequently recorded in the Proceedings 
of the Linna>an Society. This record should be cancelled. In 
spite of the fact that it was observed at leisure at a distance of 
leas than fifty feet, there was no standard for size comparison 
available. The rarity of the bird in spring, coupled with the 
fact that its presence in the Park would be purely casual, 
make ideal circumstances for identification absolutely essential. 
Bronx Region. Formerly a common fall transient on the 
flats near Watson's Woods, July 26, 1913 (Griscom) to Sep- 
tember 20, 1913 (Hix). Not recorded since this locality was 
destroyed. 
New Jersey. Now known only as a very rare spring and an 
uncommon fall transient on the Newark and Hackensack Marshes; 
July 14. 1921 to October 9. 1921 (Urner). Reported forty years 
go as a common transient at Morriatown (Thurber). Bee below 
for Plainheld records. 

Englbwood Region. Rare transienl in the fall. July 31, 
L920 Griacom and LaDow) to October 15, 1922 Bis ; 
two ^prin^r records, April 25 I'd 1 1 ■'. M. Chapman and May 
16, 1920 Granger, Griacom, Janvrin . In the latter i 

there were three bird-, direct comparison m >ize with a ( ireater 



162 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Yellowlegs was obtained, and near by were two Solitary Sand- 
pipers, so that the circumstances were as ideal as possible. 

Plainfield Region. Reported May 10, 1912 on the Dead 
River by G. E. Hix, but as a scientific record this observation 
is open to the same objections as the Central Park record dis- 
cussed above. A single bird observed at close range with a 
Greater Yellowlegs May 21, 1922 (Miller) on the Dead River. 

Solitary Sandpiper (Helodromas solitarius) 

This is one of the few Shore-birds which is commoner 
inland than on the coast. While it occurs occasionally in 
sloughs in the salt marshes, it is practically casual on the 
outer beaches. The Solitary is sometimes confused with the 
Spotted Sandpiper and the Lesser Yellowlegs, but this is due 
to inattention or lack of familiarity with the descriptions in 
any standard text-book. Rare in April and October. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient; May 5 to June 6; 
July 8 to October 14. 

Orient. Rare transient. May 9, 1913 to June 6, 1914; 
July 8, 1916 to October 3, 1920. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration, August 11, 1921 
(Bicknell) to September 20, 1909 (Griscom). 

New York State. Now an uncommon transient in most of our 
area, civilization seriously affecting its habitats. 

Central Park. Up to 1915 a regular but uncommon 
transient, now rare. April 26, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius and 
LaDow) to May 25, 1909 (Griscom); August 4, 1910 (Hix) to 
October 10, 1911 (Griscom); casual November 1, 1903 (Hix). 
Bronx Region. Now an uncommon transient; April 30, 
1889 (L. S. Foster) to May 30, 1909 (Griscom); July 26, 1913 
(Griscom) to October 14, 1905 (Hix). 

New Jersey. Fairly common only near the Hudson River 
Valley, otherwise a common transient throughout. Noted April 
18, 1915 on the Dead River (Miller and Rogers). Noted as early 
as July 5, 1920 in the Hackensack Marshes near Kingsland (Rogers J 
and July 10, 1920 at Newton (Griscom); the latest date is October 
16, 1921 near Elizabeth (Urner). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 163 

Exglewood Region. Fairly common transient. April 30, 
1917 (Rogers) to May 18, 1913 (Griscom, LaDow, Lenssen); 
August 14, 1921 (Bernard Fread), to October 2, 1904 (Hix and 
Parmelee). 

Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) 
In Giraud's day the Willet was apparently a common 
visitor to Long Island, and may have bred, though evidence 
is lacking. More recently it was known as a very rare spring 
and irregular fall transient, and various theories were evolved 
to account for it. The most popular of these was that like 
the Egret it wandered north after the breeding season in 
search of feeding grounds. The value of this theory is con- 
siderably impugned by the recent discovery that the bird 
breeds quite commonly in parts of Nova Scotia. Its scarcity 
is easily accounted for by the relatively small number of birds 
breeding north of Long Island. The large size of the Willet , 
its striking black and white wing pattern, and vociferous cries 
render it unmistakable. 

Long Island. Rare spring, uncommon fall transient. April 
29 to June 5; July 4 to September 16. 

Orient. Rare fall transient, July 10, 1920 to September 8, 
1913. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Uncommon fall transient, two spring 
records; June 5, 1921 (Hix and Janvrin) and June 15, 1922 
(Bicknell); July 16, 1914 (Bicknell) to August 29, 1915 (Bick- 
nell.). Mr. Bicknell writes that a few are observed in late 
summer nearly every year. 

Western Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus 
The western race of the Willet has never been definitely 
recorded from New York State, though Chapman and Eaton 
both suspected its probable occurrence. It is possible that 
the August flights may in part be this subspecies, whose 
status on Long Island is probably, though not positively, 
be Long-billed Dowitcher. At least this infer- 



164 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

ence is born out by the evidence from other parts of the 
Atlantic seaboard. I find seven specimens in the Dwight 
collection critically determined by him. 

Long Island. Probably a rare fall transient. To be iden- 
tified only when shot, carefully sexed, and measured. A pair 
taken in August 1894 by Stephen Van Rensselaer Jr. at Bellport; 
a pair shot at Amityville August 14, 1897 by Wm. C. Braislin, 
and wrongly identified; three birds collected by Chapin and H. C. 
Raven at Hempstead Bay, August 15, 1908. 

Ruff (Machetes pugnax) 
An accidental straggler from Europe. Captured on Long 
Island October, 1851, and May 15, 1868. A recent record is 
September 26, 1914 as recorded by W. deW. Miller (Auk, 
April, 1915, page 226). 

Upland Plover (Bartramia longicauda) 
The Upland Plover or Bartramian Sandpiper is now one 
of our rarest birds, and in most parts of our area is gone for 
ever. No more, I fear, will the student hears its " pro- 
longed, mournful, mellow" whistle, one of the never-to-be- 
forgotten sounds of Nature, unless he makes a special trip 
to a few favored localities. Near New York City, I think, 
civilization is as responsible as persecution. The bird is 
shy and wild, requiring a great deal of " elbow room." Even 
in remote sections of northern New Jersey, the farms are 
smaller and more numerous than formerly, and the grassy 
meadows and pastures are too restricted for the bird's re- 
quirements. This theory is confirmed by the fact that not 
only is it extinct as a summer resident, but it does not even 
occur on migration in most of our area. In a few favored 
localities on Long Island, however, the Upland Plover still 
occurs as a transient, almost entirely in the fall. 

Long Island. Formerly a common summer resident on the 
Hempstead Plains, Shinnecock Hills, Montauk Point, and 
Gardiner's Island, abundant during the migration in August, and 
of more general distribution. Known to have bred on Gardiner's 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 10") 

bland in 1911 (Harper), l>ut it is very doubtful if it still does, as 
several cottages have now been buflt on the downs. At least one 
pair nested near ESasthampton in 1020 (Hehnuth), and the bird 
can probably still be found on the extensive downs near Montauk 
Point. As a transient, Still regular in the Montauk region, now rare 
elsewhere, and casual on the outer beaches. Up to fifteen years ago 
regular in August and September at Rugby (Hix and Wiegmann), 
this locality now destroyed. Only one record on the Hempstead 
Plains in recent years. April 5 to September 17 (October 20). 
Migrants appear in July. 

Orient. Formerly a common summer resident, perhaps 

still nesting locally; otherwise a rare visitant at present. 

April 5, 1905 and April 9, 1914; June 30, 1907 to September 7, 

1907. Nested on Gardiner's Island in 1911 (Harper). 
Mastic. Xo record. 
Long Beach. Casual, September 14, 1918 (Janvrin). 

Reported by the Life Saving Crew as heard flying over every 

summer (Bicknell). 

New York State. A single bird heard flying over the city on a 
foggy night in late July, 1913, giving its characteristic call (Griscom). 
Barring this most unsatisfactory observation, I cannot find a single 
record, old or recent, for the Upland Plover in our area. 

New Jersey. Formerly a common summer resident in many 
localities. Now almost extirpated. Bred commonly at Morris- 
town in 1886 (Thurber); not recorded from there since early May 
1900 (Griscom). Writing in 1904, La Rue K. Holmes records two 
pairs nesting in a field near Summit; no record since. Found 
breeding at Ridgewood, Bergen Co., in 1901 (Fowler); now un- 
known. May still breed near Raritan, and heard occasionally 
flying over in summer elsewhere in the Plainfield Region (Miller). 
I have only two recent migration records, a flock reported near 
Bernardsville in the fall of 1909 (John Dryden Kuser), and from 
August 2 to September 3, 1922, on the Newark meadows, a maxi- 
mum of four birds I CTrner). 

Englewood Region. No record. 

Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficoUis) 
In Giraud's day this western species was believed to occur 
almost every season on Long Island in the fall. It is now 

known as a rare or very rare fall transient, and the published 
record- -how that about twenty >p *cimens have been Bhot. 



166 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Rare or very rare fall transient, August 25 to 
September 17. 

Orient. One record, September 5, 1906. 
Mastic. One record, August 28, 1888, specimen shot by 
Dr. Rolfe Floyd and recorded b3^ Dutcher. 

Long Beach. One record, specimen shot bj r Frank E. 
Johnson, August 31, 1894, recorded by Braislin. 

Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) 
A common summer resident throughout our area from 
the ocean beaches of Long Island to the Delaware River, and 
the only Sandpiper really well known to most bird students 
inland. The average date of arrival is about April 28, 
extreme dates ranging a week earlier. The summer resident 
population does not reach normal numbers until the second 
week in May. It is exceptional to see a Spotted Sandpiper 
inland after the middle of September. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 20 to October 
1, exceptionally to October 25. 

Orient. Common summer resident, April 20, 1908 to 
October 12, 1913; average, April 28 to October 2. 
Mastic. Common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Common summer resident, April 22, 1920 
(Bicknell) to September 28, 1916 (Bicknell) and October 10, 
1918 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident except on Man- 
hattan Island, and the region near the City; as a transient common 
throughout. The earliest arrival date is April 19, 1914 on Staten 
Island (Cleaves). 

Central Park. Common transient; April 21, 1916 (L. 
N. Nichols) to May 30, 1901 (S. H. Chubb); August 2, 1908 
(Griscom) to October 13, 1912 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common transient, not known to have 

nested since 1917; May 4, 1910 (Griscom) to August 28, 1915 

(Hix). 

New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. The 

earliest arrival date is April 16, 1922 near Elizabeth (Urner); 

latest October 8, 1916 near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common transient, uncommon 
summer resident, April 28, 1912 (J. T. Nichols) to September. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 167 

Hudsonian Curlew {Numenius hudsonicus) 
The Jack Curlew is one of the few Larger Shore-birds, 
which has shown no signs of increase in the last few years. 
It is a decidedly rare bird near New York City. It is a strong 
and steady flier, and in spring is rare and irregular, apparently 
passing by Long Island. The fall migration is chiefly in 
July, and even then it is decidedly local. Many erroneous 
reports of Eskimo Curlew are based on immature Jack 
( inlew, and t his is much more true of gunners and sportsmen 
than bird students. There 1 is a notion that a short-billed 
( Jurlew must be an Eskimo, whereas the facts are that the 
bill of a young Jack Curlew is sometimes not more than one 
and one-half inches in length. 

Long Island. Rare spring, fairly common but local fall tran- 
sient ; i April 17) April 28 to May 31; July 2 to October 2; casual 
December 24, 1912 (Miss Charlotte Bogardus, Auk, April, 1913). 
Orient. Rare fall transient, July 12, 1916 to October 2, 
1917; average arrival, July 20. 

Mastic. Fairly common fall transient. 
Long Beach. A decidedly rare transient; several flocks 
observed in May, 1910 (Griscom and Hix); about nine spring 
records between April 17, 1918 (Bicknell) and May 31, 1914 
(Rogers); July 4, 1919 (Bicknell) to September 22, 1921 
(Bicknell). 

Whimbrel {Numenius phseopus) 
The only specimen of this European species ever cap- 
tured in the Lnited States was shot on Jones Beach, Long 
Island, September 4, 1912. (See Miller, Auk, 1915, p. 226). 

Lapwing (VaneUus vaneUus) 
A well known European species, which has twice occurred 
accidentally on Long Island, in 18S3 and 190."). 

Black-bellied Plover (Squatarola squatarola) 

There are few finer Bights in the Shore-bird world than a 
flock of these handsome plover in full breeding plumage 



168 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

scattered over a mud-flat, or flying by in long lines uttering 
their sad musical call, which is suggestive of a Bluebird's. 
The last ten years has witnessed a marked increase, especially 
in the spring, and flocks containing many hundred birds can 
be seen annually at Long Beach the last week in May. The 
bird is strictly maritime, and is rare or casual inland in our 
area. 

Long Island. Common transient; April 30 to June 20; (July 
1) July 11 to November 12 (November 26). Rare before the middle 
of May and in July. 

Orient. Common transient; May 14, 1902 to June 10, 
1908; July 4, 1909 to November 8, 1910. 
Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Common transient; April 23, 1916 (Bick- 

nell) and May 5, 1918 (Janvrin) to June 23, 1921 (Bicknell) 

and July 3, 1919 (Bicknell); July 7, 1921 (Bicknell) to 

November 26, 1917 (Griscom and J. T. Nichols). 

New York State. Regular transient formerly on the bay shore 

of Staten Island (Chapin). Accidental at Ossining (Fisher). 

New Jersey. Mr. Chas. A. Urner has one spring and two fall 
records on the Newark Bay marshes, but reported there as regular 
in fall by local gunners. 

Englewood Region. According to local gunners, of 
regular occurrence in the fall on Overpeck Creek, though they 
call it the Golden Plover. Possibly one or two immature birds 
occur each season. Three birds shot October 2, 1909 b\~ a 
local gunner; another shot October 21, 1916 (Weber). 

Golden Plover (Charadrius dominicus) 
In Giraud's day this famous game bird was a common 
transient both in spring and fall on Long Island. By 1882, 
when Mr. Dutcher started his notes, it had greatly decreased. 
He obtained only two spring records, and in the fall recorded 
several " flights" which took place with high on-shore winds. 
Such " flights" occurred in 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, and 1893. 
In these cases good sized flocks were noted. In recent years 
"flights" have been reported, but if the lucky observer sees 
half a dozen birds he calls it a "flight," or if several observers 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 169 

record a single individual apiece during early September, a 

"flight " is said to have occurred. While it is probable that a 
few individuals arc noted annually on eastern Long Island, 
the ''flights" of former days are a thing of the past, never 
to come again. At the western end of Long Island the Golden 
Plover is now an exceedingly rare bird, and it is casual any- 
where inland. 

To distinguish the Golden Plover from the Black-bellied 
by plumage characters is not easy ordinarily, as the former is 
generally very wild and shy. The Golden Plover lacks the 
conspicuous black axillars and the conspicuously whitish tail 
of its relative. The call note, however, is absolutely diagnos- 
tic, a harsh "queedle" with the accent on the first syllable, 
utterly lacking the mournful, musical quality so characteristic 
of the Black-bellied. I well remember collecting a Plover 
one October evening which I knew had to be a Golden Plover 
by its call as it came in, though I had never heard it before, 
and it was so dark that I had to strike a match to find the 
bird on the mud-flat where it had fallen. 

Long Island. Formerly regular in spring, numerous in fall. 
Now a rare bird, a few scattering individuals noted annually. 
April 7, 1882 and May 10, 1885 are the last spring records. In the 
fall from August 1 to November 12. 

Orient. Rare and irregular in autumn; August 23, 1903 
to November 1, 1906. 

Mastic. Rare and irregular in fall. 

Long Beach. Two birds September 22, 1919, one found 
dead (R. Friedmann); also August 12, 1917; September 27, 
1917; October 26, 1916 (all Bicknell). 

New York State. No record, old or recent, in our area. 

New Jersey. Reported by Thurber as a rare transient at Mor- 
ristown in 1886. Mr. Truer informs me that ''during the middle 
and late 90's Golden-barks were by no means rare on the local salt 
meadows [Newark Hay marshes]. . .They were taken more fre- 
quently than ''Hull-head-." and usually wen- secured most readily 
over deeoyi >«'t OB freshly burned meadow. The last birds I 
taken wen- about 1904 in the fall." On November b, V.V>\ Mr. W. 



170 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 



deW. Miller saw a Golden Plover on a golf course near Plainfield. 
On September 17, 1922 Mr. Urner found two birds on an extensive 
area of burned meadow south of Newark; these birds were ap- 
proached within 30 yards, and watched on the ground for over ten 
minutes. 




Photograph by A. A. Allen 



Fig. 13. Killdeer. 



Killdeer (Oxyechus vociferus) Fig. 13 
The Killdeer is a bird with a peculiarly erratic distribu- 
tion in our area, for which no ready explanation is at hand. 
In our section of New York State it is a rare summer resident 
and rare or uncommon transient. In New Jersey it is a com- 
mon summer resident west of a line running north and south 
about twenty miles west of the Hudson, River. East of this 
line it is rare and local in summer, and rare as a transient. 
Its most marked characteristic is its noisiness, and where it 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 171 

is common, the ear grows weary of its perpetual outcry, which 
continues night and clay. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, locally, rare else- 
where; recorded in every month of the year; breeding locally on 
the Hempstead Plains, and definitely recorded also at Orient and 
Long Beach. February 23 to May 30; July 4 to December 14. 

Orient. Rare summer resident at Orient. Elsewhere a 
rare visitant, occurring at any season of the year. Transients 
usually arrive from February 25, 1907 to March 20, 1910. 
Mastic. Uncomon fall transient, earliest July 4, 1919. 
Long Beach. Uncommon transient, chiefly in fall; 
February 23, 1913 (Hix); May 30. 1920 (Granger, Janvrin, 
Rogers); August 16, 1914 (Hix and Rogers) to December 8, 
1921 (Bicknell). A pair bred in 1920 and raised young (Bick- 
nell). 
New York State. Rare transient on Staten Island (Chapin), a 
pair found nesting for several seasons (Cleaves). In Westchester 
County a rare transient, no definite breeding record. 

Central Park. Casual, one record, September 3, 1884 
(E. T. Adney). 

Bronx Region. Breeds at Clason Point, otherwise scarce, 
recorded in every month of the year. March 22, 1914 (Kieran) 
to May 26, 1917 (Chubb); August 9, 1921 (Griscom) to No- 
vember 28, 1912 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout, to a 
line running about twenty miles west of the Hudson. East of that 
line rare and local both as a transient and summer resident. Locally 
common in the Plainfield region (Miller) and near Elizabeth (Urner). 
Englewood Region. Uncommon transient, February 7, 
1915 (R. S. Lemmon) and March 19, 1914 (R. S. Lemmon) to 
April 5, 1914 (Griscom); August 7, 1912 (J. T. Nichols) to 
December 1, 1916 (Weber). A pair has bred for several years 
in a field west of West Englewood. 

Semipalmated Plover; Ringneck (Aegialitis semipalmata) 
The Ringneck is one of our most abundant Shore-birds. 
During May and August it is almost impossible to avoid 
seeing it on the mud-flats of the outer beaches, and I have 
seen a thousand birds scattered over the famous Gilgo 
Flats. The plaintive double-noted call is characteristic. 



172 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Stragglers occasionally occur inland, and apparently the 
Hudson Valley is a regular migration route for a limited 
number of individuals. 

Long Island. Abundant transient. April 19 to June 5 (July 
3) ; July 5 to November 8. Scarce before the end of July and after 
September 15. 

Orient. Uncommon transient. May 1, 1914 to June 1, 
1916; July 6, 1906 to October 2, 1913. 
Mastic. Common transient. 

Long Beach. Abundant transient; April 26, 1917 (Bick- 

nell) to June 13, 1921 (Janvrin), exceptionally June 20, 27, 

and July 3, 1918 (Bicknell); July 5, 1917 (Bicknell) to October 

28, 1917 (Janvrin), November 2, 1917, November 7, 1918, and 

November 8, 1921 (all Bicknell). 

New York State. Regular transient on Stat en Island, at 

least formerly (Chapin), noted as late as June 4, 1909 (Griscom). 

Formerly a common fall transient at Ossining (Fisher); probably 

still occurs in such favorable habitats as remain, as it occurs further 

north in Dutchess County (Crosby). 

Bronx Region. Former^ a common transient on the 

flats near Watson's Woods; May 10, 1912 (Griscom) to June 

1, 1909 (Griscom); July 26, 1913 (Griscom) to October 3, 

1908 (Hix). Unrecorded since this locality was destroyed. 

New Jersey. A regular transient on Newark Bay (Urner). 

Rare, casual, or unknown elsewhere; about three spring records 

near Plainfield (Miller). 

Englewood Region. One record on Overpeck Creek, a 
flock of about twelve May 26, 1917 (Weber). It should occur 
in August, when there has been little or no observation. 

Piping Plovee (Aegialitis meloda) 
In Giraud's day the Piping Plover was a common summer 
resident along the south and east coasts of Long Island. By 
1900 breeding birds were reduced to a few pairs at the ex- 
treme eastern end, and it was a rare transient elsewhere, while 
near New York City it was an event to see one. In 1909 
Dr. Stone questioned whether it still occurred in the State 
of New Jersey. The development of seaside resorts and 
the steady encroachment of man are the causes usually 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 173 

assigned for the decrease of this species. If this be the 
correct explanation, the bird has adapted itself to the changed 
conditions, as it began to increase steadily as a transient about 
1910, and is now a common summer resident even on Long 
Beach, which is crowded with people the whole summer. 
Few more gratifying changes have taken place in our bird- 
life, and a sight of the little pale gray figures trotting over the 
sand, uttering their musical piping note, provides a welcome 
picture in a somewhat bleak and harsh landscape. I know of 
no birds that express innocence more than the Plovers, and 
of these none more so than the Piping. The round eyes and 
bobbing head express interrogation rather than alarm, and 
shooting them is a sorry travesty of sport. The close re- 
semblance of the bird's colors to sand is extraordinary, and 
in proper conditions of light and position, it simply disappears 
when motionless. It is the first of the Shore-birds to arrive 
in spring, but departs comparatively early, and is rarely seen 
after the middle of September. It is strictly confined to the 
sand dunes of the outer beaches, and is accidental elsewhere 
in our area. 

Long Island. A summer resident, generally uncommon, 
locally common or even abundant, as on Jones Beach; elsewhere in 
favorable localities a fairly common transient; steadily increas- 
ing. March 3 to September 20 and exceptionally to November 7. 

Orient. Uncommon summer resident, local. March 4, 
1903 to September 23, 1914. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Formerly a rare transient, now a common 
summer resident, March 10, 1921 (Bicknell) and March 25, 
1917 (Janvrin) to October 17, 1915 (Fleischer) and [November 
7, 1911 (Griscom, LaDow, Rogers, and Wiegmann). 
Accidental in 1H9S at Ossining (Fisher). 

Wilson's Plover (Ochthodromus wilsonius) 
A century ago Wilson's Plover was a fairly common 
summer resident on the coast of New .Jersey. On Long; Island 
it occurred regularly, hut was not very common according to 



174 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Giraud. There seems to be no definite record of its nesting. 
The bird has not been known to nest in New Jersey since 
1886, and no specimen has been taken on Long Island since 
1884. Its occurrence at the present time would be purely acci- 
dental. There are three recent sight records which are well 
authenticated. Wilson's Plover bears a close resemblance in 
color to the common Ring-neck, but has a long, stout, dark 
bill, almost as long as the head, whereas the Ring-neck has a 
short black, and orange bill, less than half the length of the 
head. This character cannot be overlooked by anyone really 
familiar with the latter species. 

Long Island. 

Orient. One record, July 3, 1915. 

Long Beach. Specimen shot July 1, 1872 (Newbold T. 
Lawrence). Single birds most satisfactorily identified May 

2, 1918 and May 29, 1919 (E. P. Bicknell). 

Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres morinella) 
The Turnstone prefers the mud-flats and sandbars of the 
outer beaches, and in our area is unknown or casual elsewhere. 
No Shore-bird is so strikingly colored in spring plumage, and 
it cannot be confused with anything else for a moment. The 
young bird in the fall can always be recognized by the con- 
spicuous white stripes down the back when it flies, and by the 
peculiar chuckling whistle. The Turnstone has increased 
markedly in recent years near New York City, and large 
flocks can be found on Long Beach every May. 

Long Island. Common transient. May 1 to June 10 (June 
27 and July 3) ; (July 10) August 3 to October 18. 

Orient. Common spring, rare fall transient. May 12, 
1908 to June 23, 1908 (Francis Harper); average, May 14 to 
June 8; July 15, 1917 to October 14, 1920. 
Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Common transient; May 4, 1919 (Granger 
and Janvrin) to June 23, 1921 (Bicknell), exceptionally to 
June 27, 1918 (Bicknell) and July 7, 1921 (Bicknell); August 

3, 1922 and August 9, 1917 (Bicknell) to September 27, 1917 
(Bicknell) and October 18, 1922 (Hix). 

Accidental at Ossining (Fisher) . 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 17.") 

Bob-white (Colin us virginianus) 

The rapid decrease of this well known game bird near 
New York City is a matter of common knowledge, but is due 
as much to the steady advance of civilization as to indis- 
criminate slaughter. The average suburban nimrod of the 
present generation is quite incapable of hitting a Quail, as 
this bird is generally miscalled. The bird-lover, however, 
misses the clear spring whistle of the male and the covey call 
in late summer and fall, and realizes regretfully that an attrac- 
tive feature of the countryside has gone forever. 

The Bob-white has always beeji seriously reduced in 
numbers by severe winters, and just at present its numbers 
seem to be at a particularly low ebb. Chapman and Stone 
have both pointed out that sportsmen have frequently in- 
troduced southern stock to prevent total extermination, and 
it is doubtful if any true unmixed blood remains. 

Long Island. A fairly common resident, especially in the pine 
barren region; rare or extinct near the city. 

Orient. A resident, common or rare according to locality. 
Mastic. Common resident; temporarily extirpated in 
the winter of 1919-1920. 

New York State. Perhaps a few introduced birds still exist 
on Staten Island. A few birds may still survive in Westchester 
County. 

Central Park. Formerly resident. Extinct since 1893. 
Bronx Region. Formerly a common resident. A small 
covey still survives in the Van Cortlandt Park swamp. Long 
since extinct elsewhere as a native species. 

New Jersey. Very rare or extinct throughout most of our area : 
still present along the Delaware River above Dingman's Ferry, and 
near Vernon, Sussex County (Griscom). 

Englewood Region. Extinct near Englewood Bince 1901; 
recorded near Closter, May 31. 1915 (W. II. Wtegmann), and 
at Demarest in March, 1916 Bowdisfa bo it may still exist in 
northern Bergen County. 



i 



176 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) 
The history of the Ruffed Grouse is much the same as that 
of the Bob-white. Being a woodland bird, however, it has 
survived much better in the outlying sections, and is now 
actually the commoner species, which is the exact reverse of 
the normal condition of affairs. It is much hardier than the 
Bob-white, and has not been affected by recent severe 
winters. A curious variation in numbers has long been known 
in the Ruffed Grouse, a steady decrease followed by a sudden 
increase or " come-back," without any apparent cause or 
explanation. Such an increase is now taking place locally 
in parts of northern New Jersey. Perhaps the least migratory 
of our native birds. 

Long Island. Now an uncommon local resident. 

Orient. Recorded from Laurel; otherwise unknown. 
Mastic. Uncommon resident. 
New York State. Perhaps still existing in parts of Westchester 
County, but data lacking. Long since extinct elsewhere. 

New Jersey. Now extinct in all suburban sections near New 
York City. Still surviving locally at a few points within thirty 
miles of the City, as in the hills north of Plainfield (Miller), and a 
marked local increase is reported in the last two years at Boonton 
(Carter). Increasing northwestward and positively abundant in 
remote sections of the Kittatinny Mountains. I saw sixteen birds 
on July 11, 1920 near Lake Mashipacong. 

Englewood Region. Long since extirpated. 

Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) 
Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus torquatus) 
Both species of Pheasants have been listed, as it is doubt- 
ful if any of the birds which have been introduced in various 
parts of our area are of unmixed blood. Pheasants are com- 
mon on Gardiner's Island, but a large outlay of money is 
required to keep them so. They are also reported occasionally 
from Orient and Green port, Long Island (Latham). First 
noted in the Bronx Region in 1916, uncommon but increas- 
ing (L. N. Nichols). Occasionally seen near Englewood and 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 177 

is now common near Plain field. Bird students may expect 
to put up a Pheasant almost anywhere at any time. It 
remains to be seen, however, whether these wandering birds 
will be able to survive without special protection. For the 
present they cannot be considered a true part of our avifauna, 
as is unfortunately the case with the Starling and House 
Sparrow. 

Mourning Dove (Zenaidura macroura carolinensis) Fig. 14 
The Dove is generally a fairly common summer resident 
with us, but is locally scarce near New York City. It has a 
marked preference for sandy fields, and is fond of nesting in 
pine groves and to a less extent in orchards. It is quite shy, 
and in spring the mournful " coo-ah-ah" or the whistling of 
the wings are more frequently heard than, the bird is seen. 

Long Island. Fairly common summer resident, but rare or 
absent at the western end of the island; occasional in winter. 
March 14 to November 26. 

Orient. Locally an uncommon summer resident, usually 
rare; occasionally seen in winter. March 19, 191 1 to November 
26, 1919; average March 22 to October 20. 

Mastic Common summer resident, a few sometimes 
winter. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration; March 31, 1912 (Gris- 

com); April 2, 1914 (Bicknell); May 7, 1922 (Hix); October 

31, 1920 (Janvrin and Charles Johnston); October 13, 1921 

(Bicknell). 

New York State. Now scarce in Greater New York City, 

probably commoner in Westchester County. 

Central Park. Very rare visitor, only twice in fall; 
eight records in last eighteen years, March 26, 1905 (Hix) to 
June I), 1907 (Chubb); reported chiefly in late April and early 
May. long after the normal migration period; September 7 
and October 4, 1922 (Griscom . 

Bronx Region. Decidedly uncommon transient, chiefly 

in spring; March 22, 1919 (C. L. Lewis) to May 23, 1920 (L. 

X. Nichols); October 12, 1912 (Griscom and La Dow . 

New Jersey. Common Bummer resident throughout from the 

middle of March to December, rarely wintering: absent from the 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 179 

wilder and wooded sections in the extreme northwestern sections of 
Warren and Sussex Counties, and rare or uncommon in the sub- 
urban section near New York City. 

Englevvood Region. Rare summer resident, March 19, 
1916 (W. C. Tucker) to October 10, 1915 (J. M. Johnson and 
Rogers) and November 12, 1922 (Hix); a few winter records. 



Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura scptentrionalis) 

No bird has a more remarkable distribution in our area 
than the Turkey Vulture, and I confess my total inability to 
explain it. Moreover it is now known to be quite different 
from what has been previously reported. In New Jersey it 
supposed to range north regularly to Sandy Hook, Plain- 
field, and Princeton, and casually further north. As a matter 
of fact it is a common summer resident in western and north- 
western Xew Jersey right up to the New York State line, 
especially along the Kittatinny Ridge. Here it undoubtedly 
breeds, as I have flushed single birds in late May and early 
June from the ground in thick, rocky woods, and it has been 
found nesting near Boonton and Denville. The bird is 
common in most of Warren, Sussex, and Passaic Counties, 
and steadily decreases eastward and southeastward. East of 
a north and south line running approximately through Plain- 
held and Boonton it is an exceedingly rare bird until we get 
south to Staten Island, where it reaches the coast. This 
line of demarcation is quite sharply defined in places. At 
Boonton Mr. Carter informs me that it occurs regularly six 
miles west of the town, but he has never seen it further east. 
Similarly at Plainfield Mr. Miller finds it is much rarer to the 
east. On Long Island the bird is occasional in spring and 
summer at the extreme western end, notably in Prospect 
Park, Brooklyn, and also at the extreme eastern end in the 
Orient Region. In the intervening area it is very rare or 
unknown. In the rest of Xew York State in our area it i- a 
very rare visitor. 



180 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

The Turkej' Vulture can be recognized with practise at the 
limit of human vision. The very long wings are narrower 
than those of a Bald Eagle, and the tail is never spread like a 
fan. Its flight is light and graceful, while that of the Bald 
Eagle impresses one as heavy and powerful. 

Long Island. Occasional summer visitant. March 20, 1908, 
Prospect Park (E. Fleischer) to September 5 and December 23. 

Orient. Uncommon visitant; May 3, 1908 to December 
23, 1917. 

Mastic. No record. 

Long Beach. April 9, 1922 (Roger C. Whitman); a pair 

April 18, 1922 (C. H. Lott). 

New York State. Very rare, except on Staten Island, where it 

is of regular occurrence, the earliest date April 6, 1913 (Cleaves). 

Recorded June 4, 1922 at Pleasantville, Westchester County (Frank 

E. Watson). 

Central Park. Casual, one record of a bird flying over- 
head years ago (F. M. Chapman). 

Bronx Region. Very rare; seen on several occasions flying 
over the Zoological Gardens (Lee S. Crandall). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident in the extreme western 
and northwestern sections (Miller and Griscom), east to Green- 
wood Lake (Miller), Newfoundland (Miller), Denville, just west of 
Boonton, Bernardsville, and Plainfield; young in the nest have 
been found near Denville and Boonton. Very rare east of these 
points near the Hudson River; one record for Morristown 
(Thurber); casual near Summit (Hann); unknown at Ridgewood 
(J. M. Johnson) ; no records in recent years near Elizabeth (Urner) ; 
March 20, 1911, Bernardsville (Kuser) to November 2, 1911, High 
Point, Sussex Co. (Kuser). 

Englewood Region. Very rare visitor, only three records; 
April 12, 1902 (Rogers); April 15, 1911 (Hix and Rogers); 
June 12. 1915 (Fleischer). 

Black Vulture (Cathan'sta urubu) 
A southern species which has straggled as far north as our 
territory on a few occasions. A sight record should, there- 
fore, be made with the greatest care. The two species of 
Vultures afford an excellent illustration of a principle in 



ANNOTATED LIST OP THE BIRDS 1M 

sight identification which often puzzles or irritates inex- 
perienced students. It is perfectly true that either can be 
recognized at the limit of human vision by anyone who knows 
both birds well. It is equally true that an observer who does 
not know the Black Vulture, and who identifies it by its 
black head and silvery wings, has not produced a record of 
any scientific value. The young Turkey Vulture has a black 
head, the red head of the adult looks black at any distance 
unless the light strikes it just right, and similarly the light 
playing through its half -spread primaries often gives a false 
grayish or silvery effect. The Black Vulture is, however, 
readily identifiable on the wing by shape and flight character- 
istics. It is a heavier bird than the Turkey Vulture, the wings 
are flapped more often and more rapidly, and the short tail 
barely projects beyond the hind edge of the wings. A specimen 
has been taken near Sandy Hook just outside our area, and 
two on Long Island. There are two sight records worthy of 
consideration. 

Long Island. One specimen found on Coney Island Beach 
about 1881. One shot on Plum Island, May 19 or 20, 1896 by a 
farmer, preserved by Mr. C. \Y. Crandall of Woodside, and ex- 
amined by Dr. Wm. C. Braislin (see Auk, 1909, p. 315). Mr. Roy 
Latham reports seeing a Black Vulture at Orient May 4, 1907 and 
June 20, 1916. 

Swallow-tailed Kite ( Elanoides forficatus) 
An accidental visitor from the South, formerly straggling 
northward, when it was a much commoner species in the 
East, with a wider range than it now has. 

Long Island. Two captures, in 1837 and 18 \5. 
New Jersey. One shot near Chatham about 1S7H II<rri<k . 
A record of two Been September 18, l^sT near Morristown by L. 

P. Shirrer and George Held is without any details, and is not con- 
vincing. 



1S2 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Marsh Hawk (Circus hudsonius) 
The Marsh Hawk is a permanent resident near New York 
City, but is locally uncommon or absent in summer and in 
winter. As a transient it is common throughout, and at this 
season occurs in all types of unforested country. Adult males 
are comparatively scarce. They occasionally perform com- 
plicated aerial evolutions, dropping from a height, looping 
the loop, or turning completely over sideways. Marsh Hawks 
can always be recognized at any distance by the long, pointed 
wings, steady flight, and long, squarish tail. 

Long Island. Fairly common summer resident, uncommon 
permanent resident. Migrants arrive in numbers the third week 
in March and again in late September. 

Orient. Rare summer resident , more common transient ; fre- 
quently in winter. March 1 to May 15; August 1 to December 1. 
Mastic. Fairly common permanent resident. 
Long Beach. Permanent resident, occasional in summer 
and frequent in winter, common on migration, which has 
commenced as early as August 4, 1921 (Bicknell) 
New York State. Now extirpated as a breeding species except 
possibly in northern Westchester County, and uncommon at all 
times of the year near the City. 

Central Park. Now very rare or casual during migration; 
no record since May 15, 1906 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Bred in Van Cortlandt Park swamp at 
least up to 1896 (Dwight); bred in the West Farms marshes 
in 1909 (Griscom); now an uncommon transient; April 15, 
1916 (L. N. Nichols); September 18, 1921 (L. N. Nichols) to 
December 6, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Now rare or absent near the City as a breeding 
species, but two pairs nest on the Newark Marshes near Elizabeth- 
port (Urner) and another on the Overpeck Marshes near Leonia 
(Griscom). Increasing as a summer resident westward and north- 
ward, but nowhere really common. As a transient common 
throughout. Not infrequently wintering on the marshes near New 
York City, but rare or absent northwestward at this season. 

Englewood Region. A pair breeds on the Overpeck 
Marshes. Common transient, uncommon in winter; always 
present from mid March to mid May and from early September 
to December. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS L83 

Sharp-shinned Hawk {Accipit* r velox) 
This and the next two species can be readily distinguished 
from our other Hawks by their short rounded wings and long 
tails, which are never pointed. The dashing flight is usually 
in alternate periods of flapping and sailing. When migrating 
they usually fly at a great height, but when hunting they fly 
below the tree-tops. Shy and wary, they are seldom seen 
perched, and a really good study of one is exceptional. As a 
result the identification of the several species in life is quite 
critical, as it is with most of our Hawks. Indeed it is no 
exaggeration to say that none of_our local birds are so fre- 
quently misidentified, on imaginary characters as well. 

Anyone who knows enough to recognize an Accipiter 
when he sees it can hope to distinguish the Sharp-shinned 
from the Cooper's on a fair proportion of occasions. Adults 
of both are bluish-gray above, but the Cooper's has a black- 
ish cop. In this plumage both species are finely barred below. 
This will serve to eliminate the adult Pigeon Hawk, which is 
heavily streaked below, should a tame bird be found perched, 
when the cut of wings and tail is indeterminable. There are 
no color differences in immature birds. AYhen it comes to 
size, the difference between a male Sharp-shinned and a 
female Cooper's is so marked as to be readily noticeable. 
Female Sharp-shins and male Cooper's cannot, however, be 
separated safely by size in life. The Sharp-shinned often has a 
square tail, the Cooper's a distinctly rounded one, but large 
Sharp-shins often have a partially rounded tail. This char- 
acter is not, therefore, the absolute one that many students 
believe it to be. 

The Sharp-shinned Hawk is a common transient through- 
out our area, often abundant in well-marked flights with a 
DOrthwest wind in the fall, these flight- best marked at the 
eastern end of Long Island and in the hills of northern New 
Jersey. It is uncommon in winter and summer. 

Long Island. Common transient, uncommon permanent 
resident. 



184 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Orient. Common transient, rare in winter; March 1 to 
May 3; August 2 to December. 

Mastic. Uncommon permanent resident, common as a 
spring transient. 

Long Beach. Very rare on migration; September 14, 1920 
(Janvrin); December 12, 1918 (E. P. Bicknell). 
New York State. Now extirpated as a summer resident except 
possibly in northern Westchester County. Rare in winter. 

Central Park. Uncommon but regular transient, occur- 
ring every year both spring and fall; April 8, 1909 (Anne A. 
Crolius) to May 16, 1917 (Janvrin); August 15, 1913 (Griscom) 
to December 25, 1906 (Rogers); February 5, 1909 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Formerly a summer resident, not found 

nesting since 1916; a common transient, April 23, 1916 (L. 

N. Nichols) to May 27, 1919 (L. N. Nichols); September 21, 

1919 (L. N. Nichols) to November 3, 1916 (E. G. Nichols). 

These dates are very poor; no recent winter records. 

New Jersey. An uncommon summer resident throughout the 

area, but now rare or absent near the City; a common transient; 

rare in winter. 

Englewood Region. Common transient, rare in winter; 
March 21, 1915 (Rogers) to May 18, 1919 (Griscom); August 
3, 1912 (Weber) to November 6, 1915 (R. S. Lemmon). Not 
positively known to nest in recent years, but its breeding in the 
northern section of the Region is suspected and is probable. 

Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperi) 
Cooper's Hawk must be regarded as a fairly common 
summer resident for a Hawk in the wilder parts of our terri- 
tory, and is unquestionably more numerous at this season 
than the Sharp-shinned. As a transient it is much less com- 
mon, however, and is equally rare in winter. Near New 
York City the observer will see at least ten times as many 
of the smaller species during the }^ear. The extreme eastern 
end of Long Island is, however, an exception to this state- 
ment. On Gardiner's Island I should consider this species 
a common transient in the fall. 

Long Island. Fairly common summer, occasional permanent 
resident. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRD8 185 

Orient. Rare and local summer resident; less rare as a 

transient; rare in winter; August 28 to May 20. 
Mastic. Uncommon at all seasons. 
Long Beach. Very rare on migration; one shot September 
1, 1890 (J. I). Foot); Septembers, 1<)21, September 29, 1921, 
and November 24, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. No longer nesting except possibly in north- 
ern Westchester County; uncommon or rare as a transient; rare 
in winter. 

Central Park. Very rare transient; May 17, 1917 (Jan- 
vrin); October 3, 1921 (Griscom) to November 7, 1904 (Hix); 
only five records in the last eighteen years. 

Bronx Region. Uncommon transient, rare in winter; 

March 18, 1918 (C. L. Lewis) to May 30, 1917 (Janvrin); 

September 11, 1917 (C. L. Lewis) to December 25, 1916 (L. 

X. Nichols.; January 30, 1915 (Hix). 

New Jersey. Relatively, a fairly common summer resident in 

the wilder section, absent near the City; a common transient in 

the hills of the extreme northwest (von Lengerke), uncommon 

elsewhere; rare in winter. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient, rare in winter; 
March 18, 1911 (Griscom) to May 30, 1916 (Bowdish); August 
20, 1887 (Chapman) to November 14, 1910 (Griscom and 
LaDowj. 

Goshawk (Astur atrial pittus) 
The Goshawk is one of our very rarest and most irregular 
winter visitants. Fierce, bold, and powerful, it is a scourge of 
game, poultry and our smaller birds, and from this point of 
view its local rarity is a blessing. In no other case is the col- 
lecting of the specimen as proof of a record so positively 
beneficial. The adult is said to have a paler and more uni- 
form tone than any other Hawk except the Marsh Hawk, 
ami this is regarded as a reliable field character. At close 
range the black cap and auricular patch separated by the 
white superciliary -tripe, are distinctive. The immature bird 
cannot be told from a Cooper's Hawk unless carefully meas- 
ured. It i- true that a large female is much larger than a 
Cooper'- Hawk, but the local rarity of the bird make- it- 



186 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

identification in life on size alone entirely unsatisfactory. 

Unfortunately the majority of the individuals which reach 

our area are immature. Well-marked flights have occurred 

on a very few occasions, in 1863, 1889, 1895-96, 1898-99, and 

in 1906. The last flight, however, did not materialize near 

New York City, and there are scarcely any records in the 

last twenty-three years. The Goshawk is, therefore, without 

any question, the rarest of the irregular winter visitants, 

whose occurrence cannot b>3 regarded as casual or accidental. 

Long Island. Very rare and irregular winter visitant, October 

10 to April 19, more frequent at the eastern end; I know of only 

one record for the western end of the island since 1899, November 

12, 1915, Half Hollow Hills (F. M. Schott). 

Orient. Very rare and irregular winter visitant, December 
16, 1908 to April 19, 1920 (both Gardiner's Island). 
New York State. I have only one record. 

Bronx Region. One record; for several days in January 
1919 an adult preyed upon the waterfowl in the Zoological 
Garden (Lee S. Crandall). Mr. Crandall most kindly acceded 
to my request for details, and sent me a full account of his ex- 
perience. He succeeded in approaching the bird within 100 feet, 
but was never able to get a fair shot. He fired and scared it off. 
New Jersey. In the extreme northwestern part of Sussex 
County, the Goshawk is an irregular winter visitor, occurring almost 
every winter, but is usually rare. Flights occurred in 1916-17 and 
again in 1917-18, and Mr. Justus von Lengerke killed nine the 
first winter and sixteen the latter near Stag Lake. He has kindly 
presented the Museum with specimens taken on dates ranging 
from October 19, 1918 to April 19, 1919. In the rest of the State, 
however, the Goshawk is so rare as to be practically unknown in 
recent years. An adult shot near Elizabeth about 1895 (Urner); 
recorded near Plainfield in December 1907, when three specimens 
were shot locally (Miller). 

Englewood Region. One record, an adult male collected 
November 15, 1918 (Weber). 

Red-tailed Hawk (Butco borealis) 
The Buzzards, or Buteo group of Hawks, can always be 
recognized by their broad wings, short fan-shaped tail, and 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 187 

soaring flight. As they wheel in circles high overhead, often 
uttering a scream which is audible when the bird is practically 
beyond the limit of vision, they arc very conspicuous, 

and the farmer blames them for the ravaging of the 
poultry yard which is usually done by the silent and low- 
Hying Accipiter. 

Of our three species the Red-tail is the largest, soars 
with the minimum flapping of wings, and in the widest 
circles. It should not, however, be identified by these points 
alone. The adult has a red tail which is almost always visible 
at the moment when the bird wheels. The immature fre- 
quently resembles an immature Red-shouldered Hawk, and 
can hardly be distinguished at times in life. Few birds 
exhibit more variation in plumage. Practically black birds 
occur. I have seen individuals with whitish heads and pri- 
maries and otherwise splotched with whitish, and every stage 
in between is known. Such extreme plumages are readily 
recognizable, of course. A very common state has a distinct 
dark band on the breast, an effect which no plumage of the 
Red-shoulder produces. Very often there are a few dark 
feather- on the under surface of the wing at the bend or 
carpal joint, giving the appearance of a small dark patch. 
The scream of the Red-tail is more sputtering, with more of a 
squeal in it. than the clear note of the Red-shouldered Hawk. 

In our area the Red-tail is chiefly a common winter 
resident, preferring river meadows and open marshes. It 
breeds only in the hill country of noil hern New Jersey and 
the wilder parts of Long Island. 

Long Island. Common permanent resident. 

Orient. Hare breeder on Gardiner's Island, hut common 
there in winter Griscom); otherwise an uncommon transient 
and winter resident, August 25 to April 26. 
Mastic. Fairly common resident. 
Lono Be \< el ( me record, April 19, 1916 EL Pi Bicknell . 
New York State. Not now definitely known to nest in our 
section. 



188 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Central Park. Now very rare on migration, no record 
since 1910; September 24, 1908 (Griscom) to December 25, 
1906 (Rogers) . I cannot credit the report that it nested com- 
monly in the Park in 1886. 

Bronx Region. A common winter resident; September 
19, 1915 (L. N. Nichols) to April 4, 1914 (Hix). 

New Jersey. Breeds in the northwestern section. The nest has 
been found near Newton (P. B. Philipp). Otherwise a more or less 
common winter resident, but reported in summer near Montclair 
(Howland). 

Englewood Region. Common winter resident, October 
10, 1915 (J. M. Johnson and Rogers) to May 18, 1913 (Gris- 
com and others). Rare after the first week in April, and does 
not arrive in numbers until really cold weather. 



Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) 

This Hawk is generally a common resident, and stands 
the approach of civilization better than any other except the 
Sparrow Hawk. It prefers the richer lowland woods to nest 
in. It is absent from the higher hillsides in New Jersey, where 
it is replaced by the Broad-winged Hawk, and in wilder sec- 
tions in northern New Jersey and Long Island is replaced by 
the Red-tail. There is no better illustration of the way three 
related birds divide the available country between them, a 
division which is purely ecological and not faunal. Adults 
have reddish-brown underparts and a black tail with five to 
six narrow white bands. They are readily identifiable. 
Immature birds closely resemble immature Red-tails, but can 
sometimes be determined by the absence of all the characters 
given under that species. It should be remembered that 
large females are almost as large as small male Red-tails. 

Long Island. Locally common resident, absent where the 
Red-tail occurs. 

Orient. Probably a rare summer resident; uncommon 
transient and winter resident; August 16 to May 2. 
Mastic. No record. 
Long Beach. No record. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 189 

New York State. ( !ommon resident, except near the City. 
CENTRAL PARK. Now a rare transient, formerly more 
frequent; April 18, 1908 Griscom to April 20, 1913 (Anne A. 
Croliufl ; September 26, l ( .»o."> Hi\ to December 24, 1908 

Anne A. Crolius); one winter record 20 years ago Rogers . 
Buieos are noted every fall Bying over, but can rarely be 
identified. In recent years they have not lit in the Park. 

BRONX REGION. A common winter resident, a few pairs 
still nesting. 
New Jersey. Common resident in the lowlands of our area. 
Absent in summer and rare in winter in the hilly northwestern 
Bection. 

Englewood Region. Common resident, increasing during 
its migrations. 

Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) 
The Broad-winged Hawk can unquestionably claim the 
dubious distinction of being the most misidentified of our 
local birds, and it is no exaggeration to state that ninety 
per cent of the entries in the note books of students regarding 
this species up to a few years ago were either unreliable or 
unsatisfactory. Those who know a Buteo by the cut of the 
wings and tail can. under favorable circumstances, identify 
this species positively. The adult has a large part of the 
under side of the wings pure white with a black tip. The tail 
has two to four broad light-colored bands, which show from 
below. The smaller size is often an aid. but the bird must 
not be identified by its -ize. it> '-broad wings," or the way it 
Hap- it- wings when -oaring. Immature birds are apt to 
•he color characters given, and are consequently Less 
often identifiable. A bird Been at close range will sometimes 
have noticeable dark " iniiM aches." The greatest cause <>f 
confusion is the immature Red-shouldered Hawk, which does 
not i the five to <i\ distinct narrow tail-bars of the 

adult, and is consequently identified as a Broad-winged. 
The best way to make the acquaintance of the Broad-winged 
Hawk i- to go to the hill region in New Jersey and st udy :i pair 



190 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

on their breeding grounds. They are remarkably tame and 
unsuspicious, and their call-note or scream is sure to betray 
their whereabouts. It has been aptly likened to a Wood 
Pewee's note. Another way of describing it is to compare it 
to a steam whistle, which gradually "peeters out" as the sup- 
ply of steam fails. Armed with this experience the student 
will stand a much better chance of correctly determining 
migrating birds. 

Much false and unreliable information about the status 
of this species in our area has been published, and repeated 
by others who were not in a position to determine its inac- 
curacy. There is no foundation whatever for the statement 
that it is a permanent resident. Some two years ago Mr. W. 
deW. Miller, Mr. J. T. Nichols, several active members of the 
Linna^an Society, and the writer started carefully checking 
its status. Extended observation in every section of the 
area shows conclusively that the Broad-winged Hawk is a 
summer resident in favorable places. As a transient it is 
common only in the hill country of New Jersey, where great 
nights are occasionally noted, and elsewhere is uncommon or 
rare. Few birds are more regular in arriving in spring, and 
it is frequently reported from widely separated localities on 
the same day; the dates are between April 20 and 25, the 
last May 10 to May 20; the fall migration is from September 
5 to October 23. As this species winters mainly in South 
America and does not reach southeastern Texas until the 
first week in April, it is as likely to occur in early March and 
November as a Wood Thrush, and it has a poorer claim to be 
called a permanent resident than the Baltimore Oriole, which 
has actually occurred in winter. Suffice it to state that I 
know of no specimens taken locally between October and 
late April, and none such can b3 found in the collections of 
Chapman, Dwight, Dutcher, Mearns, Braislin, Worthington, 
and others in the American Museum. The presence of the 
bird in winter apparently goes back to Fisher's "Hawks and 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS li)l 

Owls of the United States/' where in a tabular list of 
stomachs examined, one is cited as collected on January 20, 
1890 at Huntington, Long Island. Whether this stomach 
came from a Broad-winged Hawk is strongly open to doubt. 
If it did, it would merely prove that this species had occurred 
once casually in winter. Old reports of March arrivals and 
all other winter records are sight records, made at a time 
when the books misled the student, and he had no apprecia- 
tion of the importance of his observation. When we consider 
in addition the proved unreliability of most sight records of 
this species until recent years, it seems the best thing to 
reject all abnormal dates until such are definitely authenti- 
cated by specimens. 

Long Island. Locally a fairly common summer resident on 
the higher parts of the north shore and the wilder parts of the south 
shore. Definite dates are defective. The few breeding birds appar- 
ently arrive late, and Long Island seems out of the main track of 
transients, at least in spring. Definite dates are May 10 to Sep- 
tember 24. 1887 (Long Island City, specimen taken). The bird 
should certainly occur in late April and early October. 

Orient. Rare summer resident on Gardiner's Island and 
Greenport (Latham). Mr. Latham's dates are March 10 to 
November 20; these must be regarded as problematical until 
authenticated by specimens (Griscom). 

Mastic Uncommon summer resident. The earliest 
arrival date in many years' observation is May I'K 1921. 
New York State. Generally a rare transient in our section. 
Perhaps still nesting near Ossining, as it did formerly ( Fisher i. 

CENTRAL Pahk. Very rare transient, not recorded in the 
last ten years, many of the earlier reports problematical. May 
1. 1909 Griscom to May 20. 1911 'Anne A. Croliusi; Sep- 
tember 9, 1913 Mix to September 27. 1905 (Hix). There 
was a marked flight in the fall of 1905, and hundred- were 
seen overhead on September 23 8. 11. Chubb . 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; April 24, 1921 (Granger . 
- Member 17. 1919 (Granger ; September 22. 1915 I. N 
Nichols); September 17. 1922 (Griscom . 
New Jersey. A common summer resident in the hills, replacing 
the Red-shouldered Hawk of the lowlands. In the northwestern 



192 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

sections this species and the Red-tail occur together. A common 
transient, often abundant in fall, over the hills inland, but much 
scarcer near the Hudson. The earliest fall arrival date is September 
5 at Stag Lake, Sussex Co. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient, April 20, 
1913 (J. T. Nichols) to May 3, 1914 (Griscom, LaDow, N. F. 
Lenssen, and J. M. Johnson); September 23, 1908 (Griscom) 
to October 5, 1919 (Griscom and Rogers). A pair bred at 
Palisades Park until 1914 (Weber), when the locality was 
destroyed. 

Rough-legged Hawk (Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis) 
In life the Rough-leg bears a close resemblance to the 
Buteos, but has slightly longer wings and a longer tail, which 
I have never seen spread fanwise. It is a heavy, sluggish bird, 
and occasional efforts at circling or soaring require a lot of 
wing napping. The black axillar patches are a striking field- 
mark. Otherwise its normal plumage suggests a young 
Marsh Hawk, but the cut of the wings and tail is different, 
and it utterly lacks the lightness and grace of the Harrier. 
With us it is a regular winter visitor to the coast of Long 
Island and the larger river marshes, but is much rarer or 
unrecorded in the interior. 

Long Island. Irregularly common winter visitant, present 
every year. October 18 to April 8, casually to May 3 and 7. 

Orient. Uncommon winter visitant, November 10, 1910 
to May 3, 1914 at East Marion. 

Mastic. Fairly common winter visitant, arriving as early 
as October 18, 1915. 

Long Beach. Uncommon winter visitant, November 5, 

1912 (Griscom) to March 31, 1912 (Griscom), casually to May 

7, 1914 (E. P. Bicknell). 

New York State. Generally a decidedly rare winter visitant. 

Central Park. Casual, October 31, 1914 (J. T. Nichols). 

Bronx Region. Rare winter visitant, November 21, 1914 

(Hix) to April 4, 1914 (A. A. Saunders). 

New Jersey. Rare or uncommon in the big marshes near the 

Hudson River; still rarer further inland, and I have no reports 

from the northwestern sections, but it should occurjoccasionally 




Plate III. Cardinal 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 193 

on ilw larger marshes. Three records for Montclair (Howland); 

rare at Morristown (Thurber). 

ENGLEWOOD REGION. Uncommon winter visitant, some- 
times present all winter on the Overpeek Marshes, other years 
unrecorded. October 10, 1915 (J. M. .Johnson and Rogers) 
to April 7. 1918 (J. M. Johnson). 

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) 

There is some evidence to show that in colonial times the 
Golden Eagle was less rare in the East than now, and it 
apparently bred in the Hudson Highlands. In our territory, 

however, it is purely casual. Only the most extraordinary 
luck would enable an observer to distinguish it in life from 
the Bald Eagle, as a top mew would be essential. Immature 
birds could not possibly be told from an immature Bald Eagle. 
Long Island. Three records, an old specimen from Canarsie; 

October 6, 1^77; October 19, 1890. 

New Jersey. Only two records, an adult female killed near 

Culver's Gap, Sussex County, November 23, 1918 (Miller, Auk, 

1919, p. 293); another shot in the same locality September 22, 

1922 i von Len^erke). 

Bald Eagle (Halidtetus leucocephalus) Fig. 15 
The experienced can recognize an Eagle at great distances 
by the enormous extent of the wings (often over seven feet) 
which is six or seven times the length of the tail. Country 
people, however, are likely to call any large bird flying at a great 
height an Eagle! These proportions are approached only by 
the Turkey Vulture, whose wings are much narrower, and 
whose flight and soaring characteristics tire quite different. 
The Bald Eagle has a most irregular distribution in our area, 
which will be found in detail below. The bird nests very 
early: consequently its presence as a transient chiefly in 
late Bpring and early fall is hard to explain. Student- can 
count on seeing it along the Palisades any winter just alter a 
cold wave, when half a dozen or more birds can be seen Bitting 
on ice cakes in the River during a Bhori walk. 



/ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 195 

Long Island. Locally common in summer in the wilder sec- 
tions, occasional in winter; rare, however, at the western end of the 

island. So far as I know the nest has never been found. February 
12 to September 30. 

Orient. Uncommon visitant, occurring at any time of 
year. 

MASTIC. Fairly common summer resident; may breed; 
occasionally noted in winter, and is perhaps a permanent 
resident. 

Long Beach. Very rare, an adult found on a sandbar 
May 29. 1915 (Hix and L. X. Nichols); an immature, October 
29, 1922 Hix . 

New York State. Rare transient on Staten Island; recent 
records are August 22. 11)14 and September 24, 1911 (Cleaves). 
Regular and often common winter visitant on the Hudson River 
in the section of the Palisades from December to late March, often 
.seen from the 125th Street Ferry. Formerly a permanent resi- 
dent near Ossining (Fisher), but its breeding there now requires 
confirmation, though highly probable (Brandreth). 

( 'kxtral Park. Casual; fall of 1866 I Woodruff and Paine ; 
February 8, 1909 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Only recorded in winter, such birds un- 
doubtedly wanderers from the Hudson River; February 17. 
1912 (Griscom and Hix; February 23, 1920 (L. X. Nichols . 

New Jersey. Fairly common winter visitant along the Hud- 
son. Inland a rare or very rare transient, chiefly reported in May, 
late August and September. There are June records also, but these 
must not be regarded as indications of breeding. The bird is 
reported as present all summer on Greenwood Lake. This would 
indicate a breeding pair, which, however, might be actually nesting 
twenty or more miles away, as no bird covers a wider range <>i 
territory at this season. There is no definite evidence then that the 
Bald Eagle breed- in northern New Jersey. Transients in June 
may possibly be wanderers from more southern breeding grounds. 
No winter record inland. 

Englewood Region. Fairly common winter residenl on 
the Hudson. December.'). 1901 W. II. Wjegmann to March 
16. 1912 Griscom : very rare transient inland, only two 
records; May 2. 1915 -I. M. Johnson ; May 11. 1921 W 
deW. Miller . 



196 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus gyrfalco) 
Gyrfalcons are primarily arctic birds. This and the next 
have occasionally straggled south in winter to the United 
States. Specimens of this race have been shot on Long Island 
in 1856 and 1877. 

Black Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus obsoletus) 
Specimens have been shot on Long Island in 1875 and 
1899. Another was shot in Westchester County in 1879. 

Duck Hawk (Falco peregrinus anatum) 
The Duck Hawk or Peregrine is a permanent resident on the 
Palisades of the Hudson, at least two pairs nesting in our 
territory. These birds are not infrequently seen in various 
parts of New York City where they have learned that there is 
excellent pigeon hunting. On Long Island the bird occurs 
regularly as a transient along the outer beaches in May, 
September, and early October, but is casual at other seasons. 
It is exceedingly rare inland in Northern New Jersey, and is 
not reported from most localities. 

Falcons can always be recognized by their pointed wings 
and long pointed tails. The Duck Hawk is readily recogniz- 
able by its size and its black " mustaches." The wing-beats 
are rapid and continuous, and its flight impresses one by its 
speed and power. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, common in the fall; 
May 12 to May 28, 1922, Jones Beach (Crosby, Griseom, Janvrin, 
J. M. Johnson); September 16 to October 28; one December 
record; an exceptionally early bird noted April 5, 1916 at Garden 
City (J. T. Nichols). 

Orient. Casual, September 20; December 25, 1908; 
May 20. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Regular in the fall, September 23, 1920 
(Bicknell) to November 1, 1920 (Bicknell); one spring record 
May 15, 1919 (Bicknell); one winter record, February 3, 
1922 (Bicknell). 



/ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS i!»i 

New York State. Birds from the Palisades visit the City for 
pigeons at all times of the year. Reported as casual at Ossining 
Fisher . 

Central Park. Likely to he observed at any time of the 

year. I have had a bird strike a Starling within 15 feet of me. 

Bronx Region. Not uncommon visitor at any time of the 

year. 

New Jersey. Resident on the Palisades; a very rare transient 

or unrecorded elsewhere. One seen in the Plainfield Region, 

January 1, 1910 (Miller). 

Exglewood Reciox. Permanent resident on the Palisades. 
These birds hunt in New York City so exclusively that they 
are almost unknown inland. - 

Pigeon Hawk (Falco columbarius) 

Next to the Broad-winged Hawk this dashing little Falcon 
is more often misidentified than any other species, and for 
some reason Sparrow Hawks are constantly "transmogrified" 
into the rarer bird. The adult male is bluish-gray above, 
white below, heavily streaked. It is so much smaller than a 
Duck Hawk that confusion here is scarcely excusable. The 
female and immature are brownish above, the tail with several 
incomplete lighter bars. The female Sparrow Hawk always 
ha- a bright reddish-brown tail with many narrow black 
bars. Size differences are of no value. 

In our area the Pigeon Hawk is best known as a transient 
along the coast chiefly in September, when it is often common. 
Inland this condition is reversed; it is rare or uncommon in 
spring, and much rarer in fall. Contrary to what many 
believe and what is often stated in books, the bird i> casual 
October IS and April 15. A sight record at this season 
ifl noteworthy, and should be authenticated with the greatest 
care. The great majority of such reports are here regarded 

a- absolutely unreliable. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, especially in fall; 

April 24 to May 21; September J to October 24; casual later; 

■■' irnens t;ik<-n on Shelter Island, November 22. 1898 W. W. 



198 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Worthington) and December 31, 1903 at Mt. Sinai (R. C. Murphy); 
seen at Garden City, November 23, 1919 (J. T. Nichols). Mr. 
Dutcher's Notes contain a record for February 14 for Suffolk 
County. Unfortunately this is the only one of his dates not sup- 
ported by a specimen. 

Orient. Rare transient, September 14 to May 11. (Mr. 
Latham apparently includes the record of February 14 cited 
above. — Griscom) . 

Mastic. Fairly common fall transient, the latest date 
October 24, 1920; rare in spring, April 24, 1921. 

Long Beach. Rare spring, regular fall transient; May 4, 

1919 (Granger and Janvrin); September 5, 1910 (Hix and 

Rogers) to October 15, 1916 (Rogers), October 26, 1916 

(Bicknell), and November 5, 1918 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Reported as a fairly common transient at 

Ossining (Fisher) . This is certainly not the case today near the City. 

Central Park. Uncommon spring transient, one or two 

birds seen almost every year, April 24, 1922 (Griscom) to 

May 6, 1901 (S. H. Chubb); very rare in the fall, September 

24, 1913 (Hix) to October 10, 1917 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Only two recent records; May 9, 1920 
(L. N. Nichols); September 17, 1922 (Griscom). 
New Jersey. An uncommon or rare spring transient, much 
rarer in the fall. At Stag Lake, Sussex County, Mr. Justus von 
Lengerke has shot specimens now in the Museum between Sep- 
tember 23, 1916 and October 20, 1912. So few individuals pass 
through in spring that an observer who is out on Sundays only is 
more than likely to miss the bird. The greater number of records 
are between April 28 and Ma} 7 6. The earliest arrival dates before 
me are April 13, 1919 near Elizabeth (Urner) and April 16, 1922 
near Plainfield (Miller). The earliest of the very few fall records is 
September 4, 1921 near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Rare spring transient, April 17, 
1904 (Isaac Bildersee) to May 18, 1919 (Griscom and W. T. 
Helmuth); only one satisfactory fall record, September 22 
1918 (Hix). 

Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius) 
AYherever conditions are favorable the Sparrow Hawk is a 
common permanent resident, though its numbers are often 
greatly reduced in winter, when it is sometimes locally 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 199 

absent. Even in New York ( 'it v an occasional pair nests in a 
hole in the walls of some building, and helps in reducing the 
supply of English Sparrows. The bird dot's not nest on the 
outer beaches of Long Island as a general rule, and Mr. 
Latham regards it as a rare breeder in the Orient Region. 
Transients pass through our area chiefly in April and October. 
It seems useless to cite its status in greater detail. In all 
sections it cannot be overlooked throughout most of the year. 

Fish Hawk (Pandion haliaetus carolinensis) 
The Fish Hawk still nests -abundantly on Gardiner's 
Island, and also breeds on the northern coast of New Jersey 
just outside our limits. It is not known definitely to nest 
elsewhere in this territory at the present time. As a transient 
it is common on the coast of Long Island, but is now scarce 
in the Hudson River valley. Inland in New Jersey it is 
decidedly uncommon or rare, but is noted occasionally flying 
overhead almost everywhere. The great extent of wing, the 
white head and underparts make this fine species recognizable 
at a great distance. 

Long Island. Common transient; abundant summer resident 
on Gardiner's Island; occasional in summer elsewhere. March 18 
To October 21 (November 17). 

Orient. Common summer resident; March 18, 1905 to 
( )ctober 22, 1915; average March 23 to October 10. 

Mastic. Common transient, uncommon in summer, may 
breed; noted November 1, 1920 (Laidlaw Williams). 

Long Beach. Common transient; March 30, 1919 (Bick- 
nelli to June 8, 1922 (Bicknell); July 11, 1918 and Augu-t 1. 
1917 Bicknell) to October 30, 1919 (Bicknell and Crosby). 
New York State. Not now known as a nesting species. Form- 
erly bred near Ossining (Fisher), on Staten Island, and in what is 
now Bronx Park. Apparently a rare or uncommon transient. 

Central Park. Seen almost every year flying overhead 

during migrations. Once or twice noted fishing in the Lake. 

LeSfl often seen now than formerly. April 5, 1913 ('Anne A. 

Crolius) to May 27. l«»jn Griscom : September 11. 1922 

Griscom to October 18, 1922 Griscom). 



200 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Bronx Region*. Bred formerly. Now a rare transient, 
April 11, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) to May 3, 1920 (L. X. Nichols); 
September 13, 1921 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. Uncommon transient near the Hudson River, 
decreasing northwestward. Air. Urner's dates near Elizabeth are 
April 2, 1922 to May 20, 1917; August 10, 1921 to October 13, 
1918. These are excellently representative. Even as far inland as 
Newton, Sussex County, it has been noted as late as October 12, 
1914 (Hix). Casual December 25, 1918 near Morristown (R. C. 
Caskey) . 

Englewood Regiox. Uncommon but regular transient; 

March 27, 1921 (Griscom and Janvrin) to May 25, 1890 (F. 

M. Chapman i ; no good fall arrival date; latest October 20. 

1907 (Hix and Rogers). 

Barn Owl (Ahico pratincola)¥ig. 16 
The Barn Owl is a rare resident in our area, but is in all 
probability commoner than the scant records would indicate, 
as no Owl is so nocturnal, so generally silent, and more 
easily overlooked. Its chosen haunts are often almost impos- 
sible of investigation. If the student could search church 
steeples, belfries, dove-cots in old farm buildings, and barns, 
as zealously as he did conifer groves and hollows in trees, he 
would undoubtedly see more Barn Owls. The bird rarely 
nests in hollow trees in our area, and it is exceptional to find 
it roosting in conifers. It is at the northern limit of its range 
here, but seems to wander around to a certain extent after 
the breeding season, as it turns up in the most unexpected 
places, either north of its known breeding range, or at a place 
like Mont auk Point, where its nesting is inconceivable. The 
very light coloration, long legs, and prominent facial disks, 
prevent the Barn Owl from being confused with any other 
species. It is too often shot on sight as a curiosity, and the 
evidence before me would show that it is less common than 
formerly. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 



201 




Photo'irnph h>/ If. E. Anthony 
Fig. 16. Barn Owl. 



Long Island. Rare permanent resident. No definite nesting 
pair located at the present time, and no breeding record except at 
Flushing, and more recently at Jamaica. 

Orient. Three records, March, 1889 and September 30, 

1898 (Gardiner's Island ; October 12, 1898 (East Marion). 

New York State. Still resident on Staten Island, but the 

available evidence Bhows that only wanderers occur further north. 

( )ne yeen on a housetop in Fulton Street, New York City, April 5, 

1s?n by J. B. Bailey. One shot "just outside the City" April 13, 



202 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

1878 according to Mearns. One at Ossining, January , 1873 (A. K. 
Fisher). No other records. 

New Jersey. Has been found nesting in the past near Plain- 
field (Miller) and Summit (Holmes), but no effort has been made 
recently to determine whether the bird still occurs. Old records 
from Chatham and Whippany, Morris County. Mr. Urner has 
more recently found the Barn Owl resident near Elizabeth. It 
undoubtedly breeds, but the nest has not been discovered. 

Englewood. Region. Recorded on several occasions by 
Dr. Chapman. Subsequently found as a resident in what are 
known as the "Phelps Ruins" west of Leonia, where it un- 
doubtedly bred, and observed there for many years. Not 
found there since 1914. 

Long-eared Owl (Asio wilsonianus) 
This fine Owl is an uncommon and local resident, but is a 
common winter visitor to nearly all parts of the region, and, 
as in the winter of 1921-22, might almost be termed abundant 
for an Owl. It is most likely to be found in numbers in 
February, after the first severe mid-winter snow storm, when 
it will appear in various sections at the same time. More 
rarely migrants are reported in November. Winter visitors 
are seldom observed after March, but there are a few late 
April dates. The conifer groves of the Moravian Cemetery 
on Staten Island are the nearest good place to find this owl, 
which is unmistakable when seen perched. Flying, however, 
the long wings make it look as large as a Barred Owl. 

Long Island. Rare resident; uncommon winter visitant, 
sometimes common in February, December 11 to April 16. 

Orient. A winter visitant and rare summer resident at 
Orient. 

Mastic. Rare resident. 
New York State. Regular winter visitant on Staten Island, 
rare elsewhere near the City. Formerly a common permanent 
resident at Ossining (Fisher). Its present status in northern West- 
chester County unknown. 

Central Park. Casual; December 6, 1901 (Rogers); 
November 10, 1904 (S. H. Chubb); February 19, 1905 (C. G. 
Abbott); April 24, 1922 (Janvrin and others). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 203 

Bronx Region. Now a rare winter visitant, only one 
recent record, November 19, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Apparent ly a rare or uncommon resident through- 
out the wilder sections of the area, its numbers greatly increased 
in winter. Recorded April 30, 1922 near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Regular winter resident, no definite 
nesting evidence; (October) November 15 (Weber) to April 
28, 1918 (J. M. Johnson). 

Short-eared Owl (Asia flammeus) 
The Short-eared Owl is a common transient and regular 
winter resident on the coast of Long Island, but is much rarer 
inland. It nests much more commonly than has been sup- 
posed. On rare occasions large flocks are reported. It is pre- 
eminently a bird of the outer beaches and open marshes, and 
is often diurnal. The flight is very peculiar, suggesting that 
of a Xighthawk in the long sweep downward of the wing, and 
the irregularity of the wing-strokes. The breadth of the wings, 
the round head, and the apparent absence of a neck com- 
pletes a picture which is striking at a relatively great distance. 
Long Island. Common winter resident, uncommon as a 
breeder. The nest has been found on Shelter Island, but there is 
little doubt that it nests commonly on Gardiner's Island, and the 
marshes near Long Beach, Jones Beach, Mastic, and probably 
elsewhere. Migrants arrive in October and depart the first week in 
April. Birds seen in late May and June are almost unquestionably 
breeding. 

Orient. Rare resident and winter visitant. 
Mastic. Uncommon summer resident, breeds; more 
common in the fall. 

Long Beach. Uncommon permanent resident. A pair or 

two undoubtedly nest in the marshes back of the beach, as the 

bird is recorded all summer. 

New York State. Rapidly decreasing with the draining of the 

marshes, but still occurring regularly on the south shore of Staten 

[sland. Regarded as casual near Ossining (Tisher). 

Bronx Region. Now of rare occurrence, only two recent 
records. November 19, 1917 (L. X. Nichols) and November 24, 
1919 (L. N. Nichols;. 




Painting by L. A.fFuertes 



Fig. 17. Barred Owl. 

204 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 205 

New Jersey. Known chiefly as a rare transient to the Larger 
opeo marshes; casual or unknown elsewhere. It has recently been 
found nesting on the Newark Hay Marshes by Mr. ('has. A. Truer, 
who found young birds in 1921 and the nest in 1922. 

ENGLEWOOD Region. Hare transient and winter resident, 
October 27, 1909 (Grisconn to April 7, 1918 (J. M. Johnson). 

Barred Owl (Strix varia) Fig. 17 
Of all the larger birds of prey the Barred Owl is unques- 
tionably our commonest species, and forms a well-known 
partnership with the Red-shouldered Hawk in the alluvial 
woodlands of our area. In the coastal plain, or the wilder 
country inhabited by the Great Horned Owl, it is rare or 
absent. Its ability to survive in comparatively settled 
country is astonishing, when one considers its size and its 
constant hooting, which will often carry a mile or more. Its 
wariness is so great that a pair can inhabit a patch of wood- 
land for years without even being seen. Occasionally a tame 
bird will be found roosting in some conifer during the winter 
months, and the student can then determine what a Barred 
( )wl really looks like. He will be impressed with the large, 
liquid, blue-black eyes, which have a much milder expression 
than the fierce yellow ones of our other species. The hooting 
may be described as baritone in quality, and the whoos or 
whaas are usually in couplets. It can be perfectly imitated 
by the human voice except in power, and the Owl is likely to 
talk baek. Economically it is most useful, and the only blot 
on its escutcheon is its cannibalism, all the smaller Owls 
forming an acceptable addition to its larder. 

Long Island. Rare and local resident. 

ORIENT. Very rare winter visitant. 
Mastic No record. 

New York State. Hare or extirpated near New York City. 
1 ormerly common, and probably still surviving on Staten Island 

and in northern Westchester County. 

CENTRAL Pahk. No records under modern conditions. 



206 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

Bronx Region. Perhaps a pair or two are still resident, 
but recorded recently in winter only. 
New Jersey. A generally common resident throughout. 

Englewood Region. A few resident pairs still remain, but 
it is distinctly less common than formerly. 

Great Gray Owl (Scotiaptex nebulosa) 
An accidental visitant from the north. There is one 
record for Long Island, a specimen taken at Mt. Sinai by Mr. 
A. H. Helme, who has mislaid the date. There is an unsatis- 
factory record for New Jersey. Thurber (1887) records one 
shot "near Mendham a number of years ago" by the father 
of a Mr. Fairchild, who furnished him several records. 

Saw-whet Owl (Cryptoglaux acadica) 
This cunning little Owl is a regular and often common 
winter visitant. It is easily overlooked, and is never seen by 
students who do not make a special search for it, except by 
happy accidents, which are normally years apart. Its sup- 
posed rarity may confidently be stated to be a myth. It is 
often extraordinarily tame, and with a little care can be 
caught in the hand. 

Long Island. Fairly common winter visitant, October 10 to 
March 30. One breeding record, Miller Place, 1879 (A. H. Helme). 
Orient. Rare winter visitant, October 10 to March 1. 
New York State. Not uncommon winter visitant, bur scarce 
near the City. A late date is April 28, 1909 on Staten Island (C. G. 
Abbott). Giraud records a bird shot in St. Paul's church-yard, 
New York City, in June, 1842. 

Central Park. Casual in winter; January 4 to 8, 1909 
(Anne A. Crolius); November 5 to 11, 1918 (Albert Pinkus). 
This latter bird was caught alive the first day, brought to the 
Museum for identification, and then replaced on its perch. 

Bronx Region. Only one recent record, October, 1921 
(Lee S. Crandall). Undoubtedly overlooked. 
New Jersey. Regular and sometimes common winter visitant. 
Most often seen in mid-winter, but flights sometimes occur taking 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 207 

the bird further southward in numbers. On such occasions more 
are recorded in November, December, and March. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon winter visitant, 

November 23, 1914 (Bowdish) to April 16, 1922 (Griscom 

and J. M. Johnson). 

Screech Owl (Otus asio) 
The Screech Owl is a common permanent resident in all 
but the wildest sections of our area and the sea beaches, and 
in fact appears to prefer the vicinity of man, for whose 
presence and activities it has profound indifference. It can 
still be found in Central Park and the Bronx. Its quavering 
tremulo is particularly associated with August, and is often 
the only indication of its presence. To see this Owl is more 
difficult, and few people have the necessary patience or en- 
thuasism to be constantly investigating likely holes in trees, 
when success usually means a bite or a scratching. In May, 
when the young are partly grown, there is often no room in 
the family apartment for the father Owl, who is then forced 
to roost in a nearby tree, where a sharp eye will sometimes 
detect him, especially as he will often be the center of an 
abusive circle of small birds, to which he pays not the slightest 
attention. In July the young Owls will emerge at dusk some 
<'vening and sit in a solemn fuzzy row on a tree-limb. 
Your presence is sharply resented, and one or both of the 
parents will fly around your head with a loud snapping of the 
l)ill.v[lt^seems useless to cite its status in greater detail. 

Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) 

Our largest Owl prefers deep swamps or big areas of 

unlumbered woodland, and as a result is no longer common in 

our area. Fierce, wild and untamable, it cannot or will not 

tolerate civilization, and retreats before it . As it doc- serious 

damage to game and poultry, it i- ruthlessly -hot when de- 
tected, and tbifl undoubtedly account- for it- scarcity. It- 
notes are in keeping with it< character and size. It" the 



208 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Barred Owl is a baritone, the Horned Owl is a basso profundo. 
The hoots are more even in tone, less regular in interval, but 
are often heard in triplets. It cannot be exactly imitated, as 
the pitch is below the normal range of the human voice, and 
any loudness of delivery would be out of the question. More 
rarely a blood-curdling scream is given, sounding like a woman 
being murdered, which makes the camper awake trembling 
and sweating, and once heard is never forgotten. On rare 
occasions there are well-marked nights of Horned Owls, 
chiefly in December and early January, when the student 
may discover a bird in country from which the species has 
long since vanished as a resident. Otherwise, seeing one re- 
quires a special trip to wild country in early March in the 
hope of discovering a nest, when the trees are bare. Careful 
long range inspection of old nests of Crows, Hawks, or 
Squirrels may reveal a round head and ears projecting above 
the rim. In the majority of cases, however, the Owl will see 
you first and will melt into the woods on silent wing. 

Long Island. Locally common resident, chiefly in the wilder 
parts of the South Shore. 

Orient. Recorded in December. 
Mastic. Fairly common resident. 

New York State. Perhaps still surviving in northern West- 
chester County, otherwise extinct as a resident. A very rare visi- 
tant in December. 

Central Park. Casual visitor; one shot by a keeper in 
1900 or 1901 (Hix); another shot late in 1904 (R. E. Stack- 
pole); one flushed from a grape vine tangle in the Ramble, 
December 10, 1908 (L. and A. Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Several birds have been shot in the 
Zoological Garden by the keepers. One seen there April 23, 
1916 (L. N. Nichols). This bird was checked up by the Park 
authorities, who reported no captive birds missing. 

New Jersey. Now extirpated, or nearly so, near New York 
City. A pair still survives near Mt. Bethel. It has been seen 
recently near Montclair in July (Howland) and may breed there. 
Soon also in June near Wyanokie (Howland). There is plenty of 




Scarlet Tanageb 
, of the National A&ociation of Aud 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 209 

suitable wild country there. Undoubtedly nesting in the wilder 
sections northward and northwestward, but I have no data. 

Exglewood Region. Occurred formerly (F. M. Chapman) ; 
long since extirpated. 

Arctic Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus subarcticus) 
An accidental visitant from the north. A bird was shot in 
Bronx Park on February 15, 1919 and brought to Mr. Lee S. 
Crandall, who saw at once that it was not a typical specimen 
and forwarded it to the American Museum. It is a female, 
and must be referred to this race. This is the first record for 
New York State. It is of interest to note that the same 
subspecies was obtained in Massachusetts the same winter, 
as recorded by Glover M. Allen. 

Snowy Owl (Xyctea nyctea) Fig. 18 
A rare and irregular winter visitant, often unrecorded for 
long periods. Flights have occurred in 1876-77, 1882-83, 
1889-90, 1901-02, and 1905-06. Between flights straggling 
individuals are occasionally reported. This Owl has much 
the same tastes as the Short-eared Owl, preferring the outer 
beaches and salt meadows of Long Island. Near New York 
City and inland in New Jersey it is a very rare bird. Its con- 
spicuous size and color, and diurnal habits make it difficult 
to overlook. It is not without significance, therefore, that 
the great majority of the active field ornithologists of the 
region have never seen the bird alive in this vicinity. 

Long Island. Rare and irregular winter visitant, October 17 
to April 14. 

Orient. Rare and irregular winter visitant, November 1, 
1909 to February 15, 1909. 

Mastic. Rare and irregular winter visitant. 
Long Beach. One record; December 26, 1921 (Charles 
Johnston) to January 20, 1922 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Casual at Osaning (Fisher). One shot on 
Staten Island, January 10, 1914, and brought to the Staten [aland 
Museum. 




Painting by L. A. Fuertes 



Fig. 18. Snowy Owl 

210 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 21 1 

Central Pare. Casual, mid-December L890 I L. S. Foster). 
Bronx Region. No record. 
New Jersey. Very rare and irregular winter visitant in our 
section. Four or five shot near Morristown during the winter of 
1886-87 (Thurber). One shot near Orange, November 19, 1910. 
One wintered on the Newark Bay Marshes, December 26, 1921 to 
April 1, 1922 (Urner). 

Exglewood Region. The only definite record is No- 
vember 4, 1922, a bird under observation for over half an hour 
by Dr. F. M. Chapman and Malcolm McKay. 

Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula caparoch) 
An accidental visitant from the north. There is a speci- 
men in the Museum of the Long Island Historical Society, 
shot at Bay Ridge about 1863. Previously unrecorded is one 
taken December 28, 1900 at Orient (Roy Latham). 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) 
Both Cuckoos may be regarded as common summer resi- 
dents in favorable country throughout the area, but are more 
often heard than seen. They are secretive rather than shy, 
and are past masters at keeping still when alarmed. This 
habit in connection with their inconspicuous coloring makes 
them hard to detect. The ear is much more easily offended 
than the eye with these birds. On occasions when I have 
been still, a Cuckoo has flown into a near-by tree, and eyed 
me at leisure when in full sight. The two species are easily 
distinguished if a fair view be obtained. A practiced ear can 
also separate the songs, which arc softer and less wooden in 
the Black-billed, the COW coir notes are connected in the Black- 
billed, separate in the Yellow-billed. The latter also has 
some single low, dove-like coos, which are kuks, doubled or 
tripled in the former. Both species are among our latest 
spring migrants, and the hulk of the breeding individuals do 
not arrive until at leasl a week after the height of the migra- 
tion, sometimes not until after June 1st. A few individuals 
are occasionally detected in October. 



212 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Common summer resident; May 6 to October 
12, 1915 Prospect Park, Brooklyn (Fleischer and J. M. Johnson); 
casually to October 23 and November 2. 

Orient. Uncommon summer resident, May 6, 1914 to 
October 2, 1915; average May 12 to September 22. 
Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration; May 25, 1919 (Gris- 
com and Janvrin); August 21, 1919 (Bicknell); October 5, 

1919 (Crosby). 

New York State. Recorded May 4 to October 31 at Ossining 
(Fisher), which are extreme dates. 

Central Park. Formerly a summer resident, not found 
breeding since 1913; now an uncommon but regular transient. 
May 5, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius), May 11, 1911 ((Anne A. 
Crolius) to June; August 31, 1910 (Hix) to October 3, 1910 
(Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, May 12, 
1912 (Hix) to October 12, 1911 (Rogers and Wiegmann). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. 

Englewood Region, Common summer resident, May 
12, 1912 (Griscom) to October 11, 1915 (Weber). 

Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythrophthalmus) 
While this species could certainly be called a common 
summer resident, it is slightly less numerous than the Yellow- 
billed Cuckoo in most sections. It often arrives a little later. 
Long Island. Common summer resident, May 3 to October 
11, casually to November 13. 

Orient. Uncommon summer resident, May 12, 1905 to 
September 26, 1915; average May 18 to September 20. 

Mastic. Uncommon summer resident, noted casually as 
late as November 4, 1917. 

Long Beach. Casual during migration, six records; 
August 13, 1914 (Bicknell) to September 9, 1920 (Bicknell). 
New York State. May 3 to October 7 are the extreme dates 
at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. A summer resident up to 1904; now an 
uncommon transient; May 9, 1900 (Chubb) to May 22, 

1920 (Griscom), which was its arrival date that year; 
August 20, 1911 (Hix) to September 27, 1905 (Hix). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 213 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident, May 14, 
1890 (Dwight) to October 7, 1915 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. 

Englewood Region. Perhaps on the whole less common 
than the Yellow-billed Cuckoo; May 7, 1886 (Chapman) to 
September 27, 1917 (Weber). 



Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) 
The loud rattle of the Kingfisher can be heard throughout 
our territory during its migrations, and wherever favorable 
conditions prevail a pair can be found nesting. The number 
of pairs in any particular localit5' will, however, be compara- 
tively few, as each lays claim to a large preserve, and will not 
tolerate a rival. Its arrival depends upon the opening of the 
streams and waterways, and consequently is earlier on the 
coast than inland. The same factor delimits its lingering in 
the fall, and there are numerous winter records for every 
part of our area. It is very exceptional, however, for an 
individual to remain throughout the winter in a given locality, 
and Kingfishers are rarely reported after trie middle of 
January. 

Long Island. Common summer, rare permanent resident; 
March 8 to November 13, individuals frequently lingering into 
January. 

Orient. Rare resident, common summer resident; March 
8, 1905 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith) to November 15, 1917. 
Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Occasional throughout the summer months, 
during fishing excursions from the adjacent mainland; March 
28, 1918 (Bicknell) to October 31, 1918 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Generally a common summer resident, but 
rare at this season near the city. 

CENTRAL Park. Fairly common transient; March 27. 
1913 (LaDow) to May 28, 1910 (Griscom); August 3, 1913 
(Hix) to October 21, 1907 (Griscom). 

Bronx REGION. Now a rare summer resident, common on 
migration; several winter records; March 19, 1912 (Grucom 
to December 28, 1906 (Grucom . 




Photograph by Mary Cynthia Dicker-ton 

Fig. 19. Downy Woodpecker 

214 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 2 If) 

New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout, more 
numerous on migration, occasional in winter. 

ENGLEWOOD Region. Common transient, occasional in 
winter; March 16, 1919 (Bowdish) to May 18, 1913 (J. T. 
Nichols |; August 27, 1922 (Griscom and LaDow) to Nov- 
ember 7, 1915 (Rogers). 

Hairy Woodpecker (Dryobates villosus) 
A fairly common resident in all wooded sections, but rare 
or absent in cultivated districts. Were it not for stations 
such as Centra] Park and Long Beach, there would be little 
or DO evidence to show that the bird was at all migratory. It 
i> a larger edition of the Downy, but the absolute size is not so 
good a character as the bill, which is heavier and obviously 
over an inch long. The notes are louder, heavier, and wilder, 
and the rattle does not slide down the scale as the Downy- 
does. 

Orient. Probably a rare summer resident in Southold 
(Mrs. Frank D. Smith); elsewhere only an irregular visitant. 
August S to April 2. 

Central Park. Very rare transient; has wintered; 
September 30, 1905 (Hix) to October 16, 1904 (Hix); winter- 
ing birds have remained as late as May 20, 1919 (Granger and 
Griscom), but there is no evidence of a spring migration. Most 
of the records are in the first half of October. No November 
or March records refer positively to transients. 

Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens median us) Fig. 19 
One of our most familiar and best known residents, the 
little Downy still occurs in Central Park, and is common 
everywhere except in the immediate vicinity of the ocean. 
There IS often an appreciable migration in October. 

Long Beai b. Casual on migration; October 27, 1912 

(Griscom . 

CENTRAL PARK. About two resident pairs still linger; 
transients arc recorded October ♦'.. 1910 Griscom.' to October 

30, 1911 (Grwcom). 



216 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Dryobates borealis) 
Accidental visitant from the southern States. A speci- 
men in the Lawrence Collection was shot near Hoboken, 
N. J., sometime before 1866. 

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) 
Accidental visitant from the North. Specimens were 
taken at Bridgehampton and Sag Harbor, Long Island, dur- 
ing the winter of 1886-87. 

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) 
The Sapsucker is a generally uncommon spring and com- 
mon fall transient in our woodlands, but is scarcer near the 
seacoast. Its numbers vary considerably from year to year. 
Some springs it is decidedly rare; at times it is abundant in 
the fall. Occasional individuals linger far into the winter, 
such occurrences having little or nothing to do with the 
severity of the season. It is generally absolutely silent, and 
as a result is easily overlooked, especially in spring. Its 
medium size and conspicuous white wing-stripe readily 
identify it. 

Long Island. Uncommon spring, common fall transient; 
April 1 to May 21; September 14 to October 23 and exceptionally 
to December 27; also recorded March 3, a date hard to allocate 
properly. 

Orient. Not common transient, recorded in winter; 
April 1, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins) to May 21, 1917 (Mabel R. 
Wiggins); average arrival April 16; September 14, 1914 to 
October 23, 1913 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith); average arrival 
September 20. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Casual transient; April 17, 1918; October 
1, 1918 to October 13, 1919 (all by Bicknell). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Regular spring and fall transient, often 
common; March 24, 1914 (Hix) to May 15, 1914 (Griscom); 
September 19, 1914 (Hix) to October 24, 1907 (Griscom); 
casual July 1, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 217 

Bronx Region. Rather common transient; several old 
winter records at Riverdale (Bicknell); April 1, 1917 (Granger) 
to May 6, 1917 (Janvrin); September 26, 1914 (Hix) to 
November. 
New Jersey. Uncommon spring, common fall transient, occa- 
sional in winter. Recorded May 13, 1917 near Plainfield (Rogers). 
Englewood Region. Regular transient, often rare or un- 
common in spring; April 4, 1912 (Weber) to May 6, 1888 
(Chapman); September 25, 1887 (Chapman) through October, 
and occasionally to the end of December; an exceptionally 
early bird noted September 9, 1905 (Hix and Wiegmann). 

Northern Pileated Woodpecker (Phloeotomus pileatus 
abieticola) 

This splendid bird is associated in everyone's mind with 
the primeval wilderness, and is pictured as vanishing at the 
approach of man. This was undoubtedly the case. The 
Pileated Woodpecker was formerly generally distributed in 
the northeast, but fifty years ago was virtually extinct in 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Hudson River Valley. 
The last specimen in northern New Jersey was taken about 
1880 near Mountville, Morris County, and the last bird seen 
in southern New Jersey was in 1908. Throughout this area 
it has been regarded as a rare or accidental straggler. There 
is some evidence, however, to show that in recent years the 
bird has tended to reestablish itself in old localities, and to 
become reconciled to some contact with civilization. Such 
evidence exists in Central New York, and the Catskills, and 
it has reappeared in western Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
The discovery by Mr. W. DeW. Miller that it is a fairly com- 
mon resident near Newfoundland, Passaic County, and 
Culver's Gap, Sussex County, is a source of gratification to 
all local ornithologists. Between these two points is some 
of the wildest and least known country in New Jersey, and it 
would not be surprising if it proved to be of wider distribution. 

No diurnal land bird is more easily overlooked than the 
Pileated Woodpecker, which is unmistakable when seen at all 



218 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

well. In fact, the best way of determining its presence is 
often the great square holes in the trees, and the long strips of 
bark torn from the trunk. The noise of its hammering sounds 
like the blows of an ax. In spring it may be detected by its 
calls, which resemble those of the Flicker, but are readily 
distinguishable on the same principle as the Hairy' s from 
the Downy 's. On the wing the bird looks as big as a Crow; 
the white patches are quite conspicuous, and the flight, if at 
all protracted, usually lacks the undulations of the other 
Woodpeckers. 

Long Island. Probably a resident formerly. Long since ex- 
tirpated, the last specimen taken m 1879. 

New Jersey. Resident near Greenwood Lake, Newfoundland 
and Culver's Gap. 

Englewood Region. Dr. Chapman has recorded a speci- 
men taken on the Palisades in September 1885 by a Mr. Jacob 
Ulrich. He informs me that there is now some doubt as to the 
authenticity of this specimen. The species should be expunged 
from the list. 

Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes eryihrocephalus) 
This beautiful Woodpecker is without any doubt the most 
erratic of our local birds, its distribution and status defying 
logical interpretation. In every section it can be counted 
upon to do something surprising and unexpected. As a 
general summar}^ it may be stated that it is a rare transient, 
irregularly nesting and wintering locally. In any given 
locality, however, its status may change from year to year, 
from a permanent resident to total absence. No bird violates 
to a greater degree the rule that breeding birds tend to return 
to their old home. Such failures to reappear cannot be ex- 
plained in the usual way with this species, nor can any habitat 
preferences be assigned to account for its local distribution in 
summer. Its migrations are equally remarkable. In any 
section where it is not breeding or wintering it is a rare and 
irregular transient. What I should call the normal migration 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 219 

period is May and again in September, when flights of imma- 
ture birds are occasionally recorded. Some years, however, 
it will not appear at all; in others it will appear in March and 
November. Almost every possible combination of these 
various possibilities has occurred. 

Long Island. Rare and irregular as a transient, sometimes 
wintering, very rarely nesting. Bred with some regularity at 
Astoria in the early 'eighties, a locality long since destroyed. A pair 
nested in 1896 and 1897 at Flushing (Griscom). Since then I have 
no record of a pair nesting two years consecutively anywhere on 
the Island. Transients may be expected from March 21 to May 
17, and from September 3 to November 28. 

Orient. Rare summer resident at East Marion and 
Southold; otherwise a rare and irregular visitant from July to 
May. 

Mastic Uncommon transient, rare in winter. 
Long Beach. Casual, five records; May 10, 1918 (Bick- 
nell); August 30, 1921 (Bicknell) to September 25, 1919 
(Bicknell). 

New York State. Chiefly a rare transient; likely to breed or 
winter anywhere, but rarely and irregularly. 

Central Park. Decidedly rare transient; March 24, 
1914 (Hix) to March 31, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius); May 9, 
1910 (Griscom) to May 15, 1914 (Griscom); September 19, 
1914 (Hix) to October 24, 1907 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Rare and erratic; a big flight at River- 
dale from September 1881 to May 1882 (Bicknell); bred at 
Riverdale in 1917 and 1921 (Griscom); apparently a rare 
resident in the eastern sections (L. X. Nichols); no signs of 
transients in recent years. 

New Jersey. A rare transient or irregular summer resident 
according to locality, but breeds here and there throughout our 
area; rarely wintering. For years most plentiful in the Passaic and 
Dead River valleys, but at the moment of writing greatly decreased 
there. It seems useless to cite breeding localities, as the bird may 
fail to reappear next season, or may appear somewhere els 

Englewood Region. Rare and irregular transient; 
February 6, 1915 (J. T. Nichols) to March 25. 191 1 (Griscom); 
April Hi. 1921 (Bowdiah)to May 23, 191S (L. X. Nichols); Sep- 
tember 14 to September 21, 1886 (Chapman); October 31 to 



220 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

November 26, 1914 (J. T. Nichols) and December 3, 1910 (Hix). 
A pair bred on the Englewood Golf Club grounds in 1919 
and 1920 (Chapman); also several pairs in 1919 on a golf 
club grounds near Tenafly (Chapman). Both localities are 
well known and unchanged for years. 

Red-bellied Woodpecker (Centurus carolinus) 
In Giraud's day this handsome and noisy Woodpecker was 
apparently a "not very abundant" resident on Long Island, 
but has long since deserted this region, and is now an acciden- 
tal visitant from the South. There are three specimens from 
Long Island, the last taken in 1895. The only record for our 
area in New Jersey is a specimen taken at Newton, November 
16, 1889. The writer saw an adult male in Central Park on 
April 30 and May 1, 1909. He was thoroughly familiar with 
the species in life previously, and discovered the bird by 
recognizing its characteristic call. On the first day especially 
it was observed at leisure. 

Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus luteus) 
The Flicker is an abundant and well-known summer 
resident. It winters regularly on Long Island, but more 
rarely inland. The average spring arrival is March 15 to 
20, the fall departure during November. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, regular but un- 
common in winter; March 14 to November 29. 

Orient. Formerly abundant summer resident, now un- 
common; frequent in winter. 

Mastic. Common summer resident, uncommon in winter. 
Long Beach. Chiefly a transient but recorded throughout 
the year except June and early July; scarcer than formerly and 
no recent winter records; March 24, 1921 (Bicknell) to May 
26, 1918 (J. M. Johnson); July 20 to August 18, 1921 (Bick- 
nell); September 2, 1920 (Bicknell) to December 2, 1917 
(Griscom). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Common transient, a few remaining to 
breed; March 3, 1901 (Chubb) the earliest spring arrival 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 221 

date; rare in the fall after October; south-bound transients 
in numbers as early as September 21, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. A common summer resident, rare in 
winter; February 28, 1909 (Griscom) to December. 
New Jersey. A common summer resident throughout; absent 
in winter in the extreme northern and western sections, rare at 
lower altitudes elsewhere. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, rare 
in winter; March 9, 1922 (Griscom) to December. 

Whippoorwill (Antrostomus vociferus) 

The distribution of the Whippoorwill in our area is almost 

the same as that of the Broad-winged Hawk. It is abundant 

on the coastal plain of Long Island, and generally distributed 

in the hill regions inland, where it is preeminently a bird of 

dry woodlands. As strictly nocturnal as any of our birds and 

incise to civilization, it has disappeared from the immediate 

vicinity of the City, and is seen but seldom. Were it not for 

its unmistakable and frequent calling, even residents near 

its breeding grounds might remain totally unaware of its 

presence. Perhaps the nearest place where the Whippoorwill 

breeds near the City is the hill region near Mt. Bethel. 

Where it does not breed, it is known only as a rare migrant ; 

an occasional bird will be flushed in dense cover in the woods, 

or one will be spied sleeping lengthwise on a limb. Under such 

circumstances the generally brown color, the conspicuous 

bristles about the bill, and the absence of white wing-spots, 

arc some of the characters which distinguish it from a 

Xighthawk. It arrives with great regularity the last week 

in April, and a few birds linger until the first week in ( October. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 16 to October 6. 

ORIENT. Uncommon summer resident at East Marion; 

lincommOD transient elsewhere; April 28, 1912 to October 2, 

1914. 

M lbtic. Common summer resident. 
Long Bea< a. One reported sometime before 1908 about 
the building of the Point Lookout Life Saving Station by C. H. 
Lott (BickneD). 



222 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New York State. Breeding formerly on Staten Island, where 
it has arrived as early as April 17, 1908 (Chapin). Now nesting 
only in northern Westchester County, where Dr. Fisher reported 
it as late as October 17. 

Central Park. Rare spring transient, April 25, 1913 
(Anne A. Crolius) to May 16, 1913 (Griscom); only one fall 
record, October 7, 1916 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Rare transient, May 1, 1916 (L. N. 
Nichols) to May 14, 1884 (Dwight); no fall records. 

New Jersey. Common summer resident in the hill country, 
absent elsewhere. Rare as a transient where it does not breed. 

Englewood Region. A few birds bred formerly on the 
Palisades north of Englewood; now a rare transient, noted 
chiefly the first week in May; April 29, 1911 (Weber) to May 
17, 1914 (LaDowand N. F. Lenssen); October 5, 1913 (G. 
Clyde Fisher). 



Nighthawk (Chordeiles virginianus) Fig. 20 
The Nighthawk prefers bare rocky hillsides or wild pas- 
tures to nest in. Where such country is found, the harsh 
peent is a common sound, coming out of the black depths of 
the sky, and at dusk the bird can be seen flitting high over- 
head on long slender wing, with a peculiarly irregular flight. 
Oddly enough, in recent years the flat city roofs have provided 
an acceptable nesting site, and the bird is as common here as 
anywhere in the country. In most of our wooded and alluvial 
country the Nighthawk is absent, and is known as a rare 
spring and common August transient. It is often diurnal at 
the latter season, and large flocks are occasionally noted. 
In the spring it is one of our latest arrivals, rarely recorded 
before May 10th. Reports of birds arriving in March prove 
to be based on Woodcock seen flying overhead at dusk and 
uttering the harsh note so similar to that of this species. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, (April 25) May 8 to 
October 15, and casually November 3. Most abundant in August. 
Orient. Locally common or rare summer resident, April 
28, 1914 to October 12, 1916. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 



223 




Fig. 20. 



Photograph by F. M. Chapman 

Nighthawk 



Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, common in 
the fall migration. 

Long Beach. Very rare on migration, one shot September 
7, 1891 (J. D. Foot); three birds August 26, 1915 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Breeds in New York City on flat roofs, and 
near Ossining (Fisher). Otherwise a rare spring and common 
fall transient. 

Central Park. Present throughout the breeding season, 
here roosting only in tall trees; May <">, 1912 Ami'' A. Crolius) 
to October 10, L911 Hix). 

Bronx Region, a transient, rare in Bpring, often common 
in fall; reported to have lasted in 1916 near Van Cortland! 
Park; May 1, 1913 (L- N. Nichols) toJune6, L909 Griscom ; 
August 18, 1920 (Griscom to October 16, 1915 E G.Nichols). 



224 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New Jersey. A rare and very local summer resident throughout 
our area, due to lack of favorable habitat. As a transient rare in 
spring, often common in fall. Mr. Chas. A. Urner supplies repre- 
sentative dates for the vicinity of Elizabeth; May 12, 1920 to 
June 2, 1920; August 24, 1919 to September 15, 1918. 

Englewood Region. Rare spring, common fall transient; 
May 9, 1888 (Chapman) to May 20, 1886 (Chapman); August 
4, 1886 (Chapman) to October 10, 1915 (Rogers). A pair or 
two breed near Leonia (Weber). 

Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) 
Few people are so unobservant as to overlook the bow- 
and-arrow-like form and the loud chippering notes of the 
Swift, as it streaks across the summer sky. It breeds through- 
out our area whenever chimneys can be found, and is con- 
sequently commonest in New York City and the suburbs. 
I have no reports of its nesting in hollow trees anywhere in 
our area at the present time. 

The Chimney Swift is more irregular in its arrival and 
departure than most of our other purely insectivorous birds. 
The bulk of the summer resident population never arrives 
until the first big wave of May. On the other hand, four years 
out of five a few birds are reported the last week in April, 
on a very few occasions before the 20th. Moreover there is 
often a complete hiatus between the arrival of these early 
birds and the arrival of the majority of the breeding 
individuals. The situation is exactly the same in the fall. 
Breeding birds gather in large flocks in August and have a 
common roosting chimney. As a result the species disappears 
from many sections, such as Central Park, for instance, where 
it is most exceptional to see Swifts even late in August. 
Another period of hiatus ensues, and then there is a distinct 
migration of Swifts sometime between September 20 and 
October 10, a migration which is often overlooked entirely, 
unless the sky be most carefully watched. This evidence 
does not warrant a positive statement of fact, but certainly 
justifies the suspicion that such early and late individuals are 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 



225 



often transients to and from more northern breeding grounds. 
Should this be correct, it is the reverse of the usual rule in 
this territory, namely, that locally breeding individuals are 

the first to arrive. 

To cite this bird's exact status in all the local areas would 
he useless repetition. 

Long Island. The extreme dates are April 21, 1908 at Orient 
(Roy Latham; to October 18. 

New York State. Earliest date April 19, 1914 in Central 
Park (Griscom); latest, October 23 at Ossining (Fisher). 

New Jersey. Earliest date, April 16, 1922 near Elizabeth 
(Urner); latest October 11, 1914 at-Newton, Sussex Co. (Hix). 




Photograph by A. A. Allen 

Fig. 21. Ruby-throated Hummingbird 



Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Arrhilochus colubris) Fig. 21 
The Hummingbird is unique, and cannot be confused with 
any other of our local birds. Sphinx or hummingbird moths 
are. however, often mistaken for it. The tiny body lodges a 
strong personality, which is afraid of absolutely nothing, and 
is subject to frequent outbreaks of bad temper, often on very 
flight provocation. It is a common summer resident in the 
more rural and country districts of OUT area, scarce or absent 
near New York City. Breeding birds arrive around May 9 
and depart about September 15. The migration of transients 



226 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

is chiefly during the middle weeks of May and August, in 
which months the Hummingbird reaches its maximum 
numbers. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, May 3 to September 
23, and casually to October 15. 

Orient. Uncommon summer resident, May 3, 1916 to 
October 2, 1913. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 

Long Beach. Rare transient, May 24, 1914 (Hix); 

August 26, 1917 (Bicknell) to September 17, 1914 (Bicknell). 

New York State. A common summer resident in the country 

districts. Probably still breeds on Staten Island. Reported as 

late as October 3 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. A transient, uncommon in late spring, 
regular in August. Bred formerly. May 4, 1904 (Hix) to 
May 28, 1910 (Griscom); August 6, 1908 (Griscom) to Sep- 
tember 16, 1921 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Bred formerly throughout, now not 

nearer than Hastings (Granger); elsewhere an uncommon 

transient, regular in August only; May 6, 1909 (Griscom) to 

June 2, 1919 (L. N. Nichols); August 9, 1921 (Griscom) to 

September 22, 1921 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. A common summer resident in the rural districts, 

scarce or absent in the suburbs. At Elizabeth, where the bird no 

longer breeds, transients have been noted as late as June 2, 1920 

and as early as July 28, 1918 (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Rare summer resident, May 3, 1914 
(Mrs. Sumner) to September 23, 1909 (Griscom). 

Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannies) Fig. 22 
The familiar Kingbird is a common summer resident in 
open country in our rural districts, scarcer near the suburbs 
and on the coastal plain of Long Island. The first birds 
arrive with the first big wave in May, usually between May 
4 and 6. There are a few late April records, but in all such 
cases the birds have disappeared before other individuals 
have arrived at the normal time. The arrival of the residents 
is completed about May 15. Transients are passing until the 
end of May. The fall migration starts early in August, and it 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 



22; 




Fig. 22. Kingbird 



Photograph hy /•'. .1/. Chapman 



is mosl exceptional to Bee a Kingbird after the first week in 
September. It is easily the mosl gregarious of our Flycatch- 
ers, and late in August flocks are by no means rare somel imea 
containing several hundred birds. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 21 to Sep- 
tember 7, exceptionally <»r casually t<> September 20 and ( October 9. 



228 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Orient. Common summer resident, April 28, 1915 to 
September 9, 1915; average May 3 to September 7. 
Mastic. Common summer resident. 
Long Beach. A regular transient; April 22, 1920 (Bick- 
nell); May 11, 1916 (Bicknell) to May 30, 1920 (Granger, 
Janvrin, Rogers); August 13, 1914 (Bicknell) to September 
17, 1914 (Bicknell), and September 21, 1916 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident in the country 
districts, rare near the City. Reported April 29 at Ossining (Fisher). 
Central Park. A regular transient, but uncommon; 
May 2, 1905 (Hix) to May 30, 1906 (Hix); August 5, 1907 
(Hix) to August 30, 1913 (Griscom) and September 22, 1904 
(Hix). One noted April 23, 1920 (Griscom and Miss E. H. 
McVickar). 

Bronx Region. Now a rare summer resident, but a com- 
mon transient; April 30, 1879 (Bicknell); May 6, 1909 (Gris- 
com) to August 28, 1918 (Hix); casual October 14, 1922 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident, rare or absent in 
the suburban section. Reported September 17, 1919 at Elizabeth 
(Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common transient, now an uncom- 
mon summer resident; April 25, 1920 (Mrs. E. W. Vietor); 
May 2, 1914 (Hix) to September 15, 1887 (Chapman). 

Gray Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis) 
Accidental visitant from the South. One specimen taken 
at Setauket, Long Island, about 1874. One or two sight 
records from New Jersey before me, without any details, are 
not worth a moment's serious consideration. 

Arkansas Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) 
Probably to be classed as a casual visitant from the far 
West, as it has occurred with suspicious frequency in recent 
years in the northeastern States. It is interesting to note 
that all the records are in the fall, and comparatively late. 

Long Island. Two birds seen and one collected at Miller 
Place, September 6, 1912; one seen on October 30 was possibly 
the same individual (A. H. Helme). One seen for nearly an hour 
near Montauk Point on January 1, 1921 (Crosby, Griscom and 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 229 

Janvrin, Auk, 1922, page 119). In both years other individuals 
were reported elsewhere in the East. 
New York State'. 

Bronx Region. An immature male collected at River- 
dale, October 19, 187.5 (Bicknell). 

Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) 
The raucous voice of the Crested Flycatcher is a familiar 
sound throughout the woodlands of our area. Its migrations 
closely parallel those of the Kingbird; in fact no two of our 
local species travel on a more nearly identical schedule. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, (April 24) May 2 to 
September 14, and October 2, 1895 (A. H. Helme at Miller Place). 
Orient. Common summer resident, April 17, 1919. and 
May 4, 1916 (Mabel R. Wiggins) to September 14, 1913. 
Mastic. Common summer resident. 

Long Beach. One of the very few woodland species as 
yet unrecorded. 
New York State. Common summer resident except near the 
City. 

Central Park. Regular transient, not uncommon; 
April 29, 1914 (Griscom), May 8. 1910 (Anne A. Crolius) to 
May 26, 1918 (Hix); August 2. 1908 (Griscom) to September 
14, 1911 (Hixj. 

Bronx Region. Now an uncommon summer resident. 
May 2, 1916 (L. X. Nichols) to September 15, 1917 (Hix). 
New Jersey. A common summer resident. The latest date 
before me is September 17, 1916 near Elizabeth (Truer). 

EngLEWOOB REGION. Common summer resident, May 3, 
1913 (Bird Lore) to September 8, 19(H) (Weber). 

Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) 
A generally common summer resident throughout the 
area, but its more limited habitat for nesting makes it less 
numerous individually than several other Flycatchers. A- a 

Transient, however, its numbers arc easily the greatest. The 

Phoebe arrives with tin- second wave of March birds, usually 

between Mareb IS and 23, and transient- are passing by 
throughout April. The tall migration -tart- witb the first 



230 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

frosty nights in September and continues until the first week 
in November. It is one of the rarest of our summer birds in 
winter. 

Long Island. Fairly common summer resident, abundant 
transient, March 14 to October 26; one winter record. 

Orient. A transient, common in fall, locally rare and 
irregular in spring; March 20, 1916 to April 12, 1913; Sep- 
tember 14, 1913 to October 15, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins); 
recorded in late December on Gardiner's Island. 

Mastic. Rare summer resident, common as a transient 
in the fall. 

Long Beach. Rare spring, uncommon fall transient; 
March 30, 1919 (Bicknell) to April 19, 1916 (Bicknell); 
September 8, 1921 (Bicknell) to October 27, 1912 (Griscom). 
Reported May 26, 1918; if this identification be correct, the 
record is purely casual. 
New York State. A generally common summer resident. 

Central Park. Common transient; March 10, 1909 
(Griscom) to late April and most exceptionally to May 7, 1909 
(Griscom) ; September 3, 1916 (Janvrin) to November 4, 1917 
(Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, March 22, 

1914 (J. Kieran) to November 21, 1918 (L. N. Nichols); one 

Avinter record, January 1, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Common summer resident. There is only one 

winter record, a single bird observed from January 1 to February 

12, 1913 in the Scotch Plains Notch near Plainfield (W. DeW. 

Miller). It is recorded as late as December 10, 1910 at Morristown 

(R. C. Caskey). 

Englewood Region. Fairly common summer resident, 
more numerous in migration; March 13, 1894 (Bird Lore) to 
November 16, 1911 (Bird Lore). 

Olive- sided Flycatcher (Niittallornis borealis) 
The Olive-sided Flycatcher is an uncommon transient in 
the Hudson Valley, but can be seen almost every spring and 
fall. Elsewhere, however, it is much rarer, especially in 
spring. While this statement is unquestionably correct, it is 
equally true that the great majority of bird-students have an 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 231 

utterly false impression of its rarity. The bird is absolutely 
silent on migration, is always perched on the tops of the high- 
est trees, usually in dense woodlands, and is certain to be 
overlooked unless the neck is constantly craned upwards. 
Moreover, interest usually decreases rapidly after the height 
of the migration is over in spring, and does not revive until 
the middle of September. Those who would see this species 
must be afield regularly in late May, early June and August. 
The large head, short neck, generally dark coloration, and 
narrow stripe of whitish down the middle of the underparts, 
make it readily recognizable. 

Long Island. Rare transient, especially in spring; May 15 
to June 12, 1908 (Prospect Park, E. Fleischer); August 19 to 
September 27. 

Orient. Hare transient; May 22, 1916 to May 30, 1915; 
September 14, 1913 to October 16, 1920. [The fall dates are 
just a month later than normal; the October record, if correct, 
is casual and unprecedented. — GriscomJ 
Mastic. Xo record. 

Long Beach. Casual transient, September 14, 1916 
Bicknell). 

New York State, Uncommon in the Hudson Valley in Central 
Park, New York City, and Ossining (Fisher). Rare or very rare 
vise where. 

Central Park, rncommon transient, recorded almost 
every spring and fall; May 10, 1922 (Griscom) to May 31, 
1907 (Hix and LaDow); August 12, 1922 (Griscom) to 
September 8, 1918 (Hix). Rarely seen before May 20. 

Bronx Region. Apparently very rare, only three recent 
records, hut very little early fall observation in this section; 
May 22, 1920 (C. L. Lewis); about August 20, 1917 (Griscom) 
:iikI August 30. 191S i'C. L. Lewis). 

New Jersey. Over most of the area a very rare spring and 
rather rare fall transient. While the dearth of records may in 
part be due to lack of observation, this is certainly not the case 
at Plainfield, where there are only two spring records in twenty- 
five yean. Mr. \\ . DeW. Miller telle me that in the fall he would 
sometimes Bee do birds, another year several. At Englewood, in the 
immediate vicinity of the Hudson Valley, the l>ird is by no means bo 






232 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

rare. Otherwise I have no other spring records for New Jersey, 
and very few for the fall, one at Newton (Hix), one at Montclair 
(Howland), three near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Eight spring records in ten years, 

May 12, 1912 (Griscom and others) to May 29, 1915 (Rogers); 

fall observation defective, August 19, 1888 (Chapman) to 

August 23, 1888 (Chapman). 

Wood Pewee (Myiochanes virens) 
A familiar woodland species throughout the area, which 
scarcely requires extended notice. It is one of our latest 
spring arrivals. The first individuals appear about the height 
of the migration, but the bulk of the breeding individuals do 
not arrive until at least a week later. The bird is rare after 
the middle of September. The wing-bars should always 
eliminate the Phoebe. Size usually is sufficiently well marked 
to eliminate any member of the genus Empidonax, and is 
much better for this purpose than color, but even the experi- 
enced observer is occasionally in doubt. The wings are longer 
than the tail, however, and this generic character can be used 
successfully in the field. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, (May 5) May 12 to 
September 23, casually to October 13 and 19. 

Orient. Locally common or rare summer resident, April 
30, 1913 to October 10, 1915; average arrival May 12. [The 
April date is unprecedented — L. G.] 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. Noted once as 
late as October 13. 

Long Beach. Rare transient; May 18, 1916 to May 28, 
1914 (Bicknell); August 24, 1919 (Crosby) to September 25, 
1919 (Bicknell) and October 5, 1919 (Crosby). 
New York State. Common summer resident. 

Central Park. Common transient, a pair or two still 
breed; May 4, 1905 (Hix), May 6, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius), 
May 11, 1914 (Anne A. Crolius) to October 1, 1914 (Hix) 
and October 21, 1907 (Anne A. Crolius and Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Now an uncommon summer resident, May 
14, 1917 (C. L. Lewis) to September 20, 1916 (L. N. Nichols). 
A specimen was collected near New Rochelle on December 
13, 1900 (L. M. McCormick), a purely accidental occurrence. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 233 

New Jersey. Common summer resident. The latest fall date 
before me is October 7, 1917 at Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, May 
10, 1900 (Bird-Lore) to September 28, 1885 (Chapman). 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris) 
This Flycatcher is by no means uncommon in the Hudson 
River Valley, but is rarer on Long Island and in the interior of 
New Jersey, especially in spring. I have never known it to 
sing on migration, but the call-note, a musical whistled phee-i, 
is sometimes heard, and is absolutely diagnostic. The dark 
olive-green shade above and the uniformly yellowish under- 
pays make it identifiable under favorable conditions. 

Long Island. Rare transient; May 19 to June 10; August 
4 to September 27. 

Orient. Very rare spring transient, only two certain 
records, May 23, 1908 and May, 1917 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith). 
Mastic. Rare transient. 

Long Beach. Very rare; May 25, 1916 (Bicknell); four 
fall records, September 1, 1919 to September 17, 1914 (Bick- 
nell). On September 2, 1920 eight or more individuals ob- 
served (Bicknell). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Uncommon spring transient; regular and 
often common in fall; May 14, 1921 (Griscom) to June 4, 1917 
(Hix); August 10, 1922 (Griscom) to September 28, 1909 (Gris- 
com). Recorded chiefly in the last week of May and the last 
two weeks of August. Woodruff and Paine's List of 1886 
credits E. T. Adney with dates from September 19 to October 
10, 1885. It is almost certain that these refer at least in part 
to some other species. 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; May 17, 1890 (Dwight) 
to June 3, 1890 (Dwight); August 22, 1890 (Dwight) to Sep- 
tember 10, 1896 (Dwight). 

New Jersey. Generally a rare spring, uncommon but regular 
fall transient. 

Englewood Region. Rare spring, uncommon fall tran- 
sient; May 1."), 1904 (Bildereee) to May 31, 1886 (Chapman) 
and June 19, 1910 (Weber, specimen collected); August 19, 
1888 (Chapman to September 24, 1904 Six and Wiegmann). 



234 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) 
The ident inability in life of the species of Empidonax is a 
matter to which Messrs. W. DeW. Miller., J. T. Nichols, C. 
H. Rogers and the writer have given special attention. Col- 
lecting has proved that in spite of the greatest care, it is 
impossible to be absolutely certain in separating the Acadian, 
Alder and Least Flycatchers by color characters even in the 
spring. In the fall plumage it is out of the question, the 
determination of museum skins often being very critical. 
It is quite true that extremes in size or highly plumaged 
individuals can often be named with approximate certainty, 
but even here collecting has proved a low percentage of error. 
The songs of all three species are, however, easily recogniz- 
able. Unfortunately, while the Chebec sings regularly on 
migration, the two rarer species are generally silent. In this 
respect they are exasperating birds. Even" spring and fall I 
see individuals which I am convinced are one or the other, 
but all too rarely will they open their mouths and sing their 
names. The records for these species given are based either 
on collected specimens or when satisfactory evidence is sub- 
mitted that the bird was singing. All other reports and 
observations have been rejected. 

The Acadian Flycatcher was formerly a not uncommon 
summer resident in some sections near New York City. For 
some reason it has unaccountably disappeared, and is now 
practically unknown. An occasional singing bird shows that 
transients are present in spring, but even so there is 
enough evidence to warrant the statement that it has 
decreased. Just why this species should have done so is a 
question for which I have no available explanation. 

Long Island. Formerly bred locally from Jamaica to Oyster 
Bay and on Gardiner's Island. Its presence in most parts of this area 
at the present time requires confirmation. The only authenticated 
dates are May 19 to July 11, which are not at all representative. 

Orient. Rare summer resident on Gardiner's Island. [No 
satisfactory migration dates. — L. G.]. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 235 

Mastic. No definite record (J. T. Nichols). 
Long Beach. No record. 
New York State. Formerly a common summer resident almost 
throughout; now extirpated, unless still surviving in northern 
Westchester County; otherwise a rare transient. Recorded May 
10 to August 27 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Several pairs bred in 1892 (Chapman). 
From 1900 to 1910 apparently uncommon but regular in spring; 
since then rapidly decreasing and not recorded definitely in 
several years. Chiefly in late May, but scarcely any singing 
records; early June, about 1904 (Anne A. Crolius in verbal 
statement to writer). No definite fall records. Most of the 
spring observations worthless, and all those published definitely 
known to be worthless. 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common summer resident, 

May 13, 1887 (Dwight) to September 19, 1885 (Dwight); 

only three definite records in recent years, based on singing 

birds; June 9, 1915 (E. G. Nichols), June 3, 1917 (L. N. 

Nichols), June 3, 1920 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. Bred formerly at Plainfield and Englewood, now 

apparently gone; a few pairs still breed near Newton; practically 

unknown in recent years elsewhere in our area. The latest date is a 

specimen in the Dwight Collection from West Orange, September 

10, 1898. 

Englewood Region. Bred formerly at West Englewood 
and on the Palisades; not found nesting since 1904 (Hix and 
Stackpole). The migration data in Bird-Lore give as an early 
date May 5, 1897. I cannot vouch for its accuracy. The 
latest date is September 4, 1887 (Chapman). The only definite 
recent records are May 17, 1914 on which day two birds 
were found in full song (Griscom, J. M. Johnson, LaDow and 
Lenssen) and June 22, 1919, a singing bird above Taylorville, 
which may have been breeding (Rogers). Every spring, how- 
ever, the writer sees birds which are probably this species. 

Alder Flycatcher {Empidonax trailli alnorum) 
The Alder Flycatcher nests locally throughout northern 
New Jersey in its favorite habitat of alder swamps. Else- 
where it i- a rare transient, apparently one of the very latest. 
of our landbirds to arrive and depart in the spring. Few 



236 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

specimens have been taken, and the bird is seldom identified, 
as it rarely sings on migration. The song is less harsh and 
abrupt than that of the others, which usually suggest a 
sneeze. Syllabifications are scarcely satisfactory, but the 
Alder says phe-be-o or great de-al. The accent is always on 
the middle syllable. The Acadian has two songs, both violent 
sneezes. One of two syllables has the accent on the first. 
Another of three has the accent on the last. The well-known 
song of the Least Flycatcher has two syllables with the accent 
on the last. 

Long Island. Rare transient; two spring records in late May; 
specimens have been taken from late August (birds striking Fire 
Island Light) to September 16, 1907 at Mt, Sinai (Murphy). 

Orient. August 1, 1910. [Unless the specimen was col- 
lected, this record cannot be regarded as positive. — L. G.] 
Mastic. No definite record. 

Long Beach. Two records based on singing birds; May 

29, 1915 (Bicknell) and May 26, 1918 (Janvrin and J. M. 

Johnson) . 

New York State. Reported at Ossining as a rare transient, 

May 19 to May 31 and August 29 (Fisher). Specimens now in the 

Dwight Collection struck the Statue of Liberty, September 8, 1890 

and September 26, 1889. 

Central Park. Miss Anne A. Crolius informed me that in 
early June about 1904 she positively identified a singing Alder 
Flycatcher. On two occasions in May I have had excellent 
studies of birds which were probably this species. 

Bronx Region. Only one definite record of a singing bird, 
May 30, 1915 (Rogers). 
New Jersey. A local summer resident in the deeper alder 
swamps, scattered in Sussex, Warren and northern Passaic Coun- 
ties, south to the Great Swamp near Chatham (Miller and others), 
Ash Swamp near Plainfield (Miller and others), and the swamps 
west of Elizabeth (Urner). Elsewhere it is a rare transient and is 
without exception the latest of the land birds, most of the records 
in early June. The earliest arrival date near Elizabeth is May 21, 
but Mr. Miller informs me that he has seen the bird earlier than 
this near Plainfield, and there is a very early one for Englewood. 



LNNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 237 

Gnglewood Region. Rare transient, spring records only; 
May 12, 1912, a singing bird (Griseom, J. T. Nichols and 
others) to June 15, 1910 (Weber, specimen collected). 

Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) 
The Least Flycatcher or Chebec, is still a common summer 
resident in our rural and count ly district?. It will apparently 
not tolerate more civilized conditions, and as a result has 
been steadily decreasing for twenty-five years. The north 
shore of Lon£ Island and the vicinity of Plainfield, New Jersey, 
are about the normal southern limit of its breeding range. 
Breeding birds arrive early in May, about once in five years 
the last days of April. As a transient the species is still fairly 
common, but somewhat irregular, during May, the latte 
half of August and early September, and fortunately for the 
observer it sings quite freely, at least in the early morning. 
There are occasional "waves", when Empidonax floods the 
woods. While positive identifications are usually impossible, 
there is every reason to believe that the great majority of 
individuals belong to this species. I should say that there 
were at Least ten Chebecs to one individual of either of the 
two other species. 

Long Island. Rare and local summer resident on the north 
shore; :i common transient; (April 26) May 5 to September 11. 

Orient. Rare summer resident on Gardiner's Island; rare 
transient elsewhere; April 26, 1915 to May 12, 1906; Sep- 
tember 5, 1916 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith) to October 15, 1916 
Mabel R. Wiggins). [The last date is too abnormal to be 
given full credence. In so difficult a group the species should 
be determined definitely by collecting only, in all exceptional 
es. — L. (!.] 
Mastic. Small Flycatchers are uncommon transients here. 

While this species has only once or twice been positively re- 
corded, the majority of individuals noted are probably refer- 
able to it. 

Long Beach. Hare transient; May 17, 1911 (Griseom . 
May 21. 1916 (Janvrin); transients noted in the fall between 
September 1. 1921 and September 25, 1919 are in all probability 
this species Bicknell . 



238 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New York State. Now almost extirpated in our area as a 
summer resident; probably still occurring in northern Westchester 
County. 

Central Park. Bred in 1892 (Chapman); still a fairly 
common transient, but less so than formerly. April 26, 

1912 (Anne A. Crolius) to May 29, 1907 (Griscom). In 
the fall small Flycatchers occur commonly from August 11, 

1913 (Griscom) to October 1, 1903 (Hix). While no positive 
identifications of this species have ever been made, the dates 
are quite representative, and it would be idle to pretend that 
the hundreds of individuals recorded over many years are all 
Acadian or Alder Flycatchers. 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common summer resident 
throughout, now not nesting regularly anywhere; a pair bred 
at Riverdale in 1917 (Griscom); May 6, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) 
to September 19, 1920 (L. N. Nichols, probably this species). 
Small Flycatchers are often common in early September. 

New Jersey. A common summer resident only in Sussex, 
Warren, Morris and Passaic Counties, steadily decreasing or dis- 
appearing in the suburban section. 

Englewood Region. Formerly common, now rare sum- 
mer resident; still fairly common as a transient; April 25, 
1913 (Weber) to September 13, 1911 (Weber, specimen 
collected). 

Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris alpestris) 
The Horned Lark is an abundant winter visitant to the 
outer beaches and salt meadows of Long Island. It also 
occurs regularly on the salt meadows near Newark and to 
some extent along the Sound. Elsewhere in our area it is 
very rare or casual. It arrives with great regularity the first 
week in November and remains till the end of March, its 
stay more extended at the extreme eastern end of Long Island. 

Long Island. Abundant winter resident; October 24 to April 
12, exceptionally as early as October 7, 1909 at Rockaway Beach 
(Rogers). See Orient dates. 

Orient. Abundant winter resident, October 2, 1911 to 
May 3, 1914; average October 20 to April 25. 
Mastic. Uncommon winter visitant. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 239 

Long Beach. Common winter visitant, October 24, 1920 
(Janvrin) to April 12, 1917 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Rare winter visitant on the salt marshes of 
the Sound; uncommon on the south shore of Staten Island; casual 
at Ossining (Fisher) ; unknown elsewhere. 

Bronx Region. Rare winter visitant, October 25, 1917 
(L. N. Nichols) to March 25, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Common winter visitant to the salt meadows 
south of Newark, October 31, 1920 to April 2, 1921 (Urner). Very 
rare or unknown further inland, occurring only after severe storms 
and disappearing as soon as the weather moderates. Mr. Miller 
informs me that he has seen Horned Larks near Plainfield on several 
occasions, but usually could not determine the subspecies. One 
specimen of this race, however, was found dead February 27, 1921, 
near Millington. On January 1, 1913 a flock of thirty birds were 
discovered in the fields near Millington. Two of these birds were 
positively identified as adults of typical alpestris (Griscom and 
La Dow). The others flew before a positive determination was 
possible. Recorded near Cranford (Rogers). 

Englewood Region. Horned Larks are very rare visitors 
to the Overpeck Marshes after heavy storms, and still rarer 
elsewhere from February 23, 1914 (R. S. Lemmon) to March 
12, 1916 (Mrs. Bowdish). The subspecies has never been 
positively determined, so far as I am aware. 

Prairie Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris praiieola) 

There is much misconception of the status of this sub- 
species in our territory, and much has been published which 
is unquestionably erroneous. Inexperienced observers are 
constantly calling pale female or immature Horned Lark-. 
Prairie Horned Larks, and the recorded nocks of fifty and 
seventy-five individuals of the latter race exist in fancy but 
not in fact in this region. Suffice it to say thai onlyunderthe 
mosl favorable circumstances and at very close range can the 
Prairie Horned Lark be distinguished from the typical bird, 
and then only when direct comparison is available. On such 
occasions the line over the eve i> pure white. Another theory 
current is that Horned Lark- Been inland must be praiieola. 
I have no evidence whatever that this is the case. In the 



240 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

ensuing discussion all sight records are rejected, unless made 
by people familiar with Museum series, or accompanied by a 
satisfactory statement of the observation. An exception, 
however, is made for mid-summer observations. There is no 
doubt that the Prairie Horned Lark is a rare bird in this 
region, and there is no reason to suppose that it breeds or 
ever did breed anywhere except in northern New Jersey. It has 
occurred elsewhere chiefly in the winter months, but there 
are a few July and September records. These have been 
interpreted as evidence of breeding, but I cannot regard it 
as satisfactory. The bird nests in April, and July individuals 
are in all probability nothing but summer wanderers. 

Long Island. Specimens have been taken at Long Island City 
on July 31, 1886 and September 14, 1887. Two birds seen July 2, 
1903 at Montauk Point (C. G. Abbott and P. H. Bahr) were in all 
probability this subspecies. Otherwise known only as a rare winter 
visitant. Its exact status cannot be given, as too many observa- 
tions are erroneous. On the other hand it is unquestionably not as 
rare as the very few specimens collected would indicate. The 
only one in the American Museum was shot on March 7, 1891. 

Orient. Mr. Roy Latham writes that it is a frequent 
winter visitant, and recorded in summer, but no breeding 
evidence obtained. While this is a most interesting statement 
from an experienced observer, the bird's frequency in winter 
should be established by specimens. 
Mastic. No record. 

Long Beach. There are eleven observations in the last 

thirteen years, which have been made with every possible care, 

three by Griscom, the balance by Bicknell. The extreme dates 

are November 4, 1920 to March 18, 1916. It is only proper to 

state, however, that there is always a possibility of error. The 

writer should prefer to regard his own observations as probable 

evidence of occurrence rather than as positive records. 

New York State. A bird seen on the parade ground south of 

Van Cortlandt Park, New York City, on July 29, 1916 was in all 

probability this subspecies. Otherwise no record. 

New Jersey. A few pairs nest along the high slaty ridge be- 
tween Newton and Johnsonburg, Sussex County. The first nest 
collected in May, 1893, and several others taken, the last April 17, 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 241 

1917. Observed every year (Robt. H. Southard, Stephen D. 
Inslee, Henry F. Merriam, P. B. Philipp and others). I am parti- 
cularly indebted to Mr. Southard for furnishing full details on 
this interesting fact, previously unrecorded. Very rare winter 
visitant elsewhere. Reported at Summit (L. K. Holmes). Mr. Miller 
has collected one specimen near Plainfield in winter, and identified 
this subspecies positively on one other occasion. Mr. Urner 
regards as probably this subspecies birds seen on January 25 and 
February 23, 1920. He has also noted a Lark on the abnormal date 
of September 25, 1921. Xo other records for our area. 

Englewood Region. The Horned Larks reported above 

on March 12, 1916 by Mrs. Bowdish were identified by her as 

this subspecies. 

Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) 
A common and well known permanent resident in all 
wooded sections, absent only on the outer beaches, Gardiner's 
Island and Orient, in all of which localities, however, it occurs 
as a transient. The Blue Jay is highly migratory, and the 
woods are full of them from late September through October, 
and again from late April to the middle of May. The spring 
migration is later than would be expected in so hardy a bird. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration; May 11, 1916 
(Janvrin); May 17, 1917 (Bicknell). 

Central Park. Uncommon but regular transient, occa- 
sionally abundant; especially in fall; occurring chiefly in 
May and early October; May 2, 1913 (Griscom) to June 6, 
1917 (Hix); August 31, 1914 (Hix) to November 16, 1907 
(Griscom); rarely seen after May 15 or before September 25. 

Northern Raven (Corvus corax principalis) 
The Raven is a permanent resident in the wildest sections 
only, and disappears as civilization advances. Eighty years 
ago Giraud called it occasional on Long Island, and it was 
reported as formerly common on the northern coast of New 
Jersey. On the coast of southern New Jersey it survived 
much later. Its larger size is not a satisfactory identification 
character, unless there is direct comparison with the Crow. 



242 BIRDS OF THE NKW YORK CITY REGIOX 

Its sailing and soaring is. however, often diagnostic, the tail is 
wedge-shaped and the feathers of the throat are lengthened, 
lanceolate and often project slightly, giving a puffy appear- 
ance. Above all the Dote is a loud, hoarse c-r-r-ruck, totally 
different from the caw of the Crow. 

Long Island. The last specimens shot in 1836 and 1848. 
New Jersey. One shot near Morristown about 1881. The 
Raven was subsequently believed to be extinct in our area, and it 
was a great surprise when Mr. Justus von Lengerke saw two birds 
on September 21, 1918 near Culver's Gap in Sussex County, 
secured one, and probably wounded the other. (See Miller, Auk, 
1919, p. 293.) It is possible that these birds were a resident pair 
rather than that they were stragglers from the Adirondacks or 
Maine. There is still much wild country unexplored in north- 
western New Jersey, and there is a remote possibility that a pair or 
two may still survive. 

Crow {Corvus brachyrhynchos) 
This common and well-known bird is a permanent resident 
throughout the region, and visits even the outer beaches of 
Long Island throughout the year. It is noticeably migratory 
in late fall and early spring. In winter it increases near the 
coast, but decreases in northern Xew Jersey. 

Central Pare. Formerly a permanent resident; not 
noticed in winter since 1901; now an uncommon visitant, its 
dates of occurrence by no means coinciding with its regular 
migration. Spring dates are from March 8, 1904 Hix to 
May 9, 1919 (Griseom). most frequently recorded in the latter 
half of April. Young Crows regularly wander into the Park in 
late July and August, but the species cannot be determined 
satisfactorily. There are relatively few fall records ; September 
26, 1914 (Hix) to November 10, 1912 Griscom . 

Fish Crow Corvus ossifragus) 

The Fish Crow is associated in the minds of many 
people with the seacoast, but this is true only in that it does 
not occur very far inland except in river valleys. In our 
territory it is quite erratic in its status, resident in some 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIP. - 243 

localities, only breeding in others, but has undoubtedly in- 
creased and spread northward and inland. Where not 
resident it is one of our earliest spring arrivals. On the other 
hand it is one of the first species to depart in the fall. Its 
''caw," high-pitched, nasal, hoarse, and distinctly staccato. 
Ls easily distinguishable from the corresponding call of the 
common Crow. The voices of young Crows in summer, 
are. however, quite similar, and are often not safely separable. 
The smaller size is of no value, unless direct comparison is 
available. 

Long Island. Locally conimon'permanent resident, compara- 
tively scarce on the outer beaches of the south shore, which is 
contrary to what would be expected. 

Orient. Rare resident, sometimes common visitant in fall. 
Mastic. Fairly common in spring; may breed inland. 
Long Beach. A decidedly rare visitant, occurring at all 
seasons: has never bred: formerly not so rare. 
New York State. Confined in our area to the Hudson River 
Valley and its immediate vicinity, and the Sound. A summer 
resident only, except on Staten Island. 

Central Park. Uncommon visitant, occurring chiefly in 
late April and early May: April 6. 1914 Hix to June 11. 1901 
Chubb ; no definite identifications in August. 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident. March 14. 
1921 L. X. Nichols to September: one winter record, 
February 12. 1906 (Hix . 
New Jersey. Confined to the Hudson River valley, the adja- 
cent meadows of Newark and Hackensack. the Raritan River val- 
ley, and the adjacent countr a »nal in the Plainfield region, 
but rare in winter Miller . One was seen and heard at close range 
on May 21. 1921 at Bridgeville. Warren County tGriscom . so it 
may extend up the Delaware as far as the Water Gap. Per': 

t Stag Lak Sua •.. one collected April 16, 1922 

•n Lengerke . 
Kn.,lewooi) B Common summer resident. 

ruary22. r.U") N.F.I. August 30. 1 ns7 Cbapn 

only twice recorded later than this. October 9. '. - 
and J. M. Johnson and October lo. 1906 Hix and Wiegmann . 
The evidence available would show that thes 
quite exceptional. 



244 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) 
The successful introduction of this European bird will 
probably prove even more regrettable than that of the House 
Sparrow. Equally aggressive, and much larger and stronger, 
it undoubtedly drives away many of the smaller species, 
which prefer some familiarity with man. At present it is 
common or abundant throughout this region, nesting even 
in the most remote rural districts of northwestern New Jersey. 
In the fall and winter great flocks are often seen, and there is 
considerable evidence to show that the bird is becoming 
migratory. The first birds were released in 1890. First 
noted in the Bronx, January, 1899 (Dwight), at Englewood 
March, 1898 (Isabel McC. Lemmon), at Gardiner's Island, 
Long Island, December, 1908 (Roy Latham), at Montclair, 
New Jersey, October, 1904 (Howland). 

Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) 
This distinguished songster was formerly a common 
summer resident throughout our territory, but is now found 
only in the outlying and more rural districts. Its great 
decrease started fifty years ago when trapping the males 
for cage-bird purposes was a profession on a large scale. 
The growth of the City and the rapid development of the 
suburbs were also factors with which the Bobolink could 
not or would not compete. The so-called " sport" of Reed- 
bird shooting in the fall was also a contributing cause, though 
it does not seem to have been practiced so extensively here as 
further south. At the present time the bird is a rare transient 
in the spring in places where it does not breed. The great 
flocks of migrating males, singing in chorus as they sweep 
northward break up before they reach this latitude, and I have 
only once seen and heard this phenomenon locally. In the fall, 
however, unnumbered multitudes pass overhead, and the 
mellow chink can be heard from the sky every night during 
August and early September. With rare exceptions these 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 245 

birds alight only in our fresh water coastal marshes, particu- 
larly where wild rice (Zizania) grows, and where they are 
often second in abundance only to the Tree Swallow. The 
Bobolink is rarely seen before May 10 or after September 25. 

Long Island. Locally a not uncommon summer resident, 
chiefly on the north shore; abundant in fall passing over, chiefly 
along the south shore; May 1 to October 10, casually to November 
2, 1915 at Flushing (Francis Harper). 

Orient. Locally a rare summer resident; uncommon 
spring, common fall transient; May 10, 1906 to October 12, 
1915; average May 12 to October 6. 

Mastic. Uncommon summer resident; abundant tran- 
sient in the fall. 

Long Beach. Abundant fall transient passing over, 
alighting casually; four records, August 21, 1919 to October 
2, 1919 (Bickneli). 

New York State. Now completely extirpated as a summer 
resident, except in northern Westchester County; formerly com- 
mon throughout. 

Central Park. Casual visitor, the rarest member of the 
family; May 15, 1901 (Chubb); May 3, 1911 (Griscom and 
many others); May 14, 1921 (Griscom); August 27, 1921 
(Griscom); August 28 and September 11, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common summer resident, 
the last pair nested at Throg's Neck in 1909 (Griscom); now 
an uncommon transient, May 9, 1916 (L. N. Nichols) to June 
9, 1920 (L. N. Nichols); casual April 19, 1909 (E. G. and L. 
N. Nichols); frequently heard flying over in August. 

New Jersey. Still a common summer resident in the rural 
districts. Near New York City it still nests on the Newark mead- 
ows near Elizabethporl (Urner), near Ash Swamp and Mt. Bethel 
(Miller and others) and a single pair on the Overpeck meadows 
near Leonia (Weber). Casual as late as October 22, 1922 on the 
Newark Marshes (Urner). 

BNGLEWOOD REGION. A single pair still nests on the 
meadows south of Leonia (Weber); otherwise a rare spring 
and abundant fall transient; May 5, 1900 (\Y. H. Wiegmann 
to June 8, 1909 (Griscom and LaDowj; July 17, L887 (Chap- 
man) to October 12, 1916 (Weber) and October 15, 1922 
(Hix); rarely seen after September 25. 



246 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Cowbird (Molothrus ater) 
The parasitic habits of the Cowbird make it one of our 
least liked and most unattractive birds. The brief sketch in 
Chapman's Handbook is a brilliant expression of this bird's 
characteristics and the feelings aroused in the student. It is 
conspicuous for a short time in spring only. Later in the 
summer small wandering flocks are occasionally encountered. 
In the fall Cowbirds roost with the Redwings and Grackles 
in our larger marshes, but their numbers are relatively in- 
conspicuous, and they are easily overlooked. On rare occa- 
sions very large flocks are seen roaming through some field or 
roadside pasture. Unless, therefore, one goes to just the 
right places, it is possible to be in the field an entire fall with- 
out recording this species. Nevertheless it must be called a 
common summer resident throughout the area, arriving about 
the middle of March, remaining until November, or occasion- 
ally in some numbers until Christmas. It is rarely recorded 
in midwinter. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, rare in midwinter. 
(February 27) March 10 to December 28. 

Orient. Common summer resident, frequently seen in 
winter; February 22, 1914 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith) to November 
22, 1920. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, occasionally 
lingering in the fall to December 28, 1919. 

Long Beach. Found breeding by Bicknell in 1921, who 

also has July records for two other years. It is consequently of 

great interest that there are only three May records (Bicknell) 

and none earlier. Rare transient in the fall, October 1, 1918 

(Bicknell) to October 29, 1911 (Griscom); flock seen January 

1, 1892 (L. S. Foster and A. H. Howell). 

New York State. A common summer resident in the country 

districts, but uncommon and decreasing near the city. I know of no 

midwinter records. 

Central Park. Rare visitor on migration, ten records in 
the last twenty-one years; April 14, 1901 (Chubb) to May 
1.5, 1913 (Griscom); October 6, 1911 (Hix) to November 9, 
1907 (Griscom). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 247 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident, decreas- 
ing; no midwinter records; March 13, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) 
to November 15, 1916 (L. N. Nichols) and January 3, 1919 
(C. L. Lewis and E. G. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Absent in the heavily wooded areas of the 
northwestern sections, locally uncommon in the suburban districts, 
otherwise a common summer resident. The earliest spring arrival 
date before me is March 2, 1919 near Plainfield (Miller). There 
are scarcely any midwinter records. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon summer resident, com- 
mon in spring, often abundant in fall; March 13, 1921 (Gris- 
com and Janvrin) to December 5, 1915 (J. T. Nichols) and 
December 25, 1902 (Chapman") 

Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) 
A summer resident distributed throughout this territory, 
abundant in the larger coastal marshes, and present in every 
small swamp or marsh. The bird arrives anywhere from the 
middle of February to the middle of March, depending upon 
the season. Inland it is rarely seen after November 15, but in 
the coastal marshes lingers frequently till Christmas, and is by 
no means rare in midwinter. Observation in Central Park 
shows that transients are passing through until the middle 
of May and rarely arrive before April 10. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, February 19 to 
November 15 (December 25). 

Orient. Common summer resident, occasional in winter, 
February 21, 1912 to November 20, 1912; average arrival 
March 1. 

Mastic. Abundant summer resident. 

Long Beach. A summer resident, February 24, 1921 (C. 
H. Lott) to November 27, 1918 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Abundant summer resident. 

Central Pakk. Rather rare transient in spring, most of 
the records single females in late April or early May; March 
22, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius) and April 10, 1912 (Griscom) to 
May 15, 1915 (Hix); seldom alighting in the fall, August 25 
1913 (Griscom. and October 29, 1907 (Griscom) to December 
7, 1901 (Rogers). Flocks of Blackbirds are constantly passing 



248 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

over in fall in late October and November, but they cannot be 
specifically identified. 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, February 21, 

1909 (Griscom) to December 31, 1914 (Griscom); occasional 

in winter. 

New Jersey. Abundant summer resident, occasional in winter 

near the coast and the Hudson River, rare further inland. Only 

two winter records for Plainfield (Miller). 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1909 (F. M. Chapman) to November 22, 1913 (J. T. 
Nichols); uncommon in winter. 

Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) Fig. 23 
A common permanent resident on Long Island, especially 
on the salt marshes. A few birds winter regularly in the 
Hackensack Meadows and other localities near the coast. 
Further inland a common summer resident in pasture or 
meadowland, rare or unknown in winter. Abundant on 
migration in March and October. 

Long Island. Permanent resident throughout, but in reduced 
numbers in winter. 

New York State. Permanent resident throughout, but in 
greatly reduced numbers in winter inland. 

Central Park. Very rare casual visitor, six fall records in 

fifteen years, October 9, 1910 (Hix) to November 4, 1917 (E. 

G. Nichols); only one spring record, May 1, 1913 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. A permanent resident near the Hudson River 

Valley, wintering regularly as far inland as Plainfield (Miller). 

Rare or unrecorded further inland. Common throughout as a 

summer resident, often abundant in migration. 

Englewood Region. Common; winters and breeds in 
reduced numbers; obvious migration as early as March 6, 
1921 (Griscom). 

Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius) 
The Orchard Oriole is a locally common summer resident 
throughout the area, with a marked preference for gardens 
and^orchards in the more rural sections. Its exact distribu- 
tion is quite erratic and inexplicable, and will be given in 







B 

Photograph by II ill* 



Fig. 23. Meadowlark 

249 



250 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

detail below. If anything, it arrives a few days later than the 
Baltimore Oriole and is one of the very first birds to leave, 
rarely seen after July 15. Immature birds or dull females of 
the two Orioles are sometimes confused. The Orchard Oriole 
is distinctly olive green above, not brownish orange, and is 
dull yellow below, never with an orange shade. As a result 
the difference in color above and below is much less con- 
trasted. The throat is either solid black or entirely yellow, 
never spotted with blackish. It is one of our finest songsters, 
the rich continuous warble utterly different from and greatly 
superior to the whistled disconnected phrases of its relative. 
Its chatter is, if anything, even harsher and more prolonged. 

Long Island. A local summer resident, so known only at west 
end and north shore; (May 1) May 6 to August 18. 

Orient. Rare summer resident, May 6, 1916 (Mrs. Frank 
D. Smith) to August 18, (Mabel R. Wiggins). 
Mastic. Uncommon transient in spring. 
Long Beach. No record. 
New York State. Fairly common summer resident on Staten 
Island (Chapin), chiefly on the coastal plain. Rare and irregular in 
the Bronx Region. Common at Ossining (Fisher), where it has 
been reported as late as August 6. 

Central Park. Rare transient, May 11, 1911 (Griscom) 
to May 25, 1904 (Hix); a pair bred in 1908; no fall records. 

Bronx Region. Breeds regularly near Baychester (L. N. 
Nichols) ; bred at Rye in 1887 (Dwight) ; a pair bred at River- 
dale in 1917 (Griscom); almost unknown as a transient; May 
8, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) to July 13, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. A summer resident with an inexplicable distribu- 
tion. Along the southern boundary of the area it is commoner than 
the Baltimore Oriole. Only a few scattered pairs are reported in the 
whole area bounded by the Hudson River and a north and south 
line running approximately twenty miles inland. Thence increas- 
ing westward and northwestward, but absent from the Kittatinny 
Ridge, the Wawayanda Plateau and Bearfort Mountain. In the 
lowlands of Sussex and Warren Counties it is quite as common as 
the Baltimore Oriole (Griscom, Hix, and others), and along the 
Delaware River from Dingman's Ferry to the State line it is un- 
questionably commoner (Griscom). Its distribution is surprisingly 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 251 

paralleled by that of the Turkey Vulture. As a transient it is rare 

in spring and unrecorded in fall. 

Englewood Region. A pair breeds at Nordhoff (Chap- 
man and Griscom) and near Demarest (Bowdish) ; almost un- 
known as a transient, no fall records; May 6, 1888 (Chapman) 
to August 6, 1887 (Chapman). 

Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula) 
A common and familiar summer resident throughout the 
settled and cultivated sections of the territory, sometimes 
found in the depths of the woods during migration. It arrives 
with great regularity on the first May wave, and departs 
about the middle of September. Of accidental occurrence in 
winter. Dates only given below. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 28 to Sep- 
tember 7, casually to October 7 and October 25; one recorded in 
Prospect Park, November 25, 1909 (E. Fleischer). 

Orient. May 1, 1914 to September 14, 1914; average 
May 7 to September 8. 

Long Beach. Rare transient; May 8, 1919 (Bicknell) 
to May 20, 1920 (Bicknell); September 1, 1919 (Bicknell) to 
September 21, 1916 (Bicknell); over ten birds on September 
2, 1920 (Bicknell). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Common summer resident, May 1, 1899 
(Chubb) to September 21, 1909 (Griscom). Dr. F. M. Chap- 
man at a meeting of the Linnaean Society of New York 
on January 23, 1894 reported "one around the Museum several 
times recently." An adult male, discovered November 14, 
1909 in the Ramble (Griscom), spent the winter. It fed 
greedily on the suet at the feeding station maintained by Miss 
Crolius, and seemed perfectly well, barring a frost-bitten foot 
during a cold wave the end of January. It began to sing the 
third week in March and departed the night of April 20, 1910. 
I know of no better illustration in the bird world to show that 
food is of greater importance than absolute temperature. 

Bronx Region. April 27, 1914 at Port Chester (Spofford); 
May 4, 1922 (W. C. Stank, to September 15, 1921 (Griscom). 
New Jersey. Recorded as late as October 3, 1920 near Eliza- 
beth (trnerj. One picked up unable to fly at Hackensack, February 
1, 1917 and eenl to Mr. B. 8. Bowdish. 



252 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Englewood Region. May 4, 1912 (Griscom) to August 
31, 1886 (Chapman). 

Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) 
The Rusty Blackbird is generally an uncommon spring 
and common fall transient, with a migration period which is 
practically the same as that of the Red-wing. At a distance it 
cannot be separated positively from the latter, and nearer by it 
is easily mistaken for a Grackle, unless the tail is distinctly seen 
in relation to the total length. Its crazy, squeaky whistle is 
unmistakable, and rises above the Blackbird medley in spring. 
On the ground it walks with an absurd stagger, like a toddling 
infant in a hurry to get somewhere, appreciably different 
from the stately tread of a Grackle or the more even glide of a 
Red-wing. It occurs in winter more frequently than any 
other Blackbird. 

Long Island. Common transient; (February 16) March 14 
to May 11 and casually to June 3; October 5 to Christmas. 

Oeient. A transient, common in fall only, sometimes in 
winter; March 1, 1904 to May 11, 1914; October 6, 1914 to 
November 30, 1920. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient in spring, noted as 
early as February 16, 1918; observation in fall defective; 
may winter occasionally. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration, only five records; 
April 2, 1914 (Bicknell) to May 5, 1912 (Griscom); October 
29, 1911 (Griscom). 
New York State. A generally common transient throughout, 
occasional in winter. 

Central Park. Uncommon spring transient, occurring 
chiefly the first week in May; March 13, 1904 (Hix) to May 10, 
1922 (Mrs. Meade); rarely alighting in the fall, September 27, 
1904 (Hix) to November, 1908 (Anne A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region. A common transient, several midwinter 

records; February 12, 1909 (Griscom) to May 3, 1916 (L. N. 

Nichols); October 2, 1915 (E. G. Nichols) to November 28, 

1915 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. An uncommon spring, common fall transient, 

occurring in winter more frequently than any other Blackbird. 

Noted as late as May 18, 1920 near Plainfield (Miller and Rogers). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 253 

Englewood Region. Uncommon spring, common fall 
transient, occasional in midwinter; February 27, 1915 (X. F. 
Lenssen) to May 9, 1914 (Griscom); October 2, 1904 (Hix 
and Parmelee) to December 19, 1915 (J. T. Nichols). 

Purple Grackle (Qui.scalus quiscula quiscula) 
A common summer resident throughout the area, nesting 
in small colonies, and roosting in vast numbers in some swamp 
or marsh in the fall. The Grackle undoubtedly earns the 
distinction of being the first land bird to arrive in spring. 
There is little definite information about its fall departure, 
owing to the absence of specimens, and the great difficulty of 
distinguishing it from the Bronzed Grackle, but no birds have 
been shot later than early November. Grackles frequently 
linger until January and occasionally winter. The few speci- 
mens taken have all been Bronzed Grackles, and as this is the 
northern bird it is the one most likely to winter. In spite, 
therefore, of the numerous published reports of Purple 
Grackles in winter, I have yet to see a specimen of this race 
taken at that season. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, arriving as early as 
February 15, and regularly the first week in March. No specimen 
taken later than November 9. 

Orient. Early arrival February 15, 1908; average March 
3. Mr. Latham writes that Grackles are frequently observed 
in winter, listing them under this race. They are probably 
the next. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, this or the next 
race irregularly abundant on migration. 

Long Beach. From March 5. 1920 (C. H. Lott) to June 
21, 1917 (Bicknell), frequently in May. Mr. BickneU also 
sends the following interesting communication: "A pair of 
Grackles nested . . . in 1921. . . Every time I saw the male I 
made it out to be the Bronzed Grackle, . . . but I never saw- 
it BO perfectly as to cover the needs of a record extending its 
const wise breeding range." That a lone pair of any Grackle 
should nest on Long Beach is quite remarkable. 
New York State. A common summer resident throughout. 
No satisfactory information on its denature in fall. Recorded 
November 8 al Ossining (Fisher . 



254 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Central Park. A common summer resident. Earliest 
arrival February 13, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius). Nesting birds 
depart early in September, and there is frequently a hiatus 
of nearly a month before transients from further north ap- 
pear in early October. The race of these birds has never been 
determined. 

Bronx Region. Earliest arrival February 26, 1909 
(Griscom). 
New Jersey. A common summer resident throughout. I have 
seen no specimen shot later than October 27, but it must certainly 
linger later than this. 

Englewood Region. Several breeding colonies. Grackles 
are abundant on migration. A flock of fifty birds seen February 
11, 1911 (Griscom and LaDow) were unquestionably spring 
arrivals. 



Bronzed Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula xneus) 
Much remains to be determined about this bird in our 
area, and this can only be done by collecting specimens. The 
available evidence, however, would seem to show that the 
Bronzed Grackle is a regular transient, arriving later than 
the Purple Grackle in the spring and remaining into April. 
In the fall the large flocks are probably mostly this race, and 
winter birds almost certainly so. It surely is not safe for 
students to call all birds Purple Grackles, except when occa- 
sional individuals are positively determined otherwise, as has 
long been the custom. These statements are based principally 
on the careful work done by Dr. L. B. Bishop at New Haven. 
Here adequate collecting has proved that the Bronzed 
Grackle is an irregular spring migrant and abundant in the 
fall, "far outnumbering any other if not all other species [of 
Blackbirds! combined." It is also of interest to note that all 
winter Grackles collected in Connecticut are Bronzed. This is 
so near our area that it would be astonishing if the bird's 
status changed radically twenty-five miles or so further south. 
Wintering Grackles shot by M. S. Crosby in Dutchess County, 
N. Y., also prove to be seneus. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 255 

Dr. Dwight has recently critically studied the large series 
of Grackles in the American Museum, and I have had the 
advantage of going over this material with him, and of bene- 
fiting by his careful determinations. It is by no means finally 
settled whether the two Grackles are species or races, and 
whether the intermediates are intergrades or hybrids. How- 
ever this may be, our territory is unquestionably, in part, in 
what may be termed the zone of intergradation. About fifty 
percent of the breeding birds on Shelter Island show more or 
less seneus blood, and such birds have been taken as far west 
as Astoria. Just outside the extreme northwestern limits of 
our area, at Port Jervis, N. Y., a small percentage of the 
breeding birds show a slight infusion of xneus blood also. 
The number of specimens available show that these inter- 
mediate types are common transients in other parts of the 
area. 

It is the common maxim that subspecies are indistinguish- 
able in life, and this is unquestionable when the specimen in the 
hand can only be identified by careful comparison with large 
series. This is not the case with the Grackles, however, 
where the differences are of kind rather than degree. In 
fact any one who has studied the group can name an adult 
male Grackle taken locally off-hand without any comparison 
being necessary. In the Purple Grackle the brilliant color 
of the head and neck gives way to a color which varies from 
brassy green to violet-purple, always with bars of some metallic 
color. In the Bronzed Grackle the colors of the head and 
neck give way abruptly to a uniform golden bronze, absolutely 
unbroken with bars, a totally different color, and in much 
sharper contrast with the head and neck than is the case with 
the Purple Grackle. The commonest type of intermediate 
maybe briefly described as strongly approaching the Bronzed 
Grackle in the ground color of Hie back, etc., but at least a few 
metallic bars are always present. In our larger parks and 
suburbs the breeding Grackles are extraordinarily tame, and 



256 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

walk about on the lawns in bright sunlight, often less than 
fifty feet from the observer. They are sometimes joined in 
spring by transient intermediates or Bronzed Grackles. In 
such circumstances the ornithologist who cannot recognize 
the three types really merits the pity of his colleagues! 
Students, however, must bear in mind that all is not as easy 
as it sounds. The colors being metallic, brilliant and direct 
sunlight is absolutely essential. On a dull day or with a bird 
in shade, the ground color is very likely to appear bronzy, and 
the metallic bars on the back, even if present, would be 
invisible. While a strong infusion of seneus blood is compara- 
tively easy to determine, to prove beyond question that 
metallic bars are absent in a Bronzed Grackle, is far more 
difficult than establishing their presence in a Purple Grackle 
or an intermediate bird. From this discussion it will be seen 
that identifying a Grackle subspecifically depends not so 
much on a keen sense of color discrimination, as sound knowl- 
edge based on a study of museum specimens plus exception- 
ally favorable circumstances of observation. The writer has 
probably given as much attention to identifying Grackles in 
life as any other local student. Daily observation for twelve 
springs of the Grackles in Central Park has yielded three 
records of the Bronzed which he regards as absolutely satis- 
factory, though every year he notices Grackles with some 
seneus blood. I regard these figures not as establishing the 
local rarny of this Grackle, but as proving the extreme 
difficulty of obtaining an observation which I find personally 
satisfactory. 

The records cited below refer to typical seneus only. I 
can see no point in recording intermediates which are fifty- 
one percent plus seneus as seneus. 

Long Island. Status imperfectly known. Birds recorded in 
Dutcher's Notes as captured on March 13 and March 29 prove not 
to be typical seneus. It is exceedingly doubtful if the specimen 
recorded by Braislin as shot by Worthington on Shelter Island, June 
16, 1886 is really typical seneus. Numerous June specimens col- 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 257 

lected there subsequently prove to be intermediates. Such birds 
have been taken as tar west as Astoria, and it is more than likely 
that the bird found nesting at Long Beach by Mr. Bicknell was an 
intermediate. Only two typical Bronzed Grackles have been 
collected on Long Island, both by Dr. Braislin, on October 15, 
1901 and November 17, 1900. 

Orient. Recorded by Mr. Latham, November 15, 1908. 

He reports Grackles as frequent in winter, which are probably 

this subspecies. 

New York State. Perhaps a regular transient at least in the 

fall. Dr. A. K. Fisher reports it as a fairly common transient at 

Ossining in April and November. 

Central Park. I have three records of the Bronzed 
Crackle which I regard as absolutely satisfactory. In every 
case the bird was on the ground with Purple Grackles, and at 
a maximum distance of twenty-five feet; April 4, 1912; April 
8, 1913; April 1, 1921. Mr. Hix also supplies two records, where 
the conditions were faultless, March 13, 1904 and March 1, 
1914. I see intermediate birds every spring. I have never 
been able to obtain a satisfactory observation of the transient 
Grackles in the fall, but birds have been seen by numerous 
observers in December and there are several winter records. 

Bronx Region. Observed under faultless conditions on 
March 8, 1913 (Griscom); birds seen January 17, 1918 and 
February 9, 1922 by L. N. Nichols were probably this sub- 
species. 
New Jersey. Status imperfectly known, but probably a 
regular transient, at least in fall. Numerous winter records prob- 
ably belong to this race. I have seen two specimens; Morristown 
April 8, 1887 (Thurber) and March 26, 1887 (Thurber). Inter- 
mediates are apparently common transients. Mr. Miller informs me 
that he has twice collected Bronzed Grackles near Plainfield in 
November, one date being November 8, 1904, and Mr. L'rner shot 
Bronzed Crackles at Elizabeth years ago, the records of which have 
been destroyed by fire. 

ENGLEWOOD Region. A single bird seen with Purple 
Grackles under faultless conditions March 21, 1920 (Griscom). 
A large flock of transients watched for half an hour on April 
if,. 1022 (Griscom and -I. M. Johnson). The few birds really 
well seen were apparently Bronzed Crackles. There are 
Beveral December and January records of individuals or flocks, 
which probably belong here. 



258 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina) 
This northwestern species is apparently extending its 
winter range to the eastward. The phenomenal incursion of 
1890, now a matter of history, barely reached our limits. 
The second appearance of the Evening Grosbeak was in the 
winter of 1910-11, when it was recorded from several localities 
in northern New Jersey and Westchester County. Since 
then it has reached New England every year, and has 
occurred in this territory during the winters of 1912-13, 1915- 
16, 1916-17, 1918-19, and 1919-20. It must be classed as an 
irregular winter visitant, occurring much more frequently 
than the Pine Grosbeak or White-winged Crossbill. No 
attempt has been made to cite all more recent records. 

Long Island. A single female seen at Forest Park on January 
8, 1911 by Miss Mary W. Peckham; February 4 to April 9, 

1919 at Miller Place (Helme); flock of twenty at Forest Hills, 
February 8, 1920, and one specimen brought to L. S. Crandall at 
the Bronx Zoological Garden; about twenty at Amityville, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1920 (J. T. Nichols) and an adult male in the same place 
February 26, 1920 (Griscom and Janvrin); a flock at Douglaston, 
April 26* 1920 (G. Clyde Fisher). 

New York State. Reported at Port Chester, January 8 to 9, 
1911 and January 29, 1913 (Cecil Spofford); first on Staten Island, 
January 9 to March 12, 1916 (H. K. Decker and others). 

Bronx Regiox. November 13, 1915 (R. S. Williams) to 
February 15, 1916 (Lee S. Crandall) in the Zoological Garden; 
also February 8, 1920 (E. G. Nichols) to April 3, 1920 (L. S. 
Crandall). 

New Jersey. Near Summit March 6, 1890 (W. O. Raymond); 
Andover, Sussex Co., December 13, 1910 (Blanche Hill); Newton, 
Sussex Co., January 6 to February 5, 1911 (Miss Kanouse and S. D. 
Inslee in Bird-Lore); Plainfield, January 29 to March 5, 1911 (W. 
DeW. Miller and others); Englewood in spring of 1916 (several 
observers). In the winters of 1916-17, and 1919-20 reported from 
numerous localities. The earliest arrival date is December 16, 
1916 at Morristown (R. C. Caskey), the latest date is April 15, 

1920 at Ridgewood (Miss F. M. Bunco). 



ANNOTATED LIST OK THE BIRDS 259 

Bnolewood Region. First recordedjMarch 24, 1916 by 
Miss Ina C. Dewitt; December 21, 1916 (Weber) to April 
11, 1917; February 15 (Rogers) to March 5, 1920 (Bowdish). 

Pink Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator leucura) 
The Pino Grosbeak is a very rare and irregular winter 
visitant. There have been ten marked flights in the past 
ninety-six years, the last in the winter of 1903-04. The last 
eighteen years is the longest interval between flights of which 
I have any record. During this period only a few small 
flocks or single stragglers have been reported, chiefly from 
extreme northwestern New Jersey and eastern Long Island. 
Our territory seems just a little too far south, as Pine Gros- 
beaks reach Dutchess County, New York and southern 
Connecticut much more frequently than the vicinity of New 
York City. 

Long Island. Very rare and irregular winter visitant, some- 
times abundant, November 1 to Marcli 14, 1904 at Miller Place 
(A. H. Helme). Since that year stragglers have been recorded at 
Sand's Point. November 23, 1918 (Laidlaw Williams) and Garden 
City, December 1 and 3, 1921 (M. S. Crosby and J. T. Nichols). 

Orient. Rare and irregular winter visitant, November 1, 
1003 to February 28, 1904. Stragglers have been recorded 
during three winters since the last great flight. 
Mastic. No record. 

Long Beach. A single bird in the Rosa rugosa bushes at 
Point Lookout in the early winter of 1919 was described un- 
mistakably to Mr. Bicknell by C. H. Lott. 
New York State. Recorded at Ossining 1869, 1874-75, 1884 
Fisher) and 1890 (L. S. Foster). 

Central Park. Unknown since the winter of 1003 04, 
when it appeared on November 12 ( Rogers). 

Bronx Region. Abundant at Riverdale during the early 
part of 1884, remaining until March 23 (Bicknell); no observ- 
ers in the region during the last great Might; January 6, 1017 
L \. Nichols . 
New Jersey. Very rare and irregular, but apparently occurring 
more frequently in the extreme northwestern section. Otherwise 
practically unrecorded since the winter of p.M)3 01. The only 



260 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

records before me are, near Plainfield December 31, 1916 to Feb- 
ruary 11, 1917, never more than two birds (Miller); and a flock 
near Englewood December 23, 1906 (Rogers). 

Englewood Region. Very rare winter visitant; October 
25, 1903 (Chapman) to January 9,. 1904 (Rogers); Decem- 
ber 23, 1906 (Rogers). 

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) 
Unfortunately a common permanent resident in all 
suburban sections, and present even in the wildest parts of 
the area, where there are houses or barns. The House 
Sparrow seems noticeably less abundant in the City and 
some of the suburbs compared with ten years ago. Perhaps 
the competition with the Starling and the decrease in the 
horse are factors. Partial albinism is frequently observed. 

Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus) 
The Purple Finch is an irregular transient in spring, 
usually abundant in fall, and is decidedly rare in winter. It 
breeds only on Long Island, where it is very local. It is 
astonishing that it should not nest in northern New Jersey, 
where conditions in many sections are quite similar to parts of 
New England, where it is a common summer resident. At 
long intervals the Purple Finch is virtually absent in this 
territory for nearly a year, due to its wintering in unusual 
numbers further north. 

Long Island. Regular but very local summer resident, rare in 
winter; fairly common transient. 

Orient. Rare visitant, September 10, 1910 to May 25, 
1908. 

Mastic. Uncommon; breeds; may winter. 

Long Beach. Rare in spring; April 17, 1918 (Bicknell) 

to May 11, 1922 (Bicknell); thirteen fall records, September 

17, 1914 (Bicknell) to November 3, 1914 (Bicknell). 

New York State. No definite breeding record, and very few 

winter records. There are several summer records of juvenal birds. 

Central Park. Uncommon spring, common fall transient ; 

April 11, 1922 (Griscom) to May 17, 1911 (Anne A. Crolius); 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE H1RDS 261 

September 15, 1921 (Griscom) to November 16, 1907 (Gris- 
com); two winter records; one summer record, a juvenal 
male collected July 6, 1888 (Jenness Richardson). 

Bronx Region. A transient in varying numbers, rarely 

wintering; September 23, 1914 (Hix) to May 11, 1919 (L. 

X. Nichols). 

New Jersey. There is no definite evidence that this species 

has ever bred in our section, but those seen in June 1890 on High 

Point (Chapman) may have been breeding, though none were 

seen there in 1922 (Griscom). The summer records for Plainfield 

and Ridgewood are not breeding records. The Purple Finch winters 

with considerable regularity near Plainfield and near Elizabeth 

(Urner) ; elsewhere it seems rare and irregular at this season. 

Englewood Region. Common transient, uncommon in 
winter; March 13, 1921 (Griscom) to May 17, 1914 (Griscom); 
September 10, 1910 (Weber) to November 11, 1886 (Chap- 
man) two summer records, June 6, 1886 (Chapman), and 
July 17, 1887 Chapman). 

American Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra minor) Fig. 24 
The most erratic of our local birds, its status defying the 
groupings of the ornithologist. It can best be described as a 
rare and irregular visitant in fall, winter and spring, but it 
has bred casually, and has been recorded in every month of 
the year except August. What it does the least often is to 
spend the winter. The bird last occurred in numbers during 
the winter of 1899-1900. Since then it has been a much rarer 
bird in this region than the Redpoll. Like that species it is 
likely to turn up in the late winter after severe weather. 
Again it will pass us by entirely during a southward flight, 
but will appear the next year anywhere between March and 
August. While not shy, it is excessively restless, and is con- 
sequently often difficult to observe. The loud call-note 1 in 
flight, a kip, kip, is absolutely diagnostic, and quite different 
from the softer tick, tick of the Purple Finch. 

Long Island. An erratic visitant; there is one definite nest- 
ing record at Miller Place. April 10, 1883 (Helme); September 17 to 
June 3. Much rarer i at the western end of the island, where it was 
recorded in the winter of 1019-20. 




Fig. 24. Red Crossbill 



262 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 263 

OBIKNT. Irregularly common winter visitant, September 
17, 1906 to March 26, 1914. 

Mastic. Irregular in the fall; recorded November 1, 1919. 
Long Beach. Casual; November 9, 1919 (Willard G. Van 
Name). 
New York State. An irregular visitant, recorded at Ossining 
in almost every month (Fisher); one breeding record. 

Central Park. Rare and erratic visitant, unrecorded 
in the last thirteen years; May 12, 1887 (Jenness Richardson); 
January to May 4, 1895 (Louis Gillett); spent the winter of 
1895-96, (Chapman); early April, 1899, (Chubb and Rogers); 
March 7, 1904, (Carlton Schaller); early March, 1909 (Anne 
A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region. Abundant at Riverdale from November 

3, 1874 to May 10, 1875, the nest and eggs found on April 22 

(Bicknell); not recorded since December 28, 1908 (Griscom 

and LaDowj. 

New Jersey. Rare and irregular; reported near Millington, 

Somerset Co. July 19, 1903 (Hix); near Lake Waw r ayanda, June 

5, 1909 (Rhoads). I do not know any locality where this bird has 

been seen in more than three years during the last ten. 

Englewood Region. Rare and irregular winter visitant, 
November, 1899 (Chapman) to June 18, 1910 (Bird-Lore migra- 
tion tables). Only seen during three seasons in the last 
twelve years. 

Note. — Mr. A. C. Bent has recently described the Red 
Crossbill of Newfoundland as L. c. percna, differing chiefly 
in the larger size, particularly of the bill. During the w r inter of 
1919-20 it occurred south to Massachussets and Washington. 
On February 23, 1920 Mr. J. T. Nichols saw at least one large- 
lulled bird among a flock of others at Amityville, Long Island. 
He sent a sketch and a detailed account to Mr. Bent, who was 
confident that his bird was percna. Collectors should be on 
the look-out for this race, the validity of which still remains 
to be determined by the A. O. U. Committee. 

White-winged Crossbill {Loxia leucoptera) 

This handsome Crossbill is another very rare and irregular 

winter visitant. I have found evidence of fourteen marked 

flights in the last ninety-six years, so that this species must 

be regarded as slightly less rare than the Pine Grosbeak. 



264 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Like that species a few stragglers have been reported in "off 
years," chiefly at the extreme eastern end of Long Island. 
The White-winged Crossbill occurred in great numbers in 
the winter of 1899-1900. There was also a marked southward 
flight in the winter of 1916-17, but the local crop of cones was 
particularly low that year, so that while the bird reached 
Washington, D. C, it skipped this region almost entirely, 
to the great chagrin of local students. The bird is heard in 
this vicinity so seldom, that students are not really ac- 
quainted with its diagnostic notes. Flying high overhead, it is 
obviously larger than a Siskin or a Redpoll, and the notes are 
tot all}- different from the Red Crossbill. Its commonest 
note is a rattle or chatter very like the Redpoll, but much 
louder, more prolonged, and less hoarse. Another common 
note is a sweet, whistled twee, sometimes given in couplets, 
which is very like the familiar Goldfinch call, but it lacks the 
rising inflection at the end. When a flock is quietly feeding, 
there is also a note which sounds like a Junco singing very 
badly and hoarsely. 

Long Island. Very rare and irregular winter visitant, October 
25 to February 28. Abundant in the winter of 1899-1900. Since 
then only one lone individual has been recorded from the island, 
barring stragglers at Orient. 

Orient. Rare and irregular winter visitant; October 28, 
1908 to February 28, 1909. 
New York State. Practically unknown since the winter of 
1899-1900; reported as early as October 29 at Ossining (Fisher) 
and as late as May 29, 1900 at Scarboro (Fuertes and Gerald 
Thayer). Three birds on Staten Island, January to March, 1917 
(Rogers and others). 

Central Park. Not recorded since the winter of 1899- 
1900. 

Bronx Region. Common at Riverdale November 3, 

1874 to May 10, 1875 (Bicknell); a few birds in the Zoological 

Garden, December 17, 1919 to February 8, 1920 (Lee S. 

Crandall). 

New Jersey. Almost unknown since the winter of 1899-1900; 

apparently no records during the winter of 1916-17; a single bird 

near Plainfield, December 28, 1919 (Miller). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 2(JO 

Englewood Region. Recorded February 21 to March 1, 
1900 (Chapman); a small flock December 23, 1906 (Rogers). 

Redpoll (Acanthis Unarm linaria) 
An irregular winter visitant, often abundant, occurring 
on an average about twice in five years. Seldom arrives 
before January. Its rattling call-note is diagnostic. It was 
abundant during the winter of 1919-20. 

Long Island. November 18, 1889 (Helme, Miller Place) to 
March 31. 

Orient. Irregularly common, December 1, 1906 to March 
12. 1912. 

Long Beach. Rarely occurs on the beach during its visi- 
tations; recorded by Bicknell, Griscom and J. T. Nichols 
from December 24, 1916 to March 11, 1920. 
New York State. Recorded as late as April 29, 1900 at Scar- 
boro (Fuertes and Thayer; . 

Central Park. Casual visitor, straggling individuals 
occurring in years when the species is particularly common. 
November 10, 1901 (Rogers) to February 2, 1909 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. November 9, 1878 (Bicknell) and De- 
cember 31, 1910 (Hix) to March 24, 1888 (Dwight). 
New Jersey. Extreme dates for our section are December 11, 
1910 at Morristown and April 18, 1888 ("Northern New Jersey," 
Bird-Lore migration tables) ; casually as early as October 26, 1919 
near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Exglewood Region. Apparently rarer here than at 
many other points in the region; December 23, 1906 (Rogers) 
to March 17, 1917 (Weber). 

Greater Redpoll (Acanthis linaria rostrata) 
Exact status unknown. This race is practically indeter- 
minable unless collected and carefully compared and measured. 
Very few specimens have been taken, but it may easily have 
been overlooked. It is sometimes common on the Massa- 
chusetts coast a little further north. 

Long Island. Eaton states that Worthington has collected 
several specimens on Shelter Island; one of these now in the Ameri- 



266 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

can Museum was collected on February 11, 1879. It was errone- 
ously determined by both Worthington and Dutcher. 

New York State. Collected at Ossining February 12 and 13, 
1883, and recorded by Fisher. 

Holboll's Redpoll (Acanthis linaria holboelli) 
An accidental visitant from the Arctic. A specimen taken 
at Miller Place, Long Island, March 22, 1888 (A. H. Helme) 
has recently been correctly determined by Dr. D wight, and 
is now in his collection. This is the third record for New York 
State, and the first for Long Island. 

Hoary Redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni exilipes) 
An accidental visitant from the Arctic. Dr. D wight 
collected a young male in Van Cortlandt Park, New York 
City, on March 24, 1888. Its proper identity was only re- 
cently discovered by him. This is the first specimen to be 
taken in New York State, and is apparently the southern- 
most capture in America. 

American Goldfinch {Astragalinus tristis) 
A common permanent resident, but always in reduced 
numbers in winter, sometimes locally absent. There is 
often a marked spring migration, flocks arriving with great 
regularity the third week in April. 

Long Beach. Uncommon transient; May 11, 1922 (Bicknell) 
and May 30, 1911 (Griscom); August 23, 1908 (Griscom) and 
September 1, 1919 (Bicknell); October 18, 1914 (Bicknell) to 
November 25, 1920 (Crosby, Griscom and Janvrin); February 23, 
1920 (Bicknell). 

Central Park. Now a common spring and fall transient, 
formerly breeding and occasional in winter; April 5, 1907 (Hix) 
to May 25, 1909 (Griscom); September 17, 1921 (Griscom) to 
December 28, 1908 (Anne A. Crolius). 

Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus) 
A somewhat irregular transient and winter visitant. 
About four years out of five the Pine Siskin arrives during the 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 267 

middle of October and is common or abundant until 
December or occasionally later. There is a less marked 
return flight the next spring from late April to the middle of 
May. About once in ten years the bird winters in numbers; 
other winters it is absent or only stragglers are recorded. It 
has not really wintered in numbers in this territory since 
1909. There is one casual breeding record. The call note, a 
husky chee-yee, is very characteristic. 

Long Island. (September 5, 1906) September 28 to May 15 
and May 29. 

Orient. Abundant in fall,, uneommon in winter and 
spring; September 28, 1906 to May 20, 1917; average October 
1 to May 10. 

Mastic. Irregularly abundant in the fall. 
Long Beach. Often common in late October and 
November, rarely seen at other times; October 13, 1919 (Bick- 
nell) to March 10, 1912 (Griscom). 
New York State. Found nesting casually at Ossining May 25, 
1883 (Fisher). It has arrived as early as October 1, 1883 at 
Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Much scarcer in the Park than outside in 
the country; October 11, 1903 (Rogers) to November 27, 
1913 (Hix); spent the winter of 1908-09, departing late in 
March; only three spring records, May 10, 1914 (Griscom) 
to May 24, 1917 (Janvrin). 

Bronx Region. A common fall transient, rare in winter, 
but abundant 1908-09; October 13, 1910 (Griscom) to May 
6, 1909 (Griscom). 
New Jersey. 

E.\ ole wood Region. Often abundant in fall from October 
13 (Rogers* to December; rarely wintering; often reappear- 
ing in spring from late April to May 17, 1914 (Griscom and 
others). 

Snowflake (Plectrophenax nivalis) 
A common winter visitant to Long Island, but very rare 
and irregular or unknown anywhere inland in our area. The 
great amount of white and the musical chirruping notes are 
diagnostic. 



268 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Common winter visitant, often abundant on the 
outer beaches; (October 9) November 1 to March 26 (April 6). 

Orient. Usually an abundant winter visitant, October 9, 
1919 to April 6, 1916 ; average arrival November 1. 
Mastic. Fairly common winter visitant. 
Long Beach. Regular winter visitant, often common, 
October 24, 1920 (Lester Walsh) to March 26, 1911 (Griscom). 
New York State. Rare and irregular on Staten Island 
(Chapin); irregular from October 25 to March 22 at Ossining 
(Fisher). 

Central Park. Casual; March 5, 1904 (Carleton 
Schaller); March 4 and 5, 1905 (C. G. Abbott and Hix). 
Bronx Region. No record. 
New Jersey. Very rare and irregular, reported from Summit, 
Plainfield, Morristown and the Orange Mountains. A single bird 
seen at Stag Lake, Sussex Co., on October 30, 1921 (Justus von 
Lengerke). Present on the Newark Meadows in some numbers 
from November 6, 1921 to March 18, 1922; otherwise only a single 
individual recorded (Urner) . 

Englewood Region. Very rare visitor; February 28, 
1886 (Chapman); February 18, 1905 (Hix); a single bird 
October 30, 1921 (Chapman). 

Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) 
The Longspur is an irregular winter visitant to extreme 
eastern Long Island, but is a decidedly rare bird on the 
beaches near New York City, and the observer who sees it 
more than three or four times in five years is fortunate. The 
records are mostly of single birds with either Horned Larks or 
Snowflakes, though five spent the winter of 1911—12 at Man- 
hattan Beach. It is purely casual inland. 

The Lapland Longspur is a difficult bird to observe, as it 
and the two species with which it associates are excessively 
restless If, however, a good view be obtained, it is absolutely 
unmistakable, and bears a surprising resemblance to an 
immature male English Sparrow. Nor is it particularly 
difficult to pick out a Longspur in a flock of either Larks or 
Snowflakes flying by. It is noticeably smaller and darker 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 269 

than either, with no white in the wing;. Its undulating flight 
is quite different from that of the Lark, and its notes are, of 
course, totally different. They are also distinguishable from 
those of the Snowflake. It has a harsh rattling chirr, much 
Less musical than the corresponding note of the Snowflake, 
and the sweet tee of that species is a two-syllabled tyee. 

Long Island. Hare winter visitant, except at the eastern end; 
October 18 to April 18; rare after March 15; casual August 12, 
1881. 

Orient. Irregular winter visitant, October 30, 1905 to 
April 2, 1908. 

Long Beach. Rare winter visitant, November 2, 1915 
(L. X. Nichols) to March 18, 1916 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Casual at Ossining (Fisher). 
New Jersey. To Mr. Chas. A. Urner belongs the credit of dis- 
covering this bird recently on the Newark Marshes; there are five 
records; February 5 and 26, 1921, November 27, 1921, January 7, 
1922 (all by Urner), and March 22, 1922 (W. DeW. Miller). 
Otherwise reported only by Thurber from Morristown, but his 
collection contains no specimens. 

Chestnut- collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus) 
An accidental visitant from the Great Plains. Two speci- 
mens have been collected on Long Island, February 16, 1889, 
and September 14, 1891. 

Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) 
The white outer tail-feathers of the Vesper Sparrow make 
it one of the first of our numerous sparrows to be positively 
identified by the beginner in bird study. It is a common 
summer resident in the drier fields and pastures throughout 
the area. It arrives the first week in April, occasionally the 
very end of March. Few are seen in November, but near 
the coast it occasionally winters, though one of the rarest 
Sparrows at this season. 

Long Island. Common Bummer resident, occasional in win- 
ter; March 24. 1'Us at Queens (Crosby and J. T. Nichols to 
November 23. 



270 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Orient. Rare and local summer resident, formerly general 
and frequent; March 30, 1906 to December 1; occasionally 
winters. 

Mastic. A rare transient. 

Long Beach. Rare visitor in spring, four records, March 
30, 1919 (Bicknell) to May 13, 1918 (Hix); more regular in the 
fall, October 13, 1921 (Bicknell) to November 12, 1914 (Bick- 
nell); one midwinter record, January 28, 1912 (Griscom). 
New York State. Now very rare or unknown as a breeding 
bird near the City, but common in northern Westchester County. 
Very rare in winter. 

Central Park. One of the rarest casual visitors; bred 
formerly (Woodruff and Paine); the only recent records are 
April 19, 1913 (Griscom) and October 13, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Now very rare summer resident; a 
common transient; March 27, 1914 (A. A. Saunders) to 
November 3, 1912 (L. N. Nichols) ; December 29, 1918 (L. N. 
Nichols); January 7, 1911 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident, but very local in the 
suburban area. The earliest arrival date before me is March 26, 
1911 near Plainfield (Miller). There is one winter record for Plain- 
field (Miller), one for Elizabeth (Urner), and another near Cran- 
ford (Rogers). 

Englewood Region. Formerly common summer resident, 
now very local, March 27, 1921 (Griscom and Janvrin) to 
November 12, 1922 (Hix); two winter records, December 27, 
1914 (N. F. Lenssen) and February 22, 1915 (E. Fleischer). 

Ipswich Sparrow (Passerculus princeps) 
This large pale edition of the Savannah Sparrow is prac- 
tically confined to the outer beaches of Long Island, where it 
is a common transient in November and March. A few 
birds always winter, but occasionally it is common at this 
season. The normal arrival is the last week in October, and 
few individuals are seen in April. 

Long Island. Fairly common winter resident, October 12 to 
April 21; casually as early as September 20 and September 28. 

Orient. Rare winter visitant, September 20, 1919 to 
March 10, 1913; average arrival October 25. 
Mastic. Uncommon winter visitant. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 271 

Long Beach. Common transient; regular, often common 
in winter; October 13, 1912 (Griscom) and October 26, 1921 
(Bicknell) to April 12, 1917 (Bicknell) and April 21, 1912 (Gris- 
com); casual as early as September 28, 1912 (Weber, specimen 
taken). 

New York State. Occasional winter visitant to the beaches 
on the south shore of Staten Island (Chapin). 

Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis savanna) 
This species is most likely to be mistaken for a Song Spar- 
row. Its nervous, jerky flight, short tail, and very high, fine 
tsip, should distinguish it on the wing. If seen perched, the 
white median head stripe, the yellow line over the eye, and 
the absence of a central breast spot are points which are 
readily observable. To my mind, however, the best char- 
acter is the short tail in combination with the slender, pink, 
semi-translucent legs. 

The Savannah Sparrow is a common transient throughout 
our area, preferring marshes, old fields and pastures. The 
spring migration is exactly the same as that of the Vesper 
Sparrow, but it starts moving south much earlier in the fall, 
by the middle of September at least. On the coastal marshes 
it frequently winters, but is unrecorded in the upland country 
inland at this season. As a breeding bird, this species is 
associated with the uplands of the Canadian Provinces and 
New England. It is very surprising, therefore, that it is quite 
unknown in similar country in our area, and does not even 
occur at higher levels in northwestern New Jersey. Instead 
it nests locally on the salt meadows near the coast, and is 
unquestionably in creasing. 

Long Island. Abundant transient, frequently wintering. 
Steadily increasing as a summer resident. Now known from 
Orient, Gardiner's Island, Mastic, the meadows at the head of 
Jamaica Bay (Fleischer and Wiegmann), Jones Reach and Long 
Beach. At the last two Localities it can be positively stated that it 
did not nest ten years a<jo. On May 28, 1022 at least six pairs were 
found on Jones Beach, and a nest with foureggS collected a- a matter 



272 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

of record (Griscom). The earliest date for transients is March 26, 
1922 at Baldwin Harbor (J. T. Nichols), and the normal latest 
date November 15. 

Orient. Summer resident at Orient and Gardiner's 
Island; frequent in winter; March 1, 1904 to November 15, 
1912. 

Mastic. Uncommon summer resident, common transient. 

Long Beach. Abundant transient, frequently wintering 

in numbers; formerly absent in summer, but now breeding 

regularly. 

New York State. Known only as a common transient; 

winter records from Staten Island only. It has been noted as 

arriving as early as August 28 at Ossining (Fisher) . 

Central Park. Uncommon transient, but occurring 
every year on the "Point" in the Ramble; April 12, 1910 
(Griscom) to May 12, 1918 (Janvrin); September 16, 1904 
(Hix) to October 16, 1910 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; April 1, 1917 (L. 
N. Nichols) to May 28, 1916 (L. N. Nichols); October 2, 1915 
(E. G. Nichols) to November 5, 1910 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Common transient, unknown in winter except 
from the Overpeck Creek Meadows. Reported as nesting at Morris- 
town in 1887 (Thurber) and near Paterson (J. H. Clark). However 
it has not been found nesting anywhere in our area in many years, 
until Mr. Urner found a breeding pair in the salt meadows of 
Newark Bay in 1922. If the reports quoted above from inland 
localities be correct, they must be regarded as casual. 

Englewood Region. Abundant transient; March 16, 
1912 (Griscom) to May 18, 1919 (Griscom and W. T. Helmuth); 
September 7, 1908 (Hix) to December 9, 1911 (Griscom); 
there are three winter records. 

Baird's Sparrow (Centronyx bairdi) 
Accidental visitant from the West. A single specimen 
was collected at Montauk, Long Island on November 13, 
1899 (A. H. Helme). 

Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum australis) 

A common summer resident of dry fields and old pastures, 

locally absent near New York City and in parts of north- 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 273 

west (Mil New Jersey. No bird is more rarely observed as a 
transient in localities where it does not breed. Terrestrial 
and inconspicuous, it is completely overlooked by those 
unacquainted with its insect-like song, and the beginner has 
meat difficult}- in getting a satisfactory observation. The 
bird arrives the last week in April and lingers into October, 
but it is rarely observed after the song season is over. 

Long Island. Very common summer resident; (April 9) 
April 21 to October 25. 

Orient. Common summer resident; April 9, 1919 to 
October 12, 1916. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 

Long Beach. Very rare transient ; May 2, 1918 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Now breeding only on Stat en Island and the 

northern half of Westchester County. Recorded from April 27 to 

October 23 at Ossining (Fisher). A specimen collected October 27, 

1906 on Staten Island (Chapin). 

Central Park. Casual; a single bird recorded early in 
October about twenty years ago (Anne A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region. Formerly a summer resident, bred near 

Van Cortlandt Park in 1887 (Dwight); now a rare transient, 

May 5, 1918 to June 9, 1915 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Common summer resident, locally scarce or 

absent in the suburban section and in the higher parts of extreme 

northern New Jersey. The earliest arrival date is April 7, 1918 near 

Elizabeth (Urner); the next earliest before me is April 26, 1913 near 

Plainfield (Miller). 

Englewood Region. Formerly a common summer 
resident, April 30, 1904 (Bird-Lore) to October 11, 1885 
(Chapman); now a very rare transient, only three records in 
Twelve years. May 4 to May 18 (Griscom). 

Henslow's Sparrow (Passerherbulus henslowi) 
This shy and secretive little Sparrow is usually completely 
overlooked, unless its song, a feeble flee-sick } is known. As a 
result it is almost unknown as a transient, and its reputation 
for rarity as a summer resident is undeserved. It does, how- 
ever, seem to he local, as it does not occur in manv sections 



274 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

where apparently typical habitats prevail. It has the 
large-headed, short-tailed appearance of the Grasshopper 
Sparrow, but the rufous brown of the back and wing-coverts 
contrast sharply with the olivaceous of the head and nape, 
and the underparts are finely and sharply streaked. 

Long Island. Locally common summer resident at Mastic, 
and probably at Orient; a scant half-dozen records for the rest of 
the island, September 11, 1921 at Bridgehampton (C. Johnston) 
to November 20. 

Orient. Rare transient and probably rare summer resi- 
dent, recorded in summer; July 25, 1905 to September 30, 
1907. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, the earliest 
arrival date April 14, 1922. 
New York State. Reported as a rare transient at Ossining, 
October 5 to 10 (Fisher). 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; April 4, 1915 (L. N. 
Nichols); April 20, 1916 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Locally common summer resident, and much 
more widely distributed than formerly supposed. Breeds near 
Morristown (Thurber), Boonton (Judd), north of Plainfield (Miller) 
various points along the Passaic and Dead River valleys (Miller 
and others), the Great Swamp (Miller), Ramapo River west of 
Mahwah (Griscom) and occasional throughout Warren and 
Sussex Counties (Griscom). Arrives the last week in April; no 
reliable departure dates, but certainly lingering into early October. 
Unreported as a transient. 

Nelson's Sharp-tail (Passerherbulus nelsoni nelsoni) 
Contrary to the opinions of an older generation of 
ornithologists, it is perfectly possible to identify the three 
Sharp-tailed Sparrows in life, provided one is thoroughly 
familiar with Museum skins and can describe the differences 
from memory. To distinguish nelsoni is undoubtedly the 
most difficult, but I have collected it too many times after 
identifying it with glasses not to know that it can be done. 
The difficulty is not so much one of making out color mark- 
ings, supposedly obscure, but. rather a question of obtaining 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 27") 

a satisfactory view at close range of a shy and secretive bird. 
On such occasions. Nelson's Sparrow differs obviously from 
the ordinary Sharp-tail in being huffier below, of a deeper 
shade, slightly and indistinctly .streaked, instead of having 
sharply defined and blackish streaks. While actually a little 
darker above, this difference is scarcely noticeable in life. 
It is known in our area as a rare transient, chiefly in the fall, 
associating with the other Sharp-tails on the salt meadows, 
and is generally wholly overlooked. What is needed is care- 
ful observation backed by a little judicious collecting. 
Indiscriminate or haphazard collecting will merely result in a 
large series of ordinary Sharp-tails, and our knowledge of the 
real status of the present species will not have advanced in 
the slightest. It is curious that there are no recent records 
for this bird in any of our inland marshes. 

Long Island. Perhaps a regular transient in the fall; to be 
expected in spring. Specimens have been taken at Rockaway 
Beach, October 5, 1907 and October 14, 1911. 

Long Beach. Mr. Bicknell has made a special study of 

these Sparrows and regards the present race as a fall transient. 

He has records from October 8, 1914, to November 11, 1920. 

New York State. Regarded by Fisher as a fairly common 

fall transient at Ossining from September 28 to October 17. His 

birds were obtained mostly in the marshes at the mouth of the 

Croton River. Dr. Chapin has collected this species on St a ten 

Island; October 27, 1906, several birds October 19, 1907, and May 

30, l ( .»()s. This was not the result of indiscriminate collecting, 

but represents careful search beforehand. 

Acadian Sharp-tail (Passerherbulus nehoni subuirgatus) 
A fairly common transient on our salt marshes, often 
abundant the latter half of October. Of all our small pa — 
serine birds it is undoubtedly the latesl spring migrant, and 
the scarcity of spring records is due to tin- fact. The lasl 
week in May and the first few days of .June represent the 
height of it- migration, and at this time most observers are 
looking for Shore-birds and pay no attention to Sparrows. 



276 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

It is readily distinguishable from the other two Sharp-tails. 
The buff of the breast and sides of the head is pale and washed 
out, the streaks below are faint, and above the bird is paler 
and more uniform, the dark crown stripes, auricular streaks 
and back all toned down or practically indistinguishable. As 
a result it has a pale and gray effect, which is striking when a 
bird is merely flushed and flies off over the marsh. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, probably regular in 
spring, but overlooked; May 29, 1921, Jones Beach (Griscom and 
J. M. Johnson); May 30, 1913 at Freeport (H. Thurston, speci- 
men collected); June 5, 1920 at Mastic (J. T. Nichols and Gris- 
com) ; in the fall from September 24 to November 5. 

Orient. Uncommon fall transient; September 24, 1914 
to October 22, 1919. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Regular fall transient, not as yet detected 

in spring; October 5, 1916 (Bicknell) to November 5, 1912 

(Griscom, Miller, Rogers). 

New York State. Collected on Staten Island, May 30, 1908 

and October 19, 1907 (Chapin). Reported as a rare transient 

at Ossining, September 29 to October 16 (Fisher). If these birds 

were correctly determined, their occurrence inland is remarkable. 

New Jersey. Only one definite report in our area, a single bird 
on the Newark Bay Marshes May 21, 1922 (Urner). 

Sharp-tailed Sparrow {Passerherbulus caudacutus) 
The Sharp-tail is strictly confined in our area to the salt 
marshes of the coast, where it is a common and characteristic 
summer resident, occasional^ wintering. As a rule it is 
shyer than the Seaside Sparrow, and prefers drier situations. 
Long Island. Common summer resident, occasionally winter- 
ing; April 16 to November 5. 

Orient. Abundant summer resident, recorded in winter; 
April 16, 1915 to November 1, 1920; average arrival April 30. 
Mastic. Common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Common summer resident, from April 28 
1921 (Bicknell), often remaining into November, and occa- 
sionally wintering; no March records. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIBDS 277 

New York State. Confined lo those sail marshes of Staten 
Island and the Sound, which have not been destroyed. 

Bronx Region. Occasionally breeding on the Baychester 
marshes, May 9, 1916 to October 9, 1915 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Confined in our area to the salt marshes at 
the mouth of the Raritan River and Newark Bay, arriving as 
early as April 23, 1921 and sometimes wintering (Urner). 

Seaside Sparrow (Pawerherbulus maritimus) 
Another characteristic species of the salt meadows, 
which is accidental in any other type of habitat. As far as 
coloration goes it may safely be termed the dingiest and 
least attractive of all our sparrows. It is less shy than the 
Sharp-tail, prefers the wetter portions of the marsh, and no 
bird can be " squeaked up" more readily. From early May 
to November they cannot be overlooked, but individuals fre- 
quently linger to January and occasionally pass the entire 
winter, singing on warm and sunny days. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, at the western end 
outnumbering the Sharp-tail, but rare or unknown at the eastern 
end; April 22 to November and January; a specimen taken April 
12, 1890 near Flatbush (Alfred Marshall). 

Orient. Irregular summer resident at Orient, otherwise 
unknown in the region; May 1, 1902 to September 26, 1904. 
Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, less numerous 
than the Sharp-tail. 

Long Beach. Abundant; April 28, 1921 (Bicknell) to 
December; numerous wintering records to April 5, 1917 (Bick- 
nell). 
New York State. Breeds on the salt marshes of Staten Island, 
where there are winter records. On the Sound known only from 
the Baychester marshes. Accidental at Ossining (Fisher). 

Bronx Region. Breeds on the Baychest er marshes, May 9, 

1916 to October 18, 1914 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. In our area known only from the marshes at 

the mouth of the Raritan River and Newark Bay, where it does 

not seem to be at all common except in the fall migration (Urner). 



278 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus) 

The Lark Sparrow must be regarded as a casual visitant 
at the present time. There is definite evidence, however, 
that it is extending its range eastward, and Eaton suggested 
in 1910 that it might become a common bird in New York 
State sometime in the future. The majority of the records 
are recent ones, and most of them are in the summer. The 
bird is readily identified b}^ its chestnut ear-coverts and fan- 
shaped, white-tipped tail. 

Long Island. Casual; may have bred. Four published 

records, July, August, and November. The most recent is an adult 

discovered near Montauk on June 12, 1922 by Mr. J. T. Nichols. 

Orient. Recorded August 15 to 17, and October 3, 1909 

at Orient (Roy Latham). 

New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. One taken November 26, 1885 by 
Dr. Chapman near Schraalinburgh, now known as Dumont. 

White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) 
The most handsome and distinguished looking of our 
Sparrows is a rather rare or uncommon transient in this 
neighborhood. In spring it is recorded chiefly with the big- 
gest "waves" in May, and is easily overlooked unless the 
observer is out daily. While singing freely, the song in my 
experience never attains the full power and sweetness so 
typical of the West, and bears a surprising resemblance to 
that of the Black-throated Green Warbler. In October 
adults are rare, and the immature bird is often overlooked in 
the hordes of other Sparrows. Its large size, reddish-brown 
bill, reddish crown and clean gray head are, however, diag- 
nostic. The White-crowned Sparrow always has a square- 
headed appearance, quite different from the evenly rounded 
outline of the heads of our other Sparrows. As is usual 
with man}- of our rarer species, it is observed more frequently 
in ( Vntral Park than elsewhere. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient; May 1 to May 30. 
casual!}' as early as April 10, 1897; September 25 to XovemberlO. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 279 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 1, 1914 to May 31, 
1914; October 11, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins) to November 10, 
1909. 

Mastic Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Two spring records, May 14, 1914 and May 

11, 1922 (Bicknell); uncommon in the fall, October 6, 1921 to 

October 24, 1918 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Rather rare transient, immature birds 

occasionally recorded in some numbers in the fall. The latest 

spring date is May 28, 1907 on Staten Island (Chapin). Casual 

April 17, 1913 at Yonkers (G. K. Noble). 

Central Park. Uncommon transient, April 24, 1896 (L. 
S. Foster); May 3, 1922 (Blanche Samek and Griscom) to 
May 26, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius); October 1, 1911 (Hix) to 
October 13, 1921 (Griscom). Rarely noted before May 12 
and after May 18. 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; May 7, 1922 (Starck 

brothers) to May 15, 1917 (L. N. Nichols); October 8, 1910 

(Griscom) to November 7, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. A rather rare transient, occurring chiefly at the 

height of the migration in spring and in the middle of October. 

It may prove to be commoner in the northwestern part of the area, 

from which I have no data. 

Englewood Region. Rare transient; May 12, 1906 (Hix, 
Rogers, Wiegmann) to May 22 (Bird-Lore migration tables); 
September 29, 1914 (Weber) to October 20, 1907 (Hix and 
Rogers). 

White -throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) Fig. 25 
The beginner to whom all Sparrows are a puzzle and a 
trial will bless this conspicuously marked and abundant 
species. Cheerful and confiding, it occurs on migration even 
in the streets and back yards of New York City, and sings 
on sunny days throughout the winter. It arrives in the fall 
with the first decided drop in temperature in September. By 
the middle of November only the wintering flocks remain. 
These break up about the middle of March, and then it is 
oftenimpos>il>lc to find the species locally , until the transients 
arrive from the South the middle of April. The last individu- 
al- retire northward with the height of the migration in May. 



280 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

Long Island. Abundant transient, fairly common winter 

resident, particularly at the western end; September 10 to May 30. 

Orient. Common transient, rare in winter; September 

10, 1914 to May 27, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins); average arrival 

September 20. 

Mastic. Common transient, less numerous in winter; 
recorded May 30, 1917. 

Long Beach. Uncommon spring, common fall transient, 
April 14, 1921 (Bicknell) to May 25, 1917 (Janvrin); Sep- 
tember 27, 1910 (Griscom) to December 24, 1916 (Griscom). 
New York State. Wintering commonly near the coast, rarely 
up the river at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Abundant transient, wintering regularly 
until the last three years; September 15, 1910 and September 
9, 1913 (Hix) to May 29, 1907 (Griscom) and casually to July 
2, 1907 (Chubb); earliest spring arrival April 4, 1913 
(Griscom); now departing southward about November 15. 

Bronx Region. Common winter resident, September 14, 

1921 (Griscom) to May 19, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Abundant transient throughout; common 

winter resident near the coast and along the southern boundary of 

our area, decreasing inland, and unrecorded at this season in the 

extreme north and northwest. 

Englewood Region. Fairly common winter resident, 
abundant in migration; September 10, 1905 (Hix) to May 24, 
1907 (Bird-Lore); casual June 8, 1918 (E. Fleischer). 

Tree Sparrow (Spizella monticola) 
The tinkling, twittering notes of the flocks of Tree Spar- 
rows enliven our fields, pastures, and marshes during the 
winter months, and in early spring a very sweet song is 
occasionally heard. The chestnut crown, white wing-bars, 
and unstreaked breast with a central spot are all diagnostic 
characters. It arrives regularly the first week in November, 
rarely the end of October and casually earlier. In the up- 
lands the bird usually disappears b} r the end of March, but 
in our larger marshes a few linger into April. 

Long Island. Abundant winter visitant, October 9 to April 
25, 1901 on Shelter Island (W. W. Worthington). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 281 

Orient. Common winter resident, October 20, 1914 to 
April 12, 1917; average arrival November 1. 
Mastic. Common winter visitant. 

Long Beach. A few birds winter regularly, common in 
migration; October 27, 1912 (Griscom) to March 31, 1912 
(Griscom). 
New York State. Abundant winter resident. October 10 to 
April 27 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Casual visitor; scattered individuals 
occasionally noted in fall and early spring, or even in mid- 
winter after heavy snow; November 11, 1907 (Griscom) to 
April 9, 1911 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common winter resident, November 6, 
1915 (Hix) to April 13, 1884 (J. Dwight). 
New Jersey. Abundant winter resident. The earliest arrival 
date before me is October 12, 1919 near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Abundant winter resident, 
November 2, 1886 (Chapman) to April 26, 1914 (Griscom); 
rarely recorded after the first week in April. 

Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) 
An abundant and familiar summer resident, nesting exclu- 
sively in proximity to man. Very rarely recorded in winter, and 
rare before early April or after the first week in November. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, March 28 to 
November 23, 1919 (Hempstead, J. T. Nichols) ; very rare in winter. 

Orient. Abundant summer resident, recorded in winter; 
March 28, 1904 to November 4, 1915; average arrival April 4. 

Mastic. Common summer resident. 

Long Beach. Uncommon spring, common fall transient; 
April 10, 1917 (Hix) to May 4, 1916 (Bicknell); October 1, 
1914 (Bicknell) to November 13, 1910 (Griscom); casual 
June 5, 1918 (Hix). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Common transient, formerly a few pairs 
breeding regularly, one pair only in 1921, none in 1922; 
March 29, 1907 (Hix) to November 26, 1911 (Hix); transients 
arrived October 5, 1921 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, April 5, 1912 
(C. L. Lewis; to November 10, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 



282 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New Jersey. Abundant summer resident, arriving occasionally 
in late March at Elizabeth and Plainfield, rarely at Englewood and 
almost never further north and west. Two winter records at Plain- 
field (Miller) and two at Elizabeth (Urner). The earliest arrival 
date is March 11, 1917 at Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, March 
21, 1897 (Bird-Lore) to November 21, 1914 (J. T. Nichols) 
and December 3, 1910 (Griscom). Three winter records. 

Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) 
A common summer resident of fields and pastures 
throughout the area, wintering regularly and occasionally 
in some numbers near the coast. The first birds arrive during 
the middle of March, but transients are passing through up 
to the middle of May. The fall migration lasts from the end 
of September to the middle of November, when there is a 
marked song season. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, a few in winter, 
March 15 to December 21. 

Orient. Locally common summer resident, occasional in 
winter, March 15, 1920 to December 2, 1920. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, uncommon in 
winter. 

Long Beach. Regular transient, often common in the 
fall; April 1, 1916 (Bicknell) to May 21, 1916 (Janvrin); 
October 10, 1918 (Bicknell) to November 6, 1910 (Griscom) 
and December 12, 1918 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Unrecorded in winter at Ossining (Fisher). 
Central Park. Common transient; March 12, 1905 
(Hix) and April 4, 1913 (Griscom) to May 26, 1913 (Griscom); 
September 23, 1913 (Hix) to November 9, 1910 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, regular and 

sometimes common in winter; March 19, 1912 (Griscom) to 

December. 

New Jersey. Winters regularly at Elizabeth, Plainfield and 

Englewood, but rare or unknown at this season further north and 

west. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, abun- 
dant in migration, rare but regular in winter; March 24, 1907 
(Hix) to November 7, 1915 (J. T. Nichols). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 283 

Slate-colored Junco {J unco hyemalis) 
The Junco is one of our most familiar and best known 
transients and winter residents. In the fall I see it every 
year on Fifth Avenue, in back yards, and in the squares 
throughout the city. It arrives with the first cold weather in 
Sept ember. In the middle of March large flocks of transient 
individuals arrive in full song from the South, and a few 
birds linger until the first week in May. 

Long Island. Abundant transient, common winter resident; 
(August 28) September 14 to May 17, 1917 at Hempstead (Murphy 
and Nichols). 

Orient. Abundant transient, less common in winter, 
September 14, 1914 to May 12, 1916; average arrival Sep- 
tember 22. 

Mastic. Fairly common in winter, abundant transient. 
Long Beach. Common transient, particularly in the fall; 
September 27, 1910 (Griscom) to December 24, 1916 (Gris- 
com); March 1, 1917 (Bicknell) to May 9, 1917 (Bicknell); 
casual August 28, 1913 (J. A. Weber). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Abundant transient, a few wintering 
regularly until the past two winters; September 14, 1908 
(Hix) to May 16, 1917 (Janvrin); migration is over by 
November 15, and begins the third week in March on the 
average. 

Bronx Region. Common winter resident, September 14, 

1921 (Griscom) to May 15, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Recorded May 13, 1917 near Plainfield (Rogers). 

Englewood Region. Common winter visitant, abundant 

in migration; September 17, 1887 (Chapman) to May 9, 

1920 (Griscom). 

Bachman's Sparrow (Peuc&u aestivalis bachmani) 
Accidental visitant from the southern States. Mr. J. A. 
Weber collected a sin^injr male at Fort Lee. New .Jersey on 
May 9, 1918, the only record for the State. 



284 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) Fig. 25 
A common resident throughout the territory, this well 
known bird needs little comment here. Its numbers are 
greatly reenforced by transients on migration in spring and 
fall. It is not quite so tame as the White-throat and Junco, 
rarely if ever invading the city streets and back yards, as 
those species do every year. 

Central Park. One or two nesting pairs still remain, 
and an individual or two may still winter; now chiefly an 
abundant transient, March 6, 1909 (Griscom) to May 10, 1921 
(Griscom); September 26, 1922 (Carter, Griscom, Howland) 
to November 5, 1909 (Griscom). 

Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza Uncolni) 
The shy and secretive habits of this little known Sparrow 
give it a reputation for rarity which it is far from deserving. 
While uncommon it is a regular transient in our area, but will 
never be seen, except by a lucky " fluke," unless specially 
looked for. In spring it is particularly fond of water courses, 
the banks of which are grown with bushes, where it 
remains down among the roots and disappears at the slight- 
est noise. By going as rapidly and noisily as possible through 
such a tract, a trim, small, grayish-brown Song Sparrow will 
sometimes flash into view for a second as it dives headlong 
into the bushes a few feet ahead. Making every possible 
effort to be quiet, the student should next make a wide detour 
and return to the bank ahead of where the bird was seen to 
enter. In this way I have had the bird come to me within six 
feet. If a confederate be available, and the bird can be put 
in between the observers, one or both can obtain an observa- 
tion. Lincoln's Sparrow will occur, however, in dense shrub- 
bery almost everywhere, and I see it every spring in Central 
Park. It is exceptional to see more than one or two a season, 
and then it will occur on the big waves only. In spring it does 
not consort with other Sparrows, but in the fall it associates 
with Song and Swamp Sparrows, and is lost in their greater 



286 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

numbers. The vegetation is also more dense and I have 
always had much greater trouble finding it in fall than in 
spring. The cream-buff breast-band is only visible at close 
range and in good light, but the narrow streaking below is 
quite characteristic and easily seen. The student, whenever 
he does get a look at a Lincoln's Sparrow, may expect to see 
it at very close range, but in very poor light. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient; May 7 to June 3; 
September 9 to the middle of October, casually to November 29. 
Orient. Recorded in the fall from September 9 to 25, 
1913. 

Mastic. No record. 
Long Beach. No record. 
New York State. Reported as rare or uncommon, depending 
upon the amount of special search given. 

Central Park. Uncommon spring transient, one or two 
seen every season, May 2, 1911 (W. H. Wiegmann) to May 
24, 1899 (Chubb); undoubtedly overlooked in the fall, only 
one record, September 21, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region. Rare transient, overlooked; May 15, 
1922 (L. N. Nichols); September 26, 1914 (Hix) to October 
12, 1912 (GriscomandLaDow). 
New Jersey. Not reported from our area except near Plainfield 
and Englewood, where experienced field ornithologists have spe- 
cially looked for it. I am convinced, however, that its status is 
just what it has proved to be at these two localities, namely an 
uncommon but regular transient. Mr. Miller has seen seven or 
eight individuals in the course of one spring at Plainfield. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient; May 11, 
1919 (Granger and Griscom) to May 18, 1919 (Griscom and 
W. T. Helmuth); September 10, 1898 (Chapman) to October 
12, 1916 (Griscom and J. M. Johnson). 

Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) 
A common summer resident in fresh-water swamps, 
meadows and marshes throughout the territory, wintering 
regularly in the marshes near New York City, rarely else- 
where. On migration it occurs commonly in every type of 
country except deep woodland. 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 287 

Long Island. Fairly common local summer resident, common 
transient, rare in winter; April 5 to November 17. 

Orient. Rare summer resident at Greenport; uncommon 
transient and winter visitant; April 25 to May 25; September 
15 to November 25. 

Mastic. A transient only, uncommon spring, common fall, 
rare in winter. 

Long Beach. Bred 1908 (Griscom); uncommon spring, 
common fall transient; April 5, 1917 (Bicknell) to May 29, 
1915 (Hix); October 3, 1917 (Bicknell) to November 14, 1919 
(Bicknell); four winter records. 
New York State. 

Central Park. Common transient; March 26, 1919 (Hix) 
to May 26, 1914 (Griscom); September 25, 1922 (Carter and 
Griscom) to November 9, 1908 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Permanent resident, scarce in winter. 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout; a 
permanent resident in the Newark and Hackensack meadows and 
at Ash Swamp near Plainfield (Miller), rare or unknown in winter 
elsewhere. 

Englewood Region. Permanent resident, common in 
summer, uncommon in winter, abundant in migration; the 
first arrivals from the south have been noted as early as March 
24, 1907 (Hix), but it is not until three weeks later that the 
summer population reaches normal. 

Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) 
This large handsome Sparrow with a splendid song is a 
common transient, and among the first to arrive in spring 
and the last to arrive in fall. While wintering regularly in 
certain localities near New York City, it is much rarer else- 
where at this season than several less hardy species, just the 
reverse of what one would suppose. In the spring it pj 
through very rapidly, and stragglers are rarely reported in 
April. 

Long Island. Abundant transient, uncommon in winter at 
the western end, ran- elsewhere; February 22 to April 30; October 
12 to December 29. 

Orient. Common transient, rare in winter; February 23, 
1911 to Marel. 17. 1915; October 20, 1906 to December 1, 1920. 



288 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Fairly common transient, unrecorded in winter 
Long Beach. Common transient; March 17, 1912 (Gris- 
com) to April 10, 1917 (Janvrin); October 12, 1921 (Griscom) 
to December 28, 1910 (Griscom); two winter records. 
New York State. Not recorded in winter at Ossining (Fisher). 
Central Park. Common transient, occasionally winter- 
ing in former years; February 10, 1901 (Chubb) to April 
18, 1919 (Janvrin) and April 22, 1905 (Hix); October 2, 
1910 (Griscom) to December 6, 1907 (Griscom); casual in 
spring after April 1 and in fall before October 10; casual 
August 9, 1913 (Griscom, Auk, 1914, p. 102). 

Bronx Region. Occasional in winter; February 23, 1884 
(Bicknell) to April 30, 1886 (J. Dwight); October 20, 1919, 
(L. N. Nichols) to December or even January. 
New Jersey. Occasionally wintering at Elizabeth and Engle- 
wood, but very rarely further inland; only twice recorded after 
December 1 in twenty-five years at Plainfield (Miller). The earli- 
est fall date before me is October 15, 1916, near Elizabeth (Urner). 
Englewood. March 1, 1909 (Griscom) to April 23, 1901 
(Bird-Lore tables) ; October 15, 1887 (Chapman) to Novem- 
ber 25, 1913 (J. T. Nichols); wintering irregularly, some- 
times in numbers. 

Towhee; Chewink (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) 
The Chewink prefers the drier woods and scrub-covered 
hillsides for a home. As a result it is particularly abundant 
on the coastal plain and the dry ridges of the Kittatinny 
Mountains in Sussex County, New Jersey. While generally 
distributed elsewhere, it is less numerous in or locally absent 
from the rich limestone areas in northern New Jersey. Both 
its names are derived from its distinctive call-note. The 
Chewink scratches more noisily than any of our other birds, 
and seems to use both feet at once. Between scratches it 
has a trick of muttering to itself over the results obtained. 
These sounds coming from the middle of a dense thicket the 
third week in April are often the only indications of its arrival, 
as the song period does not begin until a little later. ^It re- 
mains until the end of October, and near the City is occa- 
sional in winter. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 289 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, occasionally winter- 
ing at the extreme western end, April 16 to November 20. 

Orient. Common summer resident, April 23, 1911 to 
November 5, 1909; average arrival April 28. 
Mastic. Abundant summer resident. 

Long Beach. Regular transient in spring, April 14, 1922 
(Bicknell) to May 29, 1917 (Bicknell); there are apparently 
only three fall records, October 6. 1921 (Bicknell) to November 
19, 1922 (Griscom and LaDow). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Common transient; April 12, 1915 (Hix) 
to May 24, 1909 (Griscom); September 22, 1922 (Carter, 
Crosby, Griscom) to November 11, 1914 (Hix); a bird has 
spent the entire winter on at least two occasions. 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, several winter 
records, April 19, 1909 (L. N. Nichols) to November 11, 1916 
(Hix). 
New Jersey. Generally common summer resident, abundant in 
the northern hills, rare or absent in low rich woodland in the north- 
western section. There are several winter records for Plainfield 
and Englewood. The earliest arrival date is April 10, 1921 near 
Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, April 
14, 1913 (J. T. Nichols) to October 31, 1914 (J. T. Nichols); 
several winter records. 

Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) 
The vicinity of New York City was formerly about the 
northern limit of the breeding range of this brilliant and 
handsome bird on the Atlantic Coast. The rapid advance of 
the suburbs and the consequent clearing of woods and thickets 
has either destroyed the bird's haunts or rendered them un- 
inhabitable. As a result it is now extirpated in practically 
all sections. 

Long Island. Formerly a common resident in the rich wood- 
land at the extreme western end of the island, wandering casually 
elsewhere. Bred in Prospecl Park up to 1902; not seen there 
Bmce May 2. 11)11 K. Fleischer.. An individual seen at Man- 
hattan Beach, January 1. 1912 (Hix and Rogen 
Orient. Casual, October 3, 1908. 



290 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New York State. Casual at Ossining (Fisher); formerly a 
common resident on Staten Island, now probably extirpated. 

Central Park. Formerly a common resident, extinct 
since 1914. 

Bronx Region. In recent years at least a casual visitant; 
April 14, 1886 (J. Dwight); April 9, 1916 (L. N. Nichols); 
flock of six December 25, 1916 (L. X. Nichols); February 1, 
1920 (W. Beebe). 
New Jersey. Now surviving only near Elizabeth and Plain- 
field, where it is still a common resident (Miller). Not recorded in 
recent years at Summit, Orange or Morristown. Casual at Mont- 
clair, October 3, 1906 (Howland). 

Englewood Region. Formerly resident in several locali- 
ties, now completely extirpated; extinct at Morsemere since 
1907 (Griscom), at Fort Lee since 1911 (Weber), on the east 
slope of the Palisades above Englewood since 1914. 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Zamelodia ludoviciana) 
This handsome species prefers low or rich woodland, 
and the southern limit of its breeding range is reached in the 
Piedmont belt between the coastal plain and the terminal 
moraine. As a result the Grosbeak is entirely absent as a 
breeding species on the coastal plain of Long Island, and is 
rare and local on the north shore. It arrives the first week in 
May, casually in April, and rarely lingers as late as October. 

Long Island. Rare and irregular summer resident on the north 
shore, many years ago regular in country which is now Long Island 
City and Astoria; uncommon transient at the western end, rare 
on the south shore and the eastern end; May 2 to May 24; August 
28 to October 2. 

Orient. Rare transient, April 23, 1916 to May 24, 1916 
(Mabel R. Wiggins); September 15, 1912 to September 26, 
1907. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Only one record, two males and a female 
May 18, 1919 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident in northern 
Westchester County, decreasing southward, known only as a 
transient on Staten Island. One recorded April 29, 1920 in Wash- 
ington Square, New York City (Charles Johnston). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 291 

Central Park. Common transient; May 3, 1906 (Hix) 
to May 22, 1899 (Chubb); September 8, 1913 (Hix) to 
September 28, 1913 (Hix); one captured December 16, 1909 
and kept in the Park Zoo. 

Bronx Region. Uncommon .summer resident, the numbers 
fluctuating from year to year, May 6, 1916 (L. N. Nichols) to 
October 21, 1921 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout, increas- 
ing northward and westward. The latest date before me is Sep- 
tember 30, 1917 near Elizabeth (Urner). Clarence D. Brown has 
recorded a male which visited a feeding station at Rutherford 
from January 26 to February 13, 1908. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, May 1, 
1886 (Chapman) to September 25, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 

Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca cxrulea) 
An accidental visitant from the South. The numerous 
reports of the species from the northeast in recent years by 
inexperienced observers lead inevitably to the suspicion that 
the Indigo Bunting is misidentified. Most of such reports 
from this area are here omitted. 

Long Island. Specimen collected at Canarsie in May, 1843; 
one seen and carefully studied at Long Beach October 15, 1916 by 
J. M. Johnson and C. H. Rogers, both experienced field ornitholo- 
gists previously familiar with the species in life. 

New York State. Specimen collected on Manhattan Island 
May 15, 1838. There is no evidence that this bird should be 
credited to Central Park. 

New Jersey. No specimens have ever been taken in our area. 
The published report that a taxidermist, Akhurst by name, saw 
several in a single day many years ago near Snake Hill is particu- 
larly open to suspicion and unconvincing. Thurber records it from 
Morristown on the authority of a Mr. Fairchild, but no sight record 
with such an absence of data would receive any credence today; 
nor can I see that the antiquity of the report adds to its value. The 
•urrence of this species in our section of New Jersey is not worth 
regarding as even hypothetical in my opinion. 



292 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) 
A common summer resident throughout, except on Long 
Island. While the brilliant male is unmistakable, the female 
looks like a Sparrow, but is absolutely unstreaked and usually 
has a glint of blue on wing and tail. The loud metallic cheep, 
and a habit of wagging the tail from side to side are also aids 
in identification. The Indigo Bunting is one of our latest 
migrants, rarely arriving before the height of the migration. 
In the fall it lingers until early October, at this season show- 
ing a marked preference for the borders of swamps and 
marshes, where it is seldom or never seen in spring. It has 
occurred casually in April. 

Long Island. Uncommon summer resident at the western end 

of the island, rare and local elsewhere; similarly a common or rare 

transient as to localny. April 19, April 27 and May 1 to October 11. 

Orient. Rare summer resident on Gardiner's Island 

(Chapman); irregular and very rare transient elsewhere, 

May 1 to May 30, September 14 to September 30. 

Mastic. Uncommon in spring and summer, not definitely 
known to breed; recorded April 26, 1921. 

Long Beach. Very rare transient; a male caught late 
in April or early in May, 1918 (C. H. Lott); October 3, 1917 
and October 6, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Uncommon but regular transient in 
spring, May 10, 1914 (Griscom) to May 23, 1909 (Griscom); 
three fall records, September 22, 1922 (Carter, Crosby, 
Griscom) to October 5, 1921 (Griscom); recorded in June 1892 
(Chapman); casual April 28, 1902 (L. N. Nichols), April 
22 to 30, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow), and October 19, 1922 
(Crosby and Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, May 6, 1919 
(L. N. Nichols) to October 14, 1918 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, May 6, 
1886 (Chapman) to October 13, 1919 (Rogers). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 293 

Dickcissel (Spiza americana) 
A common summer resident in parts of our territory and 
elsewhere on the Atlantic ('oast eighty years ago, the dis- 
appearance westward of this species is one of the ornithologi- 
cal mysteries. It has long since become extinct in our area. 

Long Island. A common summer resident in 1842; very rare 
on Shelter Island by 1875 (W. W. Worthington); stragglers taken 
at Miller Place in 1888 (Helme) and one at Blythewood, August 25, 
1890 (F. E. Johnson). 

New Jersey. Common summer resident near Hoboken in 1851 
(C. S. Galbraith) and probably elsewhere. Between 1868 and 1890 
there were only four records for the State. Fourteen years later 
W. DeW Miller made the astonishing discovery of a breeding 
pair near Plainfield, which raised young, but they never returned. 

Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) 
This species of the western plains has occurred acci- 
dentally on Long Island on two occasions, Montauk Point, 
September 4, 1888 and Miller Place, September 11, 1896. 

Scarlet Tanager (Piranga erythromelas) 
A common summer resident throughout from about May 
7 to the middle of October. Few of our birds exhibit so little 
variation in the dates of migration from year to year. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, (May 1) May 7 to 
October 19. 

ORIENT. Summer resident, locally rare or absent, May 1, 
1917 to October 19, 1915. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Six records in spring between May S, 1919 
and May 25, 1916 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common throughout. Casual in New 
York City, April 19, 1882. 

Central Pake. Bred as late as L904 (Hix); a common 
transient; April 29, 1919 (Hix) and May 2, 1908 'Anne A. 
Crolius) to June \. 1907 Hix : August 31, 1913 (Griscom to 
October 7, 1907 fGriscom). 



294 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, May 10, 
1920 (L. N. Nichols) to October 16, 1921 (Griscom). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. Casual 
at Morristown, April 12, 1887. 

Englewood Region. Common resident, May 4, 1912 
(Griscom) to October 22, 1904 (Hix). 

Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra) 
Fifty or more years ago this species nested regularly in 
southern New Jersey and wandered casually into our area. 
There are scarcely any recent records. 

Long Island. Casual visitant, thirteen records between April 
6 and May 16, the last in 1902. 
Mastic. One record. 
New Jersey. Recorded from Morristown without data by 
Thurber (1887). The only recent record for the State is a male col- 
lected near Leonia, Bergen County, May 5, 1916 by J. A. Weber. 

Purple Martin (Progne subis) 
As is well known, this bird breeds in colonies which are 
very locally distributed in our area. The House Sparrow and 
the Starling are factors which are too strong for it ; and it has 
been steadily decreasing in the last forty years. The most 
surprising thing about the Martin, however, is its rarity as a 
transient, as it is practically unrecorded away from the 
vicinity of a breeding colony. It is hard to believe that so 
large, conspicuous and noisy a Swallow is overlooked. 

Long Island. Still a common summer resident on the eastern 
half of the island. The westernmost colony at Baldwin was 
deserted two years ago. April 2 to September 20. 

Orient. Breeding colony at Greenport; otherwise a rare 
spring and common fall transient ; April 18, 1905 to July 5 to 
September 15. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, decreasing. 
Long Beach. Occasional on migration; May 19, 1915 to 
June 13, 1918; August 11, 1921 to September 3, 1919 (all 
Bicknell). 
New York State. No breeding colony remaining except near 
Rye (Lee S. Crandall), and now hardly known as a transient; a 
single pair started to nest on Staten Island in 1917 (Cleaves). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 295 

CENTRAL PARK. Very rare transient, single birds recorded 
four times in spring, April 19, 1911 (Griscom) to May 13, 
1907 (Hix); once in fall, August 23, 1915 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. No record since April 30, 1886 (J. 
Dwight). 
New Jersey. Rare and local summer resident. Breeding colo- 
nies are known at Plainfield; Morristown; Andover, Newton and 
Branchville, Sussex Count}' (Miller and Griscom), and at Blairs- 
town, Warren County (Griscom). At Morristown the Bird-Lore 
migration tables give April 8, 1890 as the earliest arrival date, 
April 17 as average, and September 11, 1911 as the latest date of 
departure. The bird is practically unknown as a transient else- 
where. Truer saw one bird August 31, 1920 near Elizabeth; 
Howland reports flocks on August 16 and 27, 1905 near Montclair. 
Englewood Region. Recorded August 3, 1886 and May 
13, 1888 (Chapman); unknown since then. 

Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon lunifrons) 
Now the rarest of our Swallows, practically extinct as a 
summer resident, and steadily decreasing; as a transient. The 
best remaining place to see it near the City is the Overpeck 
( 'reck Marshes near Englewood, where it still occurs regularly 
every spring on days when there are flights of other Swallows. 
At any distance the bird looks like a dull Barn Swallow in 
color, with a reddish-brown rump, and the build of a Tree 
Swallow. 

Long Island. Not known to have nested since 1904; now an 
uncommon or rare transient in a few favored localities, April 23 
to June; August to October 11. 

Orient. Very rare transient, August; formerly nested in 
Cutchogue. 

MASTIC. Uncommon transient. 

LONG Beach. Very rare transient. May 24 and 26, L917 
(Bicknell and Hix); September 1, 1919 and September^, 1920 
(Bicknell). 

New York State. Long since extinct as a summer resident, 
adily decreasing as a transient, and apparently much rarer in 
fall than in spring. 

Central Park. Formerly a regular spring transient, now 
rare and irregular, April 20, 1911 (Griscom) to June 3, 1<>()7 
(Hix); no record in fall. 



296 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Bronx Region. Now an uncommon or rare transient, 
May 3, 1917 (C. L. Lewis) to May 23, 1920 (L. N. Nichols); 
only one recent fall record, October 6, 1921 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Breeding colonies formerly existed at numerous 
stations, but the bird is now extinct in all the places listed by Dr. 
Stone in 1910. Colonies still exist near Boonton (Miller), Newfound- 
land (Miller), south end of Greenwood Lake (Miller), Andover 
Junction (Griscom), the northeast corner of the Wawayanda 
Plateau (Griscom), and in a valley about half way between the 
Kittatinny Ridge and the Delaware River just west of Lake 
Mashipacong (Griscom). It is of course likety that other colonies 
will be discovered in the more inaccessible rural sections of Sussex 
and Warren Counties. As a transient it is now uncommon and 
decreasing; fall records are particularly defective. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon but still a regular 
transient; April 23, 1922 (Griscom and Laidlaw Williams) to 
June 5, 1917 (Weber); August 9, 1901 (Hix) to September 26, 
1903 (Hix). 

Barn Swallow (Hirundo erythrogastra) 
A common and familiar summer resident, and abundant 
transient, though it has distinctly decreased in numbers as a 
breeding bird in the last forty years, and now is uncommon or 
absent in the suburban sections. It seldom arrives before 
the middle of April nor is it often seen after October 1. 
Transients pass through until June and return the end of 
July. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident except at the ex- 
treme western end; (March 16) April 8 to October 15 and casually 
to November 26. 

Orient. Abundant summer resident, March 19, 1919 to 
September 22, 1916; average arrival April 10. 
Mastic. Common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Abundant transient and present all summer; 
April 22, 1916 (Bicknell) to September 23, 1920 and October 
12, 1918 (Bicknell), casually to November 26, 1918 (Janvrin). 
New York State. Reported April 2, 1882 from New York 
City (Bird-Lore). 

Central Park. Common transient, but decreasing; April 
16, 1911 (Hix) to June 3, 1907 (Hix); July 31, 1908 (Griscom) 
to September 28, 1910 (Griscom). 



ANNOTATED LIST OP THE BIRDS 297 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, April 13, 
1919 (L. X. Nichols) to October 14, 1917 (L. X. Xiehols). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident in all rural districts, 
decreasing in the suburbs. Reported April 5, 1890 at Morristown 
(Bird-Lore). 

Englewood Region. Formerly common, now uncommon 
summer resident, abundant in migration, April 9, 1922 (Gris- 
com and Laidlaw Williams ) to October 8, 1916 (L. X". Xiehols). 

Tree Swallow (Iridoprocne bicolor) 
This is the first of our Swallows to arrive in spring and 
the last to leave in fall. At the eastern end of Long Island it 
arrives regularly in March, but further inland March records 
are rare, and as might be expected it departs earlier. As a 
nesting species it is strangely local. It is also the very first 
land-bird to move south in the fall. 

Long Island. A fairly eommon though local summer resident 

on the eastern half of the island; abundant transient; (February 

16) March 16 to Xovember 24, and on a few occasions into January. 

Orient. Abundant transient, rare summer resident, March 

16, 1908 to October 25, frequently into Xovember, and recorded 

in winter. 

Mastic. Abundant transient, uncommon summer resident; 
reeorded March 24, 1917. 

Long Beach. Abundant transient; March 26, 1922 
(Starck) to June 22, 1916 (Bicknell); July 16, 1914 (Bicknell) 
to Xovember 13, 1910 (Griscom and Hix); December 30, 
1920, flock of seven, to February 19, 1921, flock of four 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Xot known to breed anywhere in our area. 
Central Pare. Common transient; April 16, 1911 (Hix) 
to June 3, 1907 (Hix); July 31, 1908 (Griscom) to October 20, 
1907 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; March 27, 1916 (L. 

X. Nichols) to May 21, 1907 (L. X. Xiehols); July 2, 1904 

(Hix) to October 31, 1909 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. Abundant transient throughout; while not 

reeorded previously as nesting in northern New Jersey, this is now 

determined; a pair probably bred between Mount Boreb and 

Stirling about eighteen year- ago Miller and Hix ; several pairs 



298 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

nesting in the wooded swamp at the head of Culver's Lake, May 31, 
1919 (Miller and Griscom); one seen feeding a young bird June 
1921 near Chatham (Miller). It is particularly surprising that this 
bird should not nest more generally at least in Sussex County, 
where conditions prevail corresponding closely to parts of New 
England where the bird is common. 

Englewood Region. Abundant transient; March 11, 
1906 (Hix) to June 16, 1917 (Weber); July 4 regularly (Weber) 
to October 26, 1913 (Hix); several hundred on December 31, 
about 1881 (fide Chapman); has arrived in March four 
times in the past eighteen years. 



Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) 
True to its name this species nests only in sandy banks. 
As a result it is common only along the outer beaches of the 
south shore of Long Island, local or absent elsewhere. It is a 
common transient along the coast, up the Hudson River 
valley, and on the larger marshes, but is a rare species in- 
land. It is seldom seen before the last week in April, or after 
the first week in September. Inland it is often confused 
with the Rough-winged Swallow bj r those students who call 
any brown-backed Swallow the Bank, unless they can prove 
it to be a Rough-wing; needless to say, a very careless 
practice. 

Long Island. Common summer resident chiefly along the 
outer beaches of the south shore; abundant transient; (April 9), 
April 20 to September 14 and September 22. 

Orient. Locally common summer resident, April 20, 1912 
to September 22, 1916. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Formerly abundant summer resident, several 
large colonies in 1908 (Griscom) ; most of the dunes are now 
washed away, and relatively few pairs remain; April 27, 1922 
(Bicknell) to September 10, 1914 (Bicknell). 

New York City. Reported as a common summer resident at 
Ossining (Fisher), but there is no recent confirmation of this. It 
has been taken there as late as October 1. Otherwise a fairly 
common transient. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 299 

Central Park. Formerly a common spring transient, 
now uncommon, April 29, 1912 (Griscom) to May 30, 1917 
(Hix); three fall records, August 10, 1911 (Hix) to August 26, 
1904 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon transient; April 18, 1914 

(Griscom) to June 15, 1917 (L. N. Nichols); August 10, 1919 

(L. X. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Many years ago several pairs started to breed 

in a sand hank near Plainfield (Miller). Reported as nesting near 

Morristown (Thurber), and the Bird-Lore migration tables give 

April 12, 1908 and September 6, 1912 as the extreme dates at 

Morristown. I do not know of its nesting elsewhere in our area. 

As a transient it is fairly common near the Hudson River, but 

uncommon or rare inland. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; April 25, 1920 
(Griscom) to June 7, 1903 (Hix); July 16, 1887 (Chapman) to 
September 3, 1907 (Weber). 

Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) 
The Rough-wing is near the northern limit of its range in 
our area, parts of which are practically outside it, while in 
places it is locally common. Perhaps due to this fact, it is 
almost unknown as a transient, where it does not breed. 
Next to the Orchard Oriole no other breeding species leaves 
so early for the south, and it is most exceptional to see one in 
August. 

Inexperienced students make many blunders over the 
Rough-winged Swallow. In the spring it is relatively easy to 
identify. The brownish throat is quite different from the 
sharply defined breastband of the Bank Swallow. Moreover 
the brown of the back and wings is a purer and brighter 
shade, less grayish, the bird is a trifle larger, broader at the 
shoulders, with a slower, less erratic flight. In the fall, 
however, the Hank Swallow's breastband is often not so 
distinct, while the young Tree Swallow is brownish gray above 
with a dusky breastband It is consequently practically 
impossible to identify a Hough-wing at this season among 
Other transient Swallow.-, and the great majority, if not all, 
tin- sighl record- made in September are unreliable. 



300 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Very rare and irregular summer resident, occa- 
sionally reported on migration in spring. Single pairs have been 
found nesting in 1878, 1893, and 1899. The last reports for the 
island are May 1, 1916 in Prospect Park (E. Fleischer), and May 
13, 1917, Roslyn (J. T. Nichols). The hundreds seen at Long Beach 
and elsewhere by young observers in August and early September 
are nothing but young Tree Swallows. April 19 to August. 

New York State. A common summer resident along the 
Hudson River, almost unknown elsewhere. Dates at Ossining are 
from April 17 to August 12 (Fisher). A single pair bred on Staten 
Island in 1908 (Chapin). 

Central Park. One record, May 3, 1917 (Hix). 
Bronx Region. Formerly nested at Riverdale (Bicknell) ; 
still breeds near Van Cortlandt Park; I have also seen it in 
summer near the Jerome Reservoir; April 12, 1919 (C. L. 
Lewis) to September 9, 1877 (Bicknell); no other date later 
than July 21. 

New Jersey. Fairly common summer resident at Plainfield 
(Miller) and also near Morristown and Elizabeth; rare at Mont- 
clair (Howland) ; also common along the Delaware River in Sussex 
County from Dingman's Ferry to Port Jervis (Chapman, Dwight 
and Griscom) ; a single pair found nesting at Budd's Lake, Morris 
County, many years ago (Chapin and Miller) ; a pair nesting in a 
railroad culvert at Johnsonburg, Warren County, in June, 1921 
(Griscom); otherwise unknown in our area at the present time 
except as a transient at Englewood; the Bird-Lore migration 
tables give the extreme dates at Morristown as April 15, 1912 and 
September 6, 1914. 

Englewood Region. Found nesting June 16, 1887 (Chap- 
man); now an uncommon but regular transient in spring, 
April 23, 1922 (Griscom and Laidlaw Williams) to May 16, 
1920 (Granger, Griscom and Janvrin). 

Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrula) 
An accidental winter visitant from the northwest. 

Long Island. Giraud states that several were shot in 1830 
and 1832; Audubon records it in 1838; specimens exist taken in 
1851 and at North Haven, Suffolk County, April 18, 1889. 

New Jersey. The reports of the occurrence of this species in 
our area are utterly unsatisfactory, and it must be regarded as 
purely hypothetical, until a properly authenticated specimen is 
obtained. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 301 

Cedar Waxwinq {Bomby cilia cedrorum) 
The Waxwing is an erratic species in this territory, and 
its status is hard to define. As a general rule it is a very late 
spring migrant, arriving between May 15 and June 1. The 
fall migration, when it is common every where, starts the 
middle of August with great regularity and lasts into Novem- 
ber. At rare and irregular intervals flocks of Waxwings 
appear in late February, March, or April — these, however, 
always disappear before the regular migration late in May. 
In most of the region it is a very rare bird in winter. It is a 
rural rather than a suburban species, and has greatly de- 
creased as a summer resident near the City. 

Long Island. Fairly common local summer resident, occa- 
sional in winter eastward; I know of no winter record in many 
years at the western end; February 4 and May to November 18. 
Orient. Not common resident ; irregular. 
Mastic. Uncommon summer resident, common on migra- 
tion in late summer and fall. 

Long Beach. Regular transient in fall, August 10, 1919 
(Bicknell) to October 22, 1916 (Griscom). 
New York State. A fairly common summer resident in north- 
ern Westchester County, now largely extirpated elsewhere. Re- 
ported as resident at Ossining many years ago by Fisher, but I 
have no other evidence of its ever having occurred in winter in our 
section. 

( entk al Park. Uncommon spring, common fall transient ; 

April 28, 1917 (Janvrin), May 4, 1906 (Hix), May 11, 1899 

Chubb . and May 16, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius) to June 3, 

1901 (Chublx; August 10, 1905 (Hix) to November 14, 1915 

(Hix); flock March 12, 1905 (Hix). 

BRONX Region. A pair bred in Van Cortlandt Park in 

1919; otherwise uncommon spring, abundant fall transient; 

late May to June 16, 1900 (Hix ; August 9, 1921 (Griscom) to 

November; flock March 12. ls*4 (J. Dwight . 

New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout, except 

near the City, increasing northward; the last species to arrive in 

full numbers in spring; wintering irregularly near Plainfield (Miller 

one record near Elizabeth 'Truer;, rarely at Montclair | 'Howland : 

vagrant flocks appear at ran- and irregular intervals in early spring. 



302 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Englewood Region. A few pairs still breed; as a tran- 
sient uncommon in spring, May 12, 1910 (Griscom) to June 
8, 1909 (Griscom and LaDow) ; abundant in fall, August to 
November 7, 1915 (Rogers); rare and irregular in early 
spring, March 8, 30, and April 22, 1916 the only recent occur- 
rences; no winter record in many years. 

Northern Shrike (Lanius borealis) 
An irregular winter visitant, often absent for several 
seasons, at times reported from numerous localities. It un- 
doubtedly occurs more frequently on Long Island than else- 
where. While sometimes arriving in late October or early 
November, it is more often reported between December 
and April. Shrikes were particularly common the winter of 
1921-22. 

Long Island. Uncommon winter visitant; October 21, 1891 
Shelter Island (W. W. Worthington) to April 9, 1922 Hempstead 
(J. T. Nichols). 

Orient. Rare winter visitant, October 25, 1907 to March 
24, 1914. 

Mastic. Irregular winter visitant, sometimes fairly 
common. 

Long Beach. Rare visitant in fall and winter, October 29, 
1914 (Bicknell) to January 18, 1914 (Griscom, J. M. Johnson, 
Rogers). 

New York State. Reported at Ossining from October 26 to 
April 17 (Fisher). 

Central Park. Very rare; November 5, 1901 (Rogers); 
November 2, 1904 (Hix); March 19, 1906 (Hix); January 20 
to April 3, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius and Griscom); early De- 
cember, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius); December 2, 1921 (Laidlaw 
Williams) to April 14, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Occasional winter visitant, November 7, 
1921 to March 13, 1922 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Rare and irregular winter visitant. A specimen 
collected April 20, 1873 at Franklin (F. M. Carryl) is by far the 
latest date for the State. 

|T1 Englewood Region. Rare winter visitant, October 28, 

1921 (Bowdish) to April 2, 1886 (Chapman). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 303 

Migrant Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans) 
Our two Shrikes are difficult birds to separate in life until 
both are well known, and contrary to a general impression are 
likely to occur together at certain seasons of the year. The 
immature Northern is easily distinguished by its strong 
brownish cast above, the marked vermiculation or barring 
below, and the indistinctness of the eye-stripe. Adults, 
however, are another matter. The difference in size is 
not sufficiently great to be of value. Some students believe 
that the Migrant Shrike is a clearer gray above, but this 
idea is fallacious, and is based on comparison with an 
immature Northern, the commonest plumage seen here. 
The text -book character is the eye-stripe, which is broader 
and more conspicuous between the eye and the bill of the 
Migrant, and runs around the forehead as a narrow line of 
black, but this latter point is exceedingly hard to determine 
in life. By far the best character, not mentioned in any 
popular text -book, is the color of the bill, which is solid black 
in the Migrant Shrike, while the basal half or third of the 
lower mandible of the Northern Shrike is abruptly flesh-colored. 
This character is much more easily determinable in my ex- 
perience than the amount of black on the lores. 

The Migrant Shrike is a rare transient in fall chiefly in 
August and September, but occasionally lingers into the 
winter. It is excessively rare in spring, and has bred casually 
on one occasion. On Long Island it seems to occur with more 
regularity than elsewhere in our area. 

Long Island. Rare fall transient, August 20 to November 21, 
and exceptionally later. 

Orient. Rare fall transient, August 20, 1915 to February 
7, 1919. 

Long Beach. Recorded by Mr. E. P. Bicknell on August 
31, 1916 and October 9, 1919. 

New York State. A fledgling collected June 16, ls77 ;.t 
I taining (Fisher) musl have bred in the vicinity; recorded from 
August 18, 1906 to September 2, 1907on8taten Island (Chapin). 



304 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Central Park. One record, September 15, 1910 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Mr. Lee S. Crandall reports it from the 
Zoological Garden; also August 15, 1921 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Rare fall transient, recorded from August to 
early January at Plainfield (Miller) ; excessively rare in spring, 
May 3, 1906 at Plainfield (Miller). 

Englewood Region. Rare fall transient, August 9, 1921 
(Janvrin) to October 13, 1906 (Hix and Wiegmann); Dr. F. 
M. Chapman informs me that he has seen one or two almost 
every August in recent years on the golf grounds at Nord- 
hoff; two spring records, April 16, 1906 (F. M. Chapman) and 
April 20, 1912 (Griscom and LaDow). 

Red-eyed Vireo (Vireosylva olivacea) Fig. 26 
The Red-eyed Vireo is one of our commonest and best 
known summer residents. A very few birds usually arrive 
around May 9, but are absolutely silent and easily over- 
looked, so that most observers do not record the species 
until about the height of the migration. In the fall transients 
arrive the last days of August, and individuals linger to about 
the middle of October, if the weather be mild. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, May 1 to Octo- 
ber 31. 

Orient. Common summer resident, May 1, 1907 to 
October 8 (Mabel R. Wiggins). 

Mastic. Common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration; May 18, 1915 (Bick- 
nell); September 2, 1920 to October 3, 1917 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Recorded at Ossining from April 29 to 
October 19 (Fisher). 

Central Park. Common summer resident up to eight 
years ago, now one or two pairs only remaining to breed, but 
still a common transient, especially in fall; May 3, 1913 and 
May 4, 1914 (Anne A. Crolius); May 5, 1899 (Chubb); May 
8, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius); May 11, 1913 (Griscom) to Octo- 
ber 17, 1908 (Griscom); transients have arrived in numbers 
August 28, 1922 and August 31, 1913 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, less so than 
formerly; April 24, 1913 (L. N. Nichols); May 9, 1915 (L. N. 
Nichols) to October 10, 1921 (L. N. Nichols). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 



305 



New Jersey. Abundant summer resident, still common in the 
mrhan section, hut decreasing. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, Mayj3, 

1905 (Bird-Lore) to October 26, 1914 (Bowdish). 




Photograph by F. M. Chapman, 

Fig. 26. Red-eyed Vireo 



Philadelphia Vireo (Vireosylva philadelphica) 
The extreme local rarity of this Vireo makes the greatest 
care necessary in identifying it. Fortunately this is not 
particularly difficult, if all the Vireos and Warblers be well 
known. This species is tame, inactive, and prefers low or 
medium levels, arid a good study of it is not particularly 
hard to obtain. Such a study simply must be obtained, 
however; identifying this bird on brief glimpses will not do. 
If really well seen, the uniformly yellow undorparts, the 
whitish line over the eye, and the absence of any dusky 
stripes on the side of the head are readily observable. The 
bill and actions betray a Vireo. but in size and color-pattern 



306 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

the bird is much more likely to be mistaken for a Tennessee 
Warbler, of which it is an exact replica. Here the relatively 
stout bill versus the needle-shaped bill of the Tennessee 
Warbler is the best clue. The former has a body which may 
be described as stout and chubby, while the Warbler is very 
slender. The female Black-throated Blue Warbler is another 
possible source of error. While not so close in shade of color, 
the pattern is again the same, and the shape and bill have a 
closer resemblance. I have known the Philadelphia Vireo 
for fifteen years not only as a transient but also on its 
breeding grounds and winter quarters, and would sum 
up my experience as follows: — I have never seen a Red- 
eyed or Warbling Vireo that I thought was a Philadelphia; 
I have never seen a Philadelphia really well that I thought 
was anything else; I have frequently followed up birds as 
Philadelphia Vireos that proved to be Tennessee Warblers, 
female Black-throated Blue Warblers, or not satisfactorily 
determinable. 

The Philadelphia Vireo is unquestionably one of our very 
rarest migrants, and one of the very few species that has not 
been recorded more often in the last twenty years than for- 
merly, with an enormous increase of observers on the lookout 
for it. It is not without significance that our six most active 
local field ornithologists have detected exactly two individuals 
in twenty years' observations on the part of each one of them. 
It is hard to explain just why the bird should occur less 
rarely up the Hudson River Valley and at the extreme eastern 
end of Long Island, when both these migration routes nor- 
mally converge at New York City. 

Long Island. Very rare transient, collected once in spring 

less than ten specimens in fall; May 21; September 14 to 28; Mr. 

Roy Latham has several records in recent }^ears at Orient, and Mr. 

Wm. T. Helmuth has collected or seen several individuals recently 

at Easthampton; there are only three records in 43 years for the 

western end of the island. 

Orient. Rare transient; May 14 to 25; September 14 
to 25. 



ANNOTATED LIST of THE BIRDS 307 

New York State. Reported as a rare transient at Damning 

September 20 to October 20 (Fisher); do record for States Island. 

CENTRAL Park. One record, a single bird on the "Point" 
in the Ramble September 15 and 16, 1921 (T. D. Carter 
and tiriscom); it is worth noting that there has been almost 
daily observation in the Ramble during the migration season 
for over forty years, with as large a number of observers in the 
last twenty as any area of similar size in North America. 

Bronx Region. Specimen collected September 17, 1885 
(Dwight). 
New Jersey. Unrecorded in our area except at Englewood. 

Bnglewood Region. Specimens collected September 15. 
1913 and October 3, 1916 (J. A. Weber). 

Wabbling Vireo (Yireosylva gilva) 
Wore it not for the loud, rich, warbling song, this Vireo 
would rarely be detected in the tops of the shade trees in 
which it prefers to dwell. While still a common summer 
resident in rural districts inland, it is steadily vanishing from 
tlic suburbs. It likes rich and well-watered country, is 
absent from the coastal plain and very rare or unknown just 
north of it. As a transient it is almost unknown. The 
spring arrival is with the first big wave in May. So seldom 
is the bird recorded after it has stopped singing, that we have 
very scant data as to its departure in the fall, which seems to 
take place about the middle of September. 

Long Island. Always a rare and local summer resident on the 
north shore, not at present known to nest anywhere on the island; 
May 3 to September 16. 

( )kik\t. Rare transient. May 6, 1912 to May 20. I'M 1. 
New York State. Formerly fairly common summer residenl 
at Os^inin^, May :i to September 1 8 Fisher ; probably still nesting 
in northern Westchester County, as it breeds near Bastings 
Granger and Bronxville (R. C. Murphy); never recorded on 
States bland (Chapin and other- . Noted wtiging at Bronxville 
September 13, 1922 R. C. Murphy . 

Central Park. Formerly a regular summer resident; 
April 29, 1902 Chubb), April 30, 191 1 -Mix .and May 1. ! - 
Chubb to September 16, 1904 lli\ and October 3, L907 



308 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

(Anne A. Crolius); last pair nested in 1914; since then only 
recorded twice, May 16, 1918 (Janvrin) and May 10, 1921 
(Griscom) . 

Bronx Region. Formerly a summer resident, last breed- 
ing in 1918; May 6, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) to August 20, 1910 
(Hix). 
New Jersey. A common summer resident in all the rural 
sections. In Warren and Sussex Counties every village or small 
town I have visited has one or more pairs. Now almost gone in the 
suburbs near New York City. I have no good fall dates. 

Englewood Region. One pair nests near the Golf Club 
at Nordhoff, never recorded elsewhere in the region; May 7, 
1922 (F. M. Chapman). 



Yellow-throated Vireo (Lanivireo flavifrons) 
Our handsomest Vireo was formerly a common summer 
resident throughout the area from early May to the middle of 
September. While many of us had noted a slow but steady 
decrease in numbers in the last twenty years, no one was 
prepared for the sudden and rapid disappearance of this 
species since 1917 over the whole suburban section, where it is 
now a rare bird. 

Long Island. Formerly a common summer resident, now 
rapidly decreasing; April 23 to September 23. 

Orient. Rare summer resident in Peconic and Southold 
(Mrs. Frank D. Smith); usually only a rare transient; April 
30, 1910 (Rufus W. Tuthill) to May 20, 1910; August 26, 
1913 to September 14, 1913. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient, steadily decreasing. 
New York State. Formerly a common summer resident, now 
fast becoming rare. 

Central Park. Formerly a regular summer resident and 
common transient, May 1, 1900 (Chubb) to September 28, 
1910 (Hix); last bred in 1914; since 1917 rapidly decreasing, 
and now a rare bird, not recorded at all in the fall, and in 
spring three times in 1919, twice in 1920, once in 1921, and not 
at all in 1922. 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common summer resident, 
now uncommon and rapidly decreasing; not noted at River- 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 309 

dale since n»l7 (Griscom); curliest arrival date April 30, 1<S86 
(Dwight). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident in the rural districts, 
rapidly disappearing in recent years in the suburbs. 

Bnolewood Region. Formerly a common summer 
resident, now rare and local; April 29, 1914 (J. T. Nichols) to 
September 4. 1887 (F. M. Chapman). 

Blue-headed oe Solitary Vireo {La ni vireo solitarius) 
The Solitary Vireo was formerly a common transient in 
the vicinity of New York City, but now is less numerous, 
and is often decidedly uncommon. A few birds arrive the 
latter half of April, but the main migration takes place during 
the first twelve days in May. In the fall it returns chiefly 
in October. It may yet be found nesting in northern New 
Jersey. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient; April 22 to May 30; 
September 14 to October 22; casual in Prospect Park, Brooklyn 
November 20, 1910 (E. Fleischer). 

Orient. Uncommon transient; April 22, 1917 to May 16, 
1912; September 14, 1913 to October 17, 1917 (Mabel R. 
Wiggins). 

Mastic. Fairly common transient; very late dates are 
May 30. 1917 and October 22, 1916. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration; October 13, 1912 
( iriscom and LaDow); October 3, 1917 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Recorded as early as September X at Ossin- 
ing (Fisher). 

CENTRAL Pakk. Fairly common transient, less so than 
formerly; April 9. 190S (Anne A. ( rolius and Oriscom), 
April 14. 1912 (Hix), April 14, 1921 (Granger and Griscom), 
April 19, 1913 (Griscom) to May 21, 1916 (L. X. Nichols : 
September 22, 1917 (Hix) and September 26, 1904 (Hix) to 
October 24, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region, Fairly common transient; April 22, 1885 

(DwiKht. t<, May 14, 1917 (L. X. Nichols); September 26, 

191 1 Hix to October 22, l<tl»; (Janvrin). 

New Jersey. Fairly common transient, often uncommon. An 

apparently breeding lard was collected in .June 1890 OD High Point, 

Sussex County I". M. Chapman). This locality was visited by me 



310 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

in June, 1922, but most of the country had been burned by forest 
fires. The most likely place in the State for this species to breed is 
the Wawayanda Plateau, and Waldron DeWitt Miller found a bird 
there early in July 1922, but no definite evidence of breeding could 
be obtained. 

Englewood Region. Fairly common transient, less so 
than formerly; April 16, 1912 (Weber) to May 16, 1920 
(Granger, Griscom and Janvrin); September 22, 1917 (Hix) to 
October 22, 1916 (B. S. Bowdish). 

White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) 
Like all our other Vireos this species has shown a marked 
decrease in most parts of our area. Formerly a common 
summer resident around New York City, it has now become 
uncommon or rare. Few birds have so strong and vigorous a 
personality. One misses the abrupt song, the perky tricks and 
mannerisms of this fearless little bird. In spite of these 
marked characteristics I have known it to be identified as a 
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher ! It arrives the first week in May, 
but is rather more irregular than other species, often arriving 
before or after the main wave. In the fall it lingers through 
September, but is rarely observed. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, except at the 
eastern end, which is almost outside its range; now uncommon or 
rare at the western end; April 29 to September 30 and October 8, 
1896, Jamaica (Dwight). 

Orient. Rare and local summer resident, May 8, 1906 to 
September 20, 1914. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
New York State. Formerly a common summer resident 
throughout; still common only in northern Westchester County, 
where it is reported from April 29 to October 3 (Fisher); elsewhere 
steadily disappearing. 

Central Park. Bred in 1892 (F. M. Chapman); then a 
common spring transient, now rare, May 2, 1914 (Hix) to 
May 23, 1909 (Griscom); very rarely observed in fall, Sep- 
tember 23, 1900 (Hix) to September 28, 1909 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common summer resident; 
it lias decreased rapidly in the last ten years and is now rare; 
May 3, 1922 (W. C. Starck) to September 15, 1888 (Dwight). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 311 

New Jersey. Formerly a common summer resident t hroughout 
most of our area, but absent from the higher country in the north- 
ern and northwestern tier of counties; now greatly decreased in 
numbers, and rare or uncommon in most of its former range. 

Englewood Region. A common summer resident up to 
1910, since then rapidly decreasing and now rare; May 3, 1902 
(Bird-Lore migration tables) to October 7, 1886 (Chapman). 

Black and White Warbler (Mniotilta varia) 
A common and familiar summer resident throughout the 
territory, wherever there is woodland. The first birds arrive 
on the average about April 22, _but transients are passing 
through until the end of May. It is one of the first Warblers 
to start moving south, appearing regularly the first week in 
August in Central Park. Only stragglers remain after the 
first week in October. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 19 to October 
24 and November 6. 

Orient. Rare summer resident, common transient, April 
22, 1914 to October 8, 1909; average arrival April 27. 

Mastic. Common summer resident. 

Long Beach. Rare on migration; three spring records 
between May 8, 1919 and May 20, 1920 (Bicknell); September 
2, 1920 (Bicknell); casual November 6, 1917 (J. M. Johnson). 
New York State. Recorded April 18 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Very common transient; April 19, 1909 
(Griscom) to May 25, 1909 (Griscom); August 6, 1908 (Gris- 
com) to October 20, 1907 (Griscom) and November 14, 1908 
(Anne A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region. Now an uncommon summer resident and 
a common transient, April 21, 1922 (Dr. Denton) to October 
12, 1912 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout. 

Englewood Region. Now an uncommon summer resi- 
dent, common in migration; April 20, 1912 (Griscom) to 
October 5, 1910 (J. A. Weber). 

Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) 
This beautiful warbler of our southern cypress swamps is a 
casual or very rare visitant in this vicinity during the spring 



312 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

migration, all individuals seen or recorded having been males. 
There is also one fall record. It has occurred far too often 
in the northeast in recent years to be regarded as accidental. 
The fact that it has occurred three times in twelve years in 
Central Park is not without significance, though it is also a 
testimony to the excellence of this locality, for Warblers an 
oasis in a vast desert of city roofs. The Prothonotary 
Warbler may be roughly described as glowing orange, with 
ashy wings and no wing bars. Beginners in Central Park see 
it quite frequently, but needless to say the Blue-winged 
Warbler and the Yellow Warbler divide the honors fairly 
between them. Neither is orange, the Yellow Warbler's 
wings are not ashy, the Blue-winged has wing-bars, and both 
are smaller, with shorter and more slender bills. Finally the 
Prothonotary has a loud call-note like a Water-Thrush, and a 
loud, penetrating song, a tweet, tweet, tweet, tweet, all on one key. 

Long Island. Specimens taken at Jamaica in May 1849 and at 
Montauk Point, August 26, 1886. This last capture was recorded by 
Dutcher in April, 1888, and was alluded to again by him in 1895 
when he recorded the Jamaica specimen. Somewhat ambiguously, 
however, he mentioned the date of publication of the record and 
not the date of capture. As a result Eaton believed that a third 
specimen had been taken in April, 1888, which is erroneous. More 
recently Miss Mary W. Peckham has reported seeing one on May 
6, 1916 at Forest Park, Brooklyn. 

New York State. 

Central Park. A male in full song was discovered on the 
" Point" in the Ramble, May 3, 1908 (Anne A. Crolius and 
Griscom). It remained until May 10, and was seen by dozens 
of observers. Day after day one could enter the Ramble and 
locate the bird by a ring of admiring students, before whom 
it would sing and display without any signs of shyness. The 
general atmosphere of excitement was so infectious that I be- 
lieve a dozen people began to study birds, thanks to this 
Warbler. Another male was observed April 30, 1916 (Hix). 
On May 2, 1919 two boy scouts rushed into the Bird Depart- 
ment shouting that there was a Prothonotary Warbler in the 
Ramble. W. DeW. Miller, Gerald H. Thayer and the writer 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 313 

went over immediately, and the boys produced their bird in 
less than five minutes in the shrubbery on the edge of the lake. 
We were all able to get amply satisfactory observations. 

Bronx Region. A singing male recorded between Van 
Cortlandt Park and Yonkers. June 2, 1895 (E. P. Bicknell). 
New Jersey. An adult male collected at Morristown, June 14, 
188S by L. P. Scherrer (Oberholser, Auk, 1918, p. 227). 

Worm-eating Warbler (Jldmitheros vermivorus) 
The intensive observation of the last decade has shown 
that this species is far from being as rare a summer resident 
as formerly supposed. The bird prefers heavily wooded hill- 
sides. In such country a Chipping Sparrow song almost 
certainly can be traced to this species. A practiced ear can 
distinguish the two songs however, the Sparrow 7 having a 
" rattle'' in its effort, rather than the "buzz" of the Warbler. 
As a general rule the Worm-eater is absent from the coastal 
plain and level country generally. As a transient it is un- 
common or rare, duo in great part to its secretive habits, its 
inconspicuous colors, and its silence. It arrives early in May 
and is rarely recorded in September. As is the case with 
many Warblers, it is much rarer on Long Island than else- 
where. 

Long Island. Rare transient, very rare summer resident on t he 
north shore; almost unknown on the south shore; April 28 to 
May 18, 1912, Prospect Park, Brooklyn (Charles Johnston); July 
25 To September 21. 

Orient. Rare transient; April 28, 1908 to May 12, 1906; 
July 2o, 1908 to September 2, 1913. 
New York State. A fairly common summer resident in north- 
ern Westchester County; only once recorded on Staten Island 
(Chapin). 

Central Park. Uncommon transient; May 6, 1914 
(Griscom) to May 17. 1910 (Griscom ; August 3, 1905 (Hix) 
to August 2o. 1907 Hi\ ; casual April 1<), 1*909 (Griscom and 
LaDow . 

Bronx Region. Bred up to 1895 (Bicknell and DwighJ . 
now an uncommon transient; May 1. 1^77 Bicknell to 
August 22, 1890 Dwight . 



314 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New Jersey. Locally a common summer resident. Breeds 
commonly on the east slope of the Palisades of the Hudson; absent 
in the level country between the Hudson and the hills near Plain- 
field, Chatham, Summit and Morristown, where it is still fairly 
common in such unspoiled country as remains; common in the 
Ramapo Mountains, and occurring throughout the rest of northern 
New Jersey wherever it finds the heavily wooded hillsides it requires. 
As a transient it is reported as rare or uncommon by various ob- 
servers according to their experience or the number of years they 
have spent in the field. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident on the 

east slope of the Palisades; elsewhere an uncommon transient; 

May 2, 1920 (Griscom and Janvrin) to May 16 (Weber); 

July 24, 1915 (Weber) to August 27 (Weber); casual April 14, 

1913 (J. T. Nichols). 

Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus) 
A very common summer resident in most of our territory, 
but wanting on the coastal plain of Long Island and in the 
higher sections of northwestern New Jersey. It arrives 
early in May, starts moving south early in August, and is 
almost unknown in September. 

Long Island. Not uncommon summer resident on the north 
shore, decreasing eastward; generally an uncommon transient; 
May 2 to September 17, 1915, Fort Hamilton (De L. Berier). 

Orient. Breeds on Gardiner's Island, elsewhere a rare 
transient; May 4 to 24, 1908; July 15 to September 1. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient, uncommon in summer. 

New York State. A common summer resident throughout. 

Central Park. A transient, generally uncommon in 

spring, often common in fall; April 30, 1905 (Hix) to May 16, 

1911 (Anne A. Crolius); August 6, 1911 (Hix) to September 8, 

1907 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, April 26, 

1913 (G. K. Noble) to September 6, 1922 (F. E. Watson); 

casual January 6, 1900 (Mrs. E. G. Britton). 

New Jersey. A very common summer resident in the eastern 

half of our section, breeding north to Greenwood Lake, but rapidly 

decreasing northwestward. Thus it is rare near Bernardsville 

(Kuser), and I have never seen the bird in Sussex County, but there 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 315 

is a Bpecimen in the American Museum taken at Franklin over 
forty years ago in early May by F. M. Carryl. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, April 
27, 1913 (S. V. LaDow) to September 11 (Weber). 

Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) 
Far from being a rare summer resident in northern New 
Jersey, as stated by Dr. Stone, this species is a very common 
summer resident in northwestern New Jersey, but - n 

northern Westchester County, N. Y. Else^ re it is a rare 
transient, strangely so in view of its abundance as a summer 
resident just north of our territory. In fact the Golden 
wing and the Mourning Warbler must be regarded as the two 
rarest Warblers which visit this territory with any degree of 
regularity. The present species arrives the second week in 
May, usually on the crest of the biggest wave of Warblers of 
the season, and ordinarily is seen more than once only in 
years when Warblers are particularly abundant. In poor 
Warbler years it is not recorded at all. In August and early 
September occasional individuals are seen by those enthusi- 
astic enough to be afield at this season. 

Long Island. Rare transient; May 6 to May 27; August 15 to 
September 14; almost unknown on the south shore. 

Orient. Rare transient; May 6, 1906 to May 27, 1917; 
August 20, 1916 to September 14, 1913. 
New York State. Rare summer resident near Ossining (Fisher) ; 
elsewhere a rare transient. 

Central Park. Rare transient, noted three years out of 
five, but occasionally more individuals in the fall; May 7, 
1904 (Hix) to May 18, 1908 (Anne A. Crolius); August 13, 
1911 (Hix) to September 8, 1907 (Hix) and casually to October 
3, 1907 (Anne A. Crolius). 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; May 4, 1916 (E. G. 

Nichols i to May is. L913 (L. X. Nichols); August 22, 1890 

(Dwighl . 

New Jersey. A very common summer resident throughout 

Susses County and the higher parts Of northern Passaic County, 

breeding south to Green Pond. Warren County (Griscom), Budd 



316 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Lake, Morris County (Miller), Cranberry Lake (Griscom) and 
Boonton (Carter); apparently absent along the Delaware River. 
Elsewhere a strangely rare transient. 

Englewood Region. Rare transient; May 4 (Weber) 

to May 16, 1920 (Granger, Griscom, Janvrin); July 22, 1913 

(Weber) to September 4 (Weber). 

Brewster's Warbler (Vermivora leucobronchialis) 
Lawrence's Warbler (Vermivora lawrencei) 
For many years the status of these two birds was in doubt, 
but it is now generally accepted that they are fertile hybrids 
of the two last species. Naturally they are much rarer birds 
than their parents, and Lawrence's Warbler, the recessive, is 
very much rarer than Brewster's. They are produced where 
the ranges of the parents overlap, as in Westchester County 
and parts of New Jersey, such as Boonton and the Wyanokie 
hills. As a result our region is particularly favorable for 
them, and the immediate vicinity of New York City is one of 
the best places to find them as transients. The more extended 
observation of recent years shows that either hybrid is likely 
to be observed during the spring migration in most parts of 
our territory, and both have been found breeding. There is 
no longer any point in recording such transients, but breeding 
birds should be carefully watched and their progeny 
determined if possible. 

Long Island. As is to be expected both hybrids are very rare 
transients, and neither has been found breeding. Brewster's has 
been found twice, and Lawrence's four times. 

Mastic. Brewster's Warbler, August 25, 1918; Lawrence's 
Warbler, May 18 and June 13, 1920. 
New York State. Brewster's Warbler has been observed in the 
breeding season at Ossining (Fisher), and a total of six specimens 
taken. Lawrence's Warbler has been recorded from Rye and Staten 
Island, and was found breeding in Bronx Park in 1903, and the 
next May another returned but did not remain. In the last few 
years I have received several reports of Lawrence's Warbler from 
Van Cortlandt Park and Mount Vernon, and in June, 1922 it was 
found breeding near Briarcliff Manor (Gerald H. Thayer). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 317 

( 'i:\tkal Park. Brewster's Warbler, April 29 and May 12, 
11)14 (Hix); Mayo, 191(3 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Brewster's Warbler lias been taken or observed 
at Plainfield (Miller and Rogers); Morristown (Blanchet and 
Thurber) and Englewood (numerous observers). It has been found 
breeding at Englewood (Chapman and D wight), and in June 1922 
near Wyanokie (Carter and Rowland). Lawrence's Warbler has 
been taken or observed at Chatham (Blanchet), Hoboken (D. B. 
Dickinson i, Morristown ( Blanchet), Englewood (numerous observ- 
ers and Plainfield (Miller). It has been found at Englewood in the 
breeding season, and one of two nestlings being fed by a female 
Blue-wing near Englewood was a Lawrence's, though the male 
parent was undetermined (Dwight-). 

Englewood Region*. Brewster's Warbler; found breeding 
in the late eighties by Chapman and Dwight; several recent 
records of transients. Lawrence's Warbler; nestling found 
by Dwight; four records since 1914, May 10 to 17, 1914 (J. T. 
Nichols), June 14 and July 24, 1915 (Weber), May 21, 1916 (J. 
M. Johnson). 



Nashville Warbler (Vermivora rubricapilla) 
The Nashville Warbler is an uncommon transient on 
Long Island, but common elsewhere in our territory. It is 
a common summer resident in extreme northwestern New 
Jersey. It is small, slender and needle-billed, and very 
nervous, and is easily overlooked, unless its song, which is 
unmistakable, is known. In any plumage, the white eye-ring 
and entirely bright yellow underparts identify it. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient; May 4 to May 24 and 
June 16; September 10 to October 19. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 6, 1914 (Mabel R. 
Wiggins) to May 23, 1912; September 11. 1913 to September 
28, 1911. 

M \-ti< . I Incommon transient. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration; May 17. 1911 (Gris- 

COm); October 1. 191 1. October 3, 1917 and October 19. 1919 

Bicknell and ( Jrosby I. 
New York State. Common transient throughout; noted as 
early afl August 11 ;it Ossming (Fisher . 



318 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Central Paek. Common transient; April 21, 1919 (Hix), 
April 25, 1913 (Anne A. Crolius) to June 6, 1907 (Chubb); 
August 12, 1911 (Hix) to October 17, 1914 (Hix); only two 
April records, one June record, five August records, and rarely 
seen after the first week in October, or before May 6. 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 7, 1920 (E. G. 
Nichols) to May 18, 1918 (L. N. Nichols); August 20, 1922 
(Frank E. Watson) to October 13, 1913 (Hix); casual De- 
cember 16, 1917 to January 9, 1918 (S. H. Chubb). 
New Jersey. This Warbler undoubtedly breeds commonly in 
suitable swamps in the higher parts of Sussex and Passaic Counties 
southeastward to Cranberry Lake; both W. DeW. Miller and the 
writer have seen it in numerous localities during June and early 
July, though no nests have been found. In the rest of our area it is 
a common transient. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; April 24, 1920 
(Rogers) and May 1, 1914 (J. A. Weber) to May 18, 1913 
(Griscom and LaDow) and June 12, 1887 (F. M. Chapman); 
August 26, 1887 (F. M. Chapman) to October 23, 1915 (Rogers); 
casual November 16, 1907 (Griscom and C. C. Trowbridge); 
the female collected June 12 may have been breeding. 



Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata) 
This Warbler is in exactly the same class as the Philadel- 
phia Vireo, practically casual in spring and very rare in the 
fall, at which season it is often remarkably late, due to its 
wintering much further north than the great majority of the 
family. For the beginner it is a very difficult bird to identify 
in life, but those who know the other Vermivoras well can 
hope to recognize it. Equally small and even more restless 
than its relatives, it can be told from the Nashville by the 
greenish underparts with dusky streaks and the dusky green- 
ish upperparts. The color of the underparts is quite different 
from bright yellow, and there is little or no appreciable 
difference in shade above and below in fall birds. In other 
words the bird appears uniformly colored throughout. 

Long Island. Exceedingly rare transient; one old specimen 
with no date; April 13, 1919 (A. H. Helme) and May 7, 1906 (Roy 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 319 

Latham); October 12, 1892 (A. H. Howell); autumn of 1893 (A. 
H. Helme); previously unrecorded is a specimen taken October 8, 
1908 on Shelter Island (\Y. W. Worthington). 

Orient. Mr. Latham reports it on May 7, 1906, and from 
September 4 to 10, 1914. The date of the fall records is a month 
earlier than any record for New England, and there is a pos- 
sibility of error. 

Long Beach. One seen October 13, 1919 (Bicknell). 
New York State. One record at Ossining (Fisher); a single 
individual was discovered in the dense ornamental conifer groves of 
the Moravian Cemetery on Staten Island, January 8, 1917 (W. H. 
Wiegmann) and remained at least until January 20 (Hix); another 
found in the same place December 26, 1920 (Lester Walsh), seen 
so well and described so accurately, that there can be no reasonable 
doubt of its identity. 

Bronx Region. Recorded at Riverdale, October 9 and 29. 
1876 (Bicknell). 
New Jersey. Specimen taken May, 1865 at Hoboken (C. S. 
Galbraith); reported from Morristown by Thurber, but. no speci- 
men in his collection; in the Dwight Collection I find two speci- 
mens taken at West Orange by Stephen Van Rensselaer, October 2, 
1894 and April 14. 1898. 

Englewood Region. A singing male found near West 
Englewood, May 18, 1913 (Griscom, Auk, 1913, p. 585). This 
account is defective in that it does not mention the fact that 
I was previously acquainted with this species in life. 

Tennessee Warbler I Vermivora peregrina) 
Formerly a very rare spring transient, sometimes not 
uncommon in the fall. Since 1912 rapidly increasing, and 
now a regular transient, generally uncommon in spring, 
sometimes abundant in fall. With practice those who know 
our little green Vermivora* can recognize this species readily. 
In the first place it never has an eye-ring, but always has 
a superciliary stripe, which is whitish or yellowish. The 
underparts vary from pure white to pale Union yellow, never 
bright golden yellow or greenish. Finally, the undertail- 
eoverts are always white. The song is a loud, strident chap- 
pering, and is absolutely unmistakable. 



320 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long Island. Formerly very rare, now uncommon, but more 
so than elsewhere in our territory; May 8 to May 30; August 20 
to October 3; only one spring record prior to 1908. 

Orient. Rare transient; May 10, 1908 to May 30, 1917 
(Mabel R. Wiggins); September 14, 1913 to September 28, 
1909. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient; noted as late as May 30, 
1917. 

Long Beach. The least rare of its genus; May 30, 1917 
(Rogers) and May 26, 1918 (Janvrin); six fall records from 
August 20, 1922 (Griscom and LaDow) to October 3, 1917 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Reported years ago at Ossining as a rare 
transient, May 22 to 27, August 22 to October 2 (Fisher) ; now un- 
common in spring, often common in fall. 

Central Park. Formerly a very rare spring and rare fall 
transient; now regular and sometimes common or abundant; 
no spring record prior to May 16, 1902 (L. N. Nichols); 
May 24, 1910 (Hix); May 12, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius); May 
16, 1913 (Griscom); May 6 and 17, 1914 (Anne A. Crolius, 
Griscom and others); latest spring date May 27, 1917 (Hix); 
August 19, 1922 (Griscom) to October 10, 1915 (Hix). To 
summarize the available information, the Tennessee Warbler 
arrives on the biggest waves of the spring, and the number of 
times it is seen depends upon the number of waves. In the fall 
it arrives regularly the end of August, and on certain days is 
often the commonest species of Warbler. 

Bronx Region. May 21, 1884 (Dwight); May 6, 1921 
(L. N. Nichols) to May 30, 1917 (Janvrin); August 27, 1922 
(Griscom) to October 16, 1921 (Griscom). 
New Jersey. Now a regular transient, uncommon in spring, 
sometimes abundant in fall. 

Englewood Region. First spring record May 21, 1905 
(Hix and Wiegmann); now regular transient, often common or 
even abundant during the fall migration; May 7, 1922 (Gris- 
com and Janvrin) to May 26 (Weber); August 18, 1896 
(Dwight) to October 10 (Rogers). 

Northern Parula Warbler (Cotnpsothlypis americana usnex) 

One of our very commonest transient Warblers, arriving 

regularly the first days of May, rarely in April. The females 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 321 

are often two weeks behind the males. In the fall it is one of 
the later species to move south, rarely recorded in August and 
not often seen in October. The Parula Warbler is a local 
summer resident in the pine barrens of eastern Long Island 
where Usnea moss grows. It is a rare and local breeder in 
northern New Jersey, where the moss does not grow, and the 
nest is made of fine shredded bark. 

Long Island. Common transient; local summer resident 
from Cold Spring Harbor eastward; April 25 to May 30; August 23 
to October 24. 

Orient. Local summer resident, more generally a tran- 
sient; April 30, 1908 to October 17, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins); 
average arrival May 2. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident; abundant 
transient. 

Long Beach. Rare on migration; May 8, 1919 to May 
29, 1915 (Bicknell); October 3, 1917 to October 18, 1917 
Bicknell). 
New York State. Common transient throughout. No breed- 
ing record. 

Central Park. Very common transient; April 21, 1919 
(Hix) and April 25, 1913 (Anne A. Crolius) to June 6, 1907 
(Chubb); August 12, 1911 (Hix), August 15, 1904 (Hix), 
August 19, 1914 (Hix) and August 28, 1922 (Griscom) to 
October 17, 1914 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; April 30, 1886 

(Dwight) to May 30, 1917 (Janvrin); September 15, 1919 

(W. Granger) to October 16, 1904 (Hix). 

New Jersey. Rare and local summer resident in Sussex and 

Passaic Counties. The nest has been found at Newton (P. B. 

Philippi. The bird has been recorded in June at High Point (F. 

M. Chapman;, Budd's Lake (W. De\\. Miller), Cranberry Lake 

(Griscom,), Bearfort Mountain (Miller and Griscom). A common 

transient throughout our area; an exceedingly early individual 

observed along the Rahway River, April 23, 1916. 

E.\'<;lk\vood Region. Very common transient; April 25, 
1920 (Hix) to May 31, 1915 (\V. H. Wiegmann); August 16, 
1887 (F. M. Chapman] to October 10, L915 C. H. Rogers); 
casual November 4. 1913 fW. T. Helmuth). 



322 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Note: — The Southern Parula Warbler (C ' ompsothlypis a. 
americana) has been credited to this region by Ridgway 
(Birds of North and Middle America, Vol. II, p. 482), who re- 
ferred breeding birds from eastern Long Island to this sub- 
species. Subsequently W. DeW. Miller (Auk, 1909, p. 309) 
advanced excellent reasons for disagreeing with this determina- 
tion, and the A. O. U. Committee in the last edition of the 
Check-List adopted the same viewpoint. Eaton, however, in 
1914 restored this race to the list of New York State birds, 
advancing no new arguments or evidence. I have been over 
the available material, and agree fully with Miller's conclu- 
sions. 

Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina) 
The Cape May Warbler was formerly the prize of the 
spring migration, and a glimpse of an adult male in May gave 
the enthusiast an indescribable thrill of exultation. In the 
fall, in the Hudson River Valley especially, immature birds 
were occasionally not uncommon. These days have passed, 
and while the bird's trim beauty is perennially appreciated, 
all excuse for a thrill has gone. From 1909 on, this Warbler 
has been a regular transient in our area, though its numbers 
vary considerably from year to year. In spring only one or 
two males will be recorded in poor Warbler years, while it 
might almost be called common in years when Warblers are 
abundant, and there are more than the usual number of 
waves. Although the charm of rarity has departed, certain 
things still make it a marked species in spring. I have never 
known it to arrive except on the biggest waves of the season. 
It will often linger for days in the same group of trees, long- 
after the other Warblers with which it arrived have moved on. 
It is almost never recorded after the height of the migration, 
and females are strangely rare. In the fall the bird is fre- 
quently observed anywhere from the last days of August to 
the middle of October, and is now one of the commoner 
species. The identification of adults at this season presents 
no special difficulty. The distinctly yellow sides of the head 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 323 

and the uniform heavy streaking below are diagnostic. The 
immature bird is, however, a very obscure Warbler, and 
is very difficult to identify. To the beginner it resembles 

a young Blackpoll. It is a tiny species, always more streaked 
below, with a conspicuously yellow rump. The call-note is a 
particularly weak, thin, high tsip. 

Long Island. Now rare or uncommon in spring, uncommon 
hut regular in fall; May 5 to May 20 and June 3; August 15 to 
October 14; casual December 5, 1916 at Hewlett (Bicknell). 

Orient. Rare transient; May 9, 1916 (Mabel R. Wiggins) 
to May 30, 1915 (Mabel R. Wiggins); August 15, 1909 to 
September 30, 1915 (Mabel Rr Wiggins). 
Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Three spring records, May 17, 1917 (Bick- 
nell ) to May 26, 1917 (Hix) ; one of the more frequent Warblers 
in fall, September 1, 1919 (Bicknell) to October 3, 1917 (Bick- 
nell), also October 28, 1917 (Rogers). 
New York State. Now a fairly common spring and common 
fall transient. 

Central Park. A regular transient, always common in 
fall, common or uncommon in spring according to season; 
thus in 1913 eleven males were recorded between May 13 and 
18; only two spring records between 1885 and 1909; May 6, 
1914 (Griscom) to May 24, 1909 (Griscom); August 27, 1921 
(Griscom) to October 11, 1908 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon transient, May 12, 1918 (L. 

X. Nichols) to May 31, 1917 (L. X. Nichols); September 24, 

1890 (Dwight) to October 14, 1922 (Hix); no adequate fall 

arrival date. 

New Jersey. Now an uncommon spring and fairly common tall 

transient. The earliest arrival date is May 1, 1912 at Plainfield 

W. DeW. Miller). 

Bnglewood Region. Only one spring record between 
L885 and 1913; now an uncommon spring and fairly common 
fall transient, occurring regularly; eleven males observed on 
May IS, 1913; May 6, 1919 (Granger and Griscom) to May 
26 (Weber : August 28, 1921 (Griscom) to October : J ». I'M.") 
Etog 



324 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Yellow Warbler (Dendroica xstiva) 
This well known and unmistakable Warbler is a common 
summer resident in all rural sections of our territory, but has 
decreased greatly in the immediate vicinity of the City. It is 
quite irregular in its migrations, appearing anywhere between 
April 20 and the first week in May. Breeding birds often 
disappear the first week in August, but normally remain until 
the end of the month. On rare occasions transient individu- 
als are observed during a big flight in the middle of September. 
Long Island. Common summer resident, April 18 to Sep- 
tember 20 and September 28. 

Orient. Common summer resident, April 30, 1908 to 
September 28, 1913; average arrival May 2. 
Mastic. Abundant summer resident. 
Long Beach. Regular transient; May 4, 1916 (Bicknell) 
to May 26, 1918 (Janvrin); July 24, 1919 and August 4, 1921 
to September 17, 1914 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident outside the 
Metropolitan district. 

Central Park. Common transient, a few pairs still 
nesting; April 19, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius) to September 15, 
1921 (Carter and Griscom); casual October 5, 1921 (Carter 
and Griscom); rarely recorded in September, breeding birds 
often departing early in August. 

Bronx Region. Now an uncommon summer resident, 

May 4, 1916 (L. N. Nichols) to August 27, 1910 (Hix, Rogers 

and Wiegmann). 

New Jersey. A common summer resident except in the 

suburban sections, but somewhat local, with a marked preference 

for willow thickets on the borders of swamps and streams. 

Englewood Region. Now an uncommon and local sum- 
mer resident, April 26, 1902 (Bird-Lore) to September 1, 
1887 (Chapman) and September 16, 1919 (Weber). 

Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica c&rulescens) 

This is one of our commoner transient Warblers, and 

breeds locally in Sussex and Passaic Counties, New Jersey. 

Beginners have good cause to bless the distinctly colored 

male for not changing his plumage in the fall. The obscure 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 325 

female has a small white spot at the base of the primaries, 
which is often hard to see. The bird is rarely recorded in 
April and August. 

Long Island. Common transient, April 30 to May 27; August 
26 to October 17 and casually November 30. 

Orient. Common transient in spring, less so in fall; 
April 30, 1908 to May 25, 1915 (Mabel R. Wiggins); average 
arrival May 4; August 28, 1913 to October 25, 1912. 
Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Occasional on migration; May 8, 1919 to 

May 20, 1920 (Bicknell); September 2, 1920 to October 6, 

1921 (Bicknell) and October 28, 1917 (Rogers). 

New York State. Common transient throughout; casual 

November 27 to December 9, 1906 at Irvington (Louis Dunham); 

on the latter date the bird was found dead and sent to the American 

Museum. 

Central Park. Common transient; April 25, 1921 
(Granger), April 28, 1908 (L. N. Nichols) and May 4, 1909 
(Griscom) to May 30, 1917 (Hix); August 23, 1905 (Hix) and 
September 1, 1904 (Hix) to October 15, 1908 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 2, 1914 (L. N. 

Nichols) to May 22, 1885 (J. Dwight); August 27, 1922 (F. E. 

Watson) to October 13, 1913 (Hix); casual November 2, 1918 

(Theodore Dreier). 

New Jersey. In the last two years, Mr. W. DeW. Miller has 

found this species in the breeding season in several localities on the 

Wawayanda plateau; otherwise a common transient. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; April 28, 1912 
(Griscom) to May 29, 1915 (Rogers); August 18, 1896 
(Dwight ) to October 12, 1916 (Weber); one April and four 
August records. 

Myrtle Warbler ( Dendroica coronata) 
Our most abundant transient Warbler, the fourth to 
arrive in spring, from April 15 to the height of the migration 
in May. In the fall it is even more numerous, arriving 
normally the third week in September and remaining until 
early November. In August, 1921 there was an unprecedented 
flight; otherwise the bird is casual in August. Along the 



326 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

coast of Long Island the Myrtle Warbler winters abundantly 
in the bay berry thickets, and elsewhere inland where this 
plant grows locally. 

Long Island. Abundant transient and common winter resident, 
chiefly on the outer beaches or similar bushy thickets on the edges 
of the bays; April 10 to May 30; September 5, 1921, Port Jefferson 
(Griscom and Murphy) to December 10. 

Orient. Common winter resident, abundant in migration; 
September 11, 1914 to May 25, 1917; average September 22 
to May 18. 

Mastic. Common winter resident, abundant in fall; 
noted May 30, 1917. 

Long Beach. Common winter resident, September 10, 
1914 (Bicknell) to May 25, 1916 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Abundant transient, wintering regularly on 
Staten Island and rarety along the Sound. 

Central Park. Abundant transient; April 4, 1910 (Gris- 
com) to May 28, 1910 (Griscom); August 27, 1921, nine birds 
(Griscom) and September 14, 1905 (Hix) to November 13, 
1908 (Griscom); casual August 28, 1908 (Griscom), August 
19 and 28, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Abundant transient, rare in winter; 

April 12, 1919 (C. L. Lewis) to May 22, 1920 (L. N. Nichols); 

September 19, 1920 (L. N. Nichols) to November 5, 1910 (Hix). 

New Jersey. Abundant transient, wintering near Elizabeth, 

Englewood, Plainfield and Summit, where bayberries occur locally; 

recorded August 13, 1921 near Plainfield (Miller). 

Englewood Region. Abundant transient, a few birds 
wintering frequently; April 22, 1914 (J. T. Nichols) to May 
18, 1919 (Griscom and W. T. Helmuth); September 25, 1921 
(Griscom and J. M. Johnson) to November 29, 1914 (N. F. 
Lenssen) . 

Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) 
One of our commonest transient Warblers, rarely arriving 
before May 9, and its maximum numbers usually not reached 
until after the height of the migration. It starts moving 
south the latter half of August and lingers into October. In 
the fall plumage this Warbler is chiefly olive green and 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 327 

yellow, with a sharply contrasted ashy head, a white eye- 
ring, two white wing-bars, and very faint streaking below. 
It may yet be found nesting in northern New Jersey. Less 
common on Long Island than elsewhere. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient ; (May 1) May 5 to 
May 30; August 17 to October 22. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 1, 1908 to May 30, 
1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins); September 1, 1907 to October 7, 
1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins). 

Mastic. Fairly common transient; noted May 30, 1917. 

Long Beach. Occasional on migration; May 11, 1922 to 

May 29, 1915 (Bicknell); September 1, 1919 to October 1, 1918 

(Bicknell), and casually to October 22, 1916 (Griscom and J. 

M. Johnson). 

New York State. A very common transient throughout. 

Central Park. Very common transient; May 3, 1922 
(Griscom) and May 4, 1911 (Griscom) to June 11, 1907 
Chubb); August 16, 1911 (Hix) to October 20, 1900 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 1, 1922 (L. 

X. Nichols) and May 3, 1913 (G. K. Noble) to May 31, 1916 

(L. N. Nichols); September 6, 1919 (Granger) to September 

26, 1914 (Hix); the fall dates are very defective. 

New Jersey. A common transient throughout; a male seen on 

the Wawayanda plateau in early July, 1922 (Miller) is an indication 

that this species may breed there. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; May 4, 1913 
(Griscom) to June 2, 1917 (Hix); August 16, 1887 (Chap- 
man) to October 7, 1917 (J. M. Johnson and Rogers). 



Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) 
An exceedingly rare or casual transient in our territory. 
The male has the distinction of being the only truly blue 
Warbler, and is absolutely unmistakable with its blue breast- 
band on a pure white ground. It ranges so high, however, 
that it i- easily overlooked, unless the sonjj is heard. This 
may be described as very like that of a Parula, but the first 
three notes are like the opening three of the Redstart's son^. 
The female is remarkably like a fall BlackpoU in size, general 



328 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

appearance and coloration, but is bright bluish olive green 
above instead of dull grayish olive green. It ranges so high, 
however, that the student will get many a neckache in his 
efforts to identify it. In 1920 a single bird summered in the 
Catskills, and in 1922 Mr. George W. Gray and others 
made the astonishing discovery that this species was nesting 
in Dutchess County, New York, and it was observed in 
several localities during May as a transient. Should this 
state of affairs continue and the bird really extend its range 
eastward, it is possible that the Cerulean Warbler would be 
observed more frequently on migration in this vicinity, and 
students are urged to keep the sharpest possible lookout for it. 
Long Island. One specimen taken many years ago in Brooklyn. 
New York State. 

Central Park. One recorded as seen b} r Basil H. Dutcher 
May 5, 1885. 

Bronx Region. An adult male in full song most satis- 
factorily studied May 14, 1921 by Dr. Wm. H. Wiegmann. 
He made a rough sketch of the bird and wrote a brief descrip- 
tion of his observation in the field. Both were immediately 
recognizable, and he of course knew at the time exactly what 
he was seeing. 
New Jersey. Specimen taken at Boonton, September l, r 1887 
(Sylvester Judd). 

Englewood Region. One collected at Palisade Park, 
September 25, 1909 (J. A. Weber). 



Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) 
Another common transient Warbler throughout our area, 
and a common summer resident north of the coastal plain in 
scrub growth. It arrives the first week in May, starts moving 
south about the middle of August and is casual in October. 
Comparatively few are seen in fall. The fall plumage is quite 
different from the spring plumage, but is nevertheless distinc- 
tive. No other Warbler is bright yellowish green above, 
pure white, unstreaked below, with an eye-ring and wing-bars. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 329 

Long Island. Common transient ; an occasional pair has bred 
on the north shore; April 30 to June 2; August 25 to October 7. 

Orient. Common transient; April 30, 1908 to June 2, 
1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins); average arrival, May 7; September 
1, 1907 to October 7, 1917 (Mabel It. Wiggins). 
Mastic. Uncommon transient, rare in summer. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration, September 9, 1920 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Breeds in northern Westchester County; a 
common transient throughout. 

Central Park. Very common transient; April 29, 1914 
(Hix) to May 30, 1907 (Chubb); August 6, 1908 (Griscom) 
to September 26. 1914 (Hix); -casual June 26, 1901 (Chubb). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 2, 1916 (L. X. 
Nichols) to May 30, 1917 (Janvrin); no fall records due to 
defective observation. 
New Jersey. Common summer resident almost throughout 
our area, but locally uncommon in the suburban districts, and 
scarce in the coastal plain; a common transient throughout. Re- 
corded October 1, 1916 near Elizabeth (Urner), and September 24, 
1922 near Culver's Lake, Sussex County (Griscom and LaDowj. 
Englewood Region. Uncommon summer resident, com- 
mon transient; May 4, 1912 (Griscom) to September 17, 
1887 (Chapman). 

Bay-breasted Warbler (Dendr&ica castanea) 
Forty years ago the Bay-breasted Warbler was generally 
spoken of as a rare transient, but this idea was probably due 
to the few observers and the very irregular observation. 
Certainly by 1900, when the first of the modern generation of 
active students began work, this species, while uncommon, 
was observed every spring by those who went afield every 
day. Like the Tennessee and Cape May Warblers it has 
markedly increased in the last fifteen years. At the present 
time it must be called a common spring transient, arriving 
about May L3, and rarely at all numerous until a week after 
the height of the migration, when one can see fifteen to 
twenty-five birds in a morning. In the fall it i- also fairly 
common and regular, chiefly recorded the last week in August 



330 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

and the first half of September, after which only stragglers 
remain. During this period one can often find the Bay- 
breasted the commonest species of Warblers when there is a 
flight. 

Contrary to a general impression, fall adults are readily 
identifiable by anyone who knows what to look for, who can 
differentiate between whitish or yellowish and yellowish 
buff, and can see the marked tinge of reddish brown on the 
sides. All that is required is a good light. In other respects 
this species and the Blackpoll are exactly alike in the fall. 
The immature are almost impossible to distinguish however. 
The Bay-breasted is usually tinged with buff, and has buff 
instead of white under tail-coverts. On rare and exceptional 
occasions only is it possible to determine these points 
positively. The identification of the adults is one of those 
cases where no satisfactory mental picture of relatively 
slight differences can be gained from a book. Specimens must 
be examined, and the student should put them side by side in 
a good light, and look at them from a distance. Needless to 
say, those who cannot distinguish these two species never 
took this trouble, or made any effort to identify birds in 
the field year after year. 

Long Island. Rare transient, more common recently; May 
2 to June 5; August 28 to October 6; casual June 23, 1870. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 12, 1911 to June 5, 
1917; average arrival May 15; August 28, 1912 to September 
30, 1908. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration; Mr. Bicknell has one 

spring and three fall records; May 18, 1916; September 2, 

1920 to October 1, 1918; it was common on September 10, 

1914. 

New York State. Now a common transient in our section; 

recorded August 5 to September 26 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Common transient; May 4, 1913 (Anne 
A. Crolius) and May 10, 1911 (Anne A. Crolius) to June 7, 
1907 (Hix); August 20, 1914 (Hix) to September 26, 1921 
(Griscom). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 331 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 11, 1919 (L. X. 

Nichols) to May 31, 1917 (L. X. Nichols); August 28, 1922 

Griscom) to October 2, 1889 (Dwight); casual July 26, 

1875 (E. P. Bicknell). 

New Jersey. Now a generally common transient in our section. 

Englewood Region. Now usually a common transient; 

May 1. 1904 (C. H. Rogers); May 10, 1913 (J. T. Nichols) to 

June 9. 1917 (Weber); August 15, 1915 (Weber) to September 

9, 1913 (Weber), exceptionally to September 27 (Weber) and 

October 3, 1915 (C. H. Rogers). Mr. Weber's dates are based 

on collected specimens, and are excellently representative of 

the fall migration of this species. 

Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) 
A very common spring and abundant fall transient 
throughout our territory. Thore was an old "saw" that the 
arrival of the Blackpoll Warbler marked the close of the 
migration, but this theory has long since been exploded. It 
arrives about May 11, has arrived in numbers May 7 and 
casually even earlier, but does not roach its maximum num- 
bers until after May 20. and is the only Warbler which lingers 
regularly into June. Due to the fact that most students in 
this territory have failed to recognize the fall Bay-breasted 
Warbler, the Blackpoll is generally credited with arriving in 
August, and as it is known to be abundant, all birds are called 
Blackpolls. unless an occasional individual is satisfactorily 
determined otherwise. Here we have an excellent illustration 
of how such slip-shod methods lead to error. The facts are 
that the Blackpoll rarely arrives before September 10. does 
not become common until the migration of the Bay-breasted 
i- almost over, and remains regularly to the middle of October. 
I here reject almost all August reports, knowing them to be 
inconclusive. 

Long Island. Abundant transient; May 2, May 3), May 11 
to June 6, 18, and 20; September 1 to October 30, ami casually to 
November 20. 

Orient. Common transient; May 2, 1920 to June 20, 
1914; average May 12 to .June 6; September 2. L909 k to 
November 20. 1913. 



332 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Common transient. 

Long Beach. Regular on migration; May 8, 1919 to May 
29, 1915 (Bicknell); September 15, 1921 to October 26, 1921 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Recorded August 30 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Very common spring, abundant fall 
transient; May 3, 1911 (Griscom), May 4, 1913 (Griscom), 
May 5, 1919 (Griscom) to June 15, 1917 (Hix); September 1, 
1911 (Hix) to October 22, 1908 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Very common transient; May 12, 1912 
(Hix) to June 10, 1886 (Dwight); September 7, 1919 (Granger) 
to October 14, 1911 (Hix). 
New Jersey. Recorded October 27, 1918 at Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Abundant transient; April 30, 
1916 (J. M. Johnson), May 6, 1900 (Bird-Lore) to June 15, 
1920 (Rogers); August 30, 1887 (Chapman, specimen taken) 
to October 20, 1914 (J. T. Nichols). 

Yellow-throated Warbler (Dendroica dominica) 
This is the rarest of our local Warblers, occurring casually 
in spring. It is easily recognized, and has a fine ringing 
song, suggesting a very good Myrtle Warbler, or a poor 
Indigo Bunting. 

Long Island. An old specimen taken in Kings County; a 
male at Oyster Bay from July 4-8, 1907 (Theodore Roosevelt); a 
male discovered in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, April 28, 1917 by Mr. 
Edward Fleischer and seen the next day by L. X. Nichols, R. M. 
Harrington and others. 
New York State. 

Central Park. A male discovered in the Ramble by Dr. 
Ellsworth Elliott on April 17, 1919. He showed the bird to 
W. DeW. Miller, L. Williams and many others. 

Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) 
This beautiful Warbler is usually a common spring and 
fairly common fall transient, except on Long Island, where it 
is uncommon. A few pairs breed in northwestern New Jersey 
It is more irregular in its migrations than most of our 
Warblers, and like the Cape May usually passes through our 
territory quite rapidly. It is casual in April and October. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 333 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, May 1 to 30; August 
30 to October 14. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 1, 1908 to May 27, 
1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins), average arrival May 7; August 30, 
L906 to September 26, 1908. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

LonCx Beach. Casual, May 26, 1918 (Janvrin); Sep- 
tember 1, 1919 (Bicknell and Crosby. 
New York State. 

Central Park. Usually a common spring transient, 
rather rare in the fall; April 30, 1914 (Griscom) and May 2, 
1911 (Griscom) to June 7, 1907 (Hix); August 3, 1908 (Gris- 
com) to September 14, 1911 (Hix) and casually to October 5, 
1907 (Anne A. Crolius and Griscom) and October 8, 1906 
(Hix i. 

Bronx Region. Common spring transient, rarely reported 

in the fall; May 2, 1914 (L. N. Nichols) to May 27, 1917 (L. 

X. Nichols); September 20, 1889 (Dwight) to October J2, 

1889 (Dwight). 

New Jersey. Breeds in the deep hemlock woods of the 

Wawayanda plateau in Passaic and Sussex Counties, where it 

was first detected by Waldron DeWitt Miller. A common transient 

throughout. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; May 3, 1914 
(Griscom) to June 5, 1910 (Weber); August 16, 1887 (Chap- 
man.' to October 3, 1915 (Rogers). 

Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) 
One of our commonest transient \Yarblers, and breeding 
locally. Supposed to be a Transition Zone species, this 
Warbler is uncommon in northern New Jersey, where there 
is a distinct Canadian element, but is not uncommon locally 
in the pine barrens of Long; Island. Arrives regularly in 
April. As ;i transient rare in August, recorded almost every 
year in October. 

Long Island. Common transient and breeding locally in dry 
pino woods; April 25 through May; September 1 to October 15, 
and casually to November 6. 

ORIENT. Rare and local summer resident; April 28, 1908 
to October 7. 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins;; average arrival May 1. 



334 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. April 30, 1922 (Friedmann) and May 14, 
1914 (Bicknell); occasional in fall, September 1, 1919 (Bick- 
nell and Crosby) to October 13, 1912 (Griscom) and casually 
to November 6, 1917 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Very common transient throughout, a few 
reported as breeding near Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Very common transient; April 9, 1908 
(Anne A. Crolius and Griscom); April 21, 1921 (Granger) to 
June 6, 1907 (Chubb); August 28, 1913 (Hix) to October 
24, 1907 (Griscom); rare after May 25 and in August. It is 
exceptional for this species not to arrive in April. 

Bronx Region. Common transient; April 22, 1884 
(Dwight) to June 5, 1921 (L. N. Nichols); September 6, 1919 
(Granger) to October 16, 1921 (Griscom). 
New Jersey. A local summer resident in the higher parts of 
Sussex and Passaic Counties, breeding south to Demarest (Bow- 
dish) and the Palisades near Alpine (S. N. Rhoads and Wm. B. 
Evans); undoubtedly much less common than the Nashville 
or Canadian Warblers. A very common transient throughout. 

Englewood Region. Very common transient; breeds 
regularly on the Palisades above Alpine and has bred near 
Demarest; April 23, 1910 (Weber) to May 20, 1915 (Weber); 
August 21, 1887 (Chapman) to October 20, 1912 (Griscom). 

Pine Warbler (Dendroica vigorsi) 
This species is a characteristic bird of Pitch Pine groves. 
As^a result it is very local in our area, breeding commonly in 
the pine barrens of Long Island and in two localities in north- 
ern New Jersey. As a transient it occurs in deciduous growth, 
but is uncommon even near the coast in spring, becoming 
rarer inland. In the fall for some reason it is one of our rarest 
Warblers. It is our earliest spring Warbler, and is rarely 
recorded in May. 

Long Island. Fairly common summer resident in the pine 
barrens, an uncommon transient at the western end; (March 23) 
April 1 to November 7. 

Orient. Rare summer resident in Southold and Peconic; 
otherwise very rare spring transient; March 23, 1908 to 
October 2, 1920. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 335 

Mastic Fairly common summer resident. 
Loxg Beach. Casual, April 12, 1914 (Griscom) and Sep- 
tember 17, 1914 (Bieknell). 
New York State. Uncommon spring, rare fall transient near 
the coast, very rare further inland. More individuals recorded in 
Central Park than anywhere else in our territory. 

Central Park. Generally uncommon spring transient, 
varying greatly in numbers, perhaps once in ten years really 
common; March 29, 1921 (Blanche Samek) and March 30, 
1913 (S. V. LaDow) to May 5, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius); rare 
in fall, recorded in only six years since 1907, and then only 
once each season, except in 1921; September 18, 1919 (Janvrin) 
and September 23, 1910 (Hix),to October 29, 1911 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon spring transient, March 27, 

1896 (E. I. Haines) to May 6, 1917 (L. X. Nichols); rare in the 

faU, September 28, 1918 (C. L. Lewis) to October 27, 1919 (L. 

X. Xichols). 

New Jersey. Found breeding at High Point, Sussex County, 

June 10, 1890 (F. M. Chapman); this locality visited by me in 

June, 1922, but the pitch pine groves had been swept by fire; two 

pairs found apparently breeding in a pitch pine grove near Round 

Pond on the Kittatiny Ridge, June, 1921 (Griscom). Otherwise 

known only as a transient, reported as rare in spring throughout the 

area, except at Englewood. and almost unknown in fall. Recorded 

March 23. 1913 at South Amboy (Millerj, December 8, 1912 near 

Plainfield (Miller) and December 25, 1920 near Morristown (R. C. 

Caskey . 

Englewood Region. Uncommon spring transient, April 
5, 1913 (Griscom and LaDow to May (i, 1915 (Weber); Mr. 
Weber writes me that in the last five years he lias seen 
from two to as many as fifty specimens each season; only two 
fall records, October 10. 1915 (J. M. Johnson, J. T. Nichols and 
C. H. Rogers;, and Mr. Weber writes he has taken one speci- 
men in fall. 

Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmarum palTnarum) 
With the great increase of students competent to identify 
this bird, it- >uppo-<-< 1 rarity in our territory i> an exploded 
fallacy, and very few if any people remain under any mis- 
apprehension a- to it- proper status. A- a matter of tact, 
while rare in spring, it i- a not uncommon and regular fall 



336 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

transient in most of our territory, arriving in fall two weeks 
earlier than the Yellow Palm, and in spring recorded the last 
week in April or the first week in May. There is, however, 
good cause to believe that it has increased in the last twenty 
years. 

Its identification in life is by no means difficult in spring, 
and is a simple matter in fall. The Yellow Palm Warbler is 
always uniformly yellow below. The Palm Warbler in spring 
has the throat and breast bright yellow, the belly dirty white, 
and abruptly yellow under tail-coverts. In fall only the under 
tail-coverts are yellow, the bird otherwise being brownish 
above, whitish below, with a whitish instead of yellow super- 
ciliary stripe. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient, rare in spring, sometimes 
common in fall; April 18 to May 23; September 7 to October 15 
and not infrequent \y in recent years to the middle of December. 

Orient. Rare transient, March 20, 1919 (Mrs. Lowerre) 
to May 23, 1910; September 20, 1906 to December 21, 1914; 
frequently recorded in December. 

Mastic. Uncommon fall transient. 

Long Beach. Regular fall transient, September 9, 1920 
(Bicknell) to November 11, 1921 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Reported at Ossining, April 29 and Sep- 
tember 30 to October 12 (Fisher). Dr. F. M. Chapman saw an 
exceedingly early individual September 2, 1896 on West 129th 
Street, New York City. 

Central Park. Rare spring, uncommon but regular fall 
transient; April 22, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius), May 3, 1913 
(Griscom), May 7, 1914 (Rogers), May 4, 1916 (Hix), April 
30, 1920 (Griscom); September 4, 1911 (Hix) to October 13, 
1912 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Rare spring, uncommon fall transient; 
April 20, 1919 (C. L. Lewis) to May 11, 1919 (L. N. Nichols); 
September 19, 1915 (L. N. Nichols) to October 14, 1916 (E. G. 
Nichols). 
New Jersey. Wherever there has been steady and long-con- 
tinued observation in our area, the Palm Warbler is known to occur 
rarely in spring, regularly in fall, at which season it is occasionally 
common. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 337 

Englewood Region. Rare spring, uncommon but regular 
fall transient; May 6, 1911 (Griscom, Hix, Rogers); Sep- 
tember 9, 1912 (Weber) to October 13, 1919 (Rogers). 

Yellow Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmar um hypochrysea) 
A common transient throughout. It is the second Warbler 
to arrive in spring, and next to the Myrtle, the two Palm 
Warblers are the last to leave in fall. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient; April 6 to May 17; 
September 21 to October 30, occasionally into November, and 
recorded January 3, 1917 at Garden City (J. T. Nichols). 

Orient. Common transient; April 6, 1912 (Griscom and 
Harper) to May 17, 1917; September 28, 1908 to November 
21, 1915. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Uncommon spring, common fall transient; 
April 9, 1920 to May 17, 1917 (Bicknell); October 6, 1921 (Bick- 
nell) to November 25, 1920 (Crosby, Griscom, Janvrin). 
New York State. Common transient throughout. 

Central Park. Common transient; April 2, 1916 (Hix) 
to May 16, 1917 (Janvrin); September 22, 1922 (Carter, 
Crosby, Griscom) to November 1, 1903 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; April 6, 1919 (L. N. 
Nichols) to May 18, 1913 (L. N. Nichols); September 26, 1914 
(Hix) to November 11, 1916 (Hix and E. G. Nichols). 
New Jersey. A common transient throughout; recorded May 
13, 1917 near Plainfield (Rogers). 

Englewood Region. Common transient; April 3, 1921 
(Griscom) to May 5, 1910 (Griscom); September 26, 1886 
(Chapman) to November 11, 1915 (Weber). 

Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor) 
This little Warbler, which shares the tail-wagging habits 
of the Palm Warblers, is ;t characteristic species of the coastal 
plain, nesting in the scrub oak and pine barrens of Long 
bland. The immediate vicinity of New York also Beems to be 
a highway on migration for more northern breeding individu- 
als, as the bird is common both spring and fall in Central 
Park. A few birds nest in the dry cedar and briar tangled 



338 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

hillsides up the Hudson River valley, and it is consequently 
a rare transient near that river. Further inland in our terri- 
tory it is very rare or unknown. 

Long Island. Common summer resident; April 27 to Sep- 
tember 27 and casually October 22. 

Orient. Rare and local summer resident, May 1, 1908 to 
September 27, 1911 (Mabel R. Wiggins); average arrival 
May 5. 

Mastic. Common summer resident; recorded April 27, 
1921. 

Long Beach. Occasional on migration; May 7, 1914 to 
May 24, 1916; August 30, 1921 to September 14, 1916 (all 
by Bicknell). 
New York State. Rare summer resident at Ossining (Fisher). 
A common transient in Central Park, but rare on migration else- 
where. 

Central Park. A common transient; April 26, 1912 
(Anne A. Crolius) to June 2, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius); August 
20, 1905 (Hix) to September 26, 1921 (Griscom) and October 
5, 1921 (Laidlaw Williams) ; rarely arrives in April, and seldom 
seen after the height of the migration in May, or after Sep- 
tember 20. 

Bronx Region. Rare transient; May 2, 1916 (L. N. 
Nichols) to May 23, 1920 (L. N. Nichols); August 24, 1919 
(Granger) to September 15, 1917 (Hix). 
New Jersey. An uncommon but regular transient at Eliza- 
beth (Urner) and Englewood; one of the rarest Warblers at Plain- 
field (Miller); one record at Summit (Holmes), one at Montclair 
(Howland) ; unrecorded elsewhere in our area. 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient; May 2, 
1914 (Griscom) to May 26, 1916 (Weber) and June 5, 1890 
(Dwight); August 23 (Weber) to September 24, 1904 (Hix 
and W. H. Wiegmann). 

Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) 
A common and familiar summer resident in woodland 
throughout. Just what happens to our Ovenbirds in the fall 
is somewhat of a mystery, but after the song season is over 
the bird is very hard to find. In Central Park where it is a 
very common transient in spring, it is seldom recorded in fall. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRD- 339 

Long Island. Common, April 20 and April 25 to October 3, 
and exceptionally October 2o. 

Orient. Common, April 20, 1919 to September 30, 1909; 
average arrival May 3. 

Mastic. Abundant summer resident. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration, May 8, 1919; May 
18, 1916; September3, 1914 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common throughout. 

Central Park. Very common spring, rare fall transient; 
April 25, 1917 (Janvrin) to June 4, 1907 (Griscom); July 31, 
1908 (Griscom) and August 23, 1905 (Hix) to October 14, 
1907 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, April 30, 
1886 (Dwight) to September 26, 1914 (Hix), casually *o 
November 6, 1917 (E. G. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Common throughout. A most exceptional date 
is October 27, 1918 near Elizabeth (L'rner). 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, April 
25, 1902 (Bird-Lore) to October 7, 1886 (Chapman). 

Water- Thrush (Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis) 
A common transient throughout, and a summer resident 
in the higher parts of northern New Jersey. The Water- 
Thrush rarely arrives in late April, and remains until June. 
The southward migration begins the first week in August, 
occasional individuals lingering into October. 

Long Island. Common transient; April 29 to May 30; July 
24 to October 12 (October 22); casual November 30, 1908 in Pros- 
pect Park, Brooklyn (E. W. Vietor). 

Orient. Common transient; May 1, 1908 to May 30, 
1910; average arrival May 8; July 25, 1916 to October 10, 
1920. 

MASTIC. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Regular on migration; April 29, 1916 (J. T. 
Nichols; to May 25. 1916 (Bicknell); August 10. 1919 < Bick- 
nell; to October 12, 1920 (Bicknell). 
New York State. A common transient throughout. 

Central Park. Common transient; April 2:i. 1902 
(Chubb) to June 5, 1909 (Griscoin : August 2. 190s iGriscmii 
to October 10, 19U (Griscom). 



340 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 4, 1916 (E. G. 
Nichols) to June 1, 1909 (Griscom); August 14, 1890 (Dwight) 
to September 28, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. Breeds in the higher parts of Sussex County at 
Bear Swamp (Miller and Griscom), commonly in the big Pine 
Swamp (Griscom), rather commonly on the Wawayanda Plateau 
(Miller), and on two swamps on the summit of Bearfort Mountain 
in Passaic County (Griscom). A common transient throughout; 
recorded October 23, 1921 near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Abundant transient; April 25, 
1886 (Chapman) to May 30 (Weber); August 8, 1897 (Bird- 
Lore) to October 9, 1921 (Griscom and J. M. Johnson). 

Gbinnell's Water-Thrush (Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis) 
This large western subspecies is an accidental visitant on 
the Atlantic Coast. Mr. A. H. Helme has collected a speci- 
men at Miller Place, Long Island. Another was taken at 
Raritan, New Jersey, May 30, 1889 (Southwick). 

Louisiana Water-Thrush (Seiurus motacilla) 
This Water-Thrush is a common summer resident in our 
area north of the coastal plain, but is found only where brooks 
tumble down hillsides, or where small streams meander 
gently through dense woods. As a result but few individuals 
breed in any one locality. As a transient it is rather common, 
but is so wild and retiring that it undoubtedly escapes atten- 
tion. It is the third Warbler to arrive in spring, is perhaps 
the first of our local birds to stop singing, and the breeding 
birds often disappear before July 1, and the species will not 
be recorded again. During the migrations when both Water- 
Thrushes are present, this species is larger, with a heavier, 
wilder call-note and a far finer song; the back is distinctly 
grayer, the underparts and the superciliary stripe are whiter, 
and the throat is unstreaked. 

Long Island. Rare and local summer resident on the north 
shore, and rare transient; April 5 to September 25. 

Orient. Rare transient; May 3, 1908 to May 30, 1913; 
August 15 to September 25, 1910. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 341 

Mastic. No record. 

Long Beach. One, September 2, 1920 on a lawn with 
Water-Thrushes (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident in northern West- 
chester County, now very rare southward near the City. 

Central Park. Rare transient; April 2, 1916 (Hix) 
to May 24, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius); August 4, 1908 (Griscom) 
to October 3, 1914 (Hix); casual November 24, 1910 (Hix), 
a bird seen eating a small fish (!); rarely recorded except on 
the big Warbler waves in May. 

Bronx Region. Very rare summer resident, a pair still 
breeding northeast of Yonkers; a pair bred in Van Cortlandt 
Park in 1917; otherwise a rare transient; April 10, 1915 (L. 
N. Nichols) to September 17, 1916 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Breeding throughout our area wherever a suit- 
able habitat is found; Miller and I have found it at 1200 feet in the 
Wawayanda Plateau. 

Englewood Region. Fairly common but local summer 
resident, April 8, 1911 (Griscom and LaDow) to October 2, 
1885 (Chapman). 

Kentucky Warbler (Oporornis formosus) 
The three Warblers of the genus Oporornis are unques- 
tionably the least known. They are ground Warblers in- 
habiting the densest undergrowth, are wild, shy and secretive, 
and are usually silent on migration. As a result they are 
easily overlooked, and extremely difficult subjects to study. 
The present species is an extraordinarily local summer resi- 
dent, breeding in a type of low rich woods with dense under- 
growth that occurs widely in our area. It is consequently im- 
possible to explain why this bird should only breed in two 
localities and should be practically unknown elsewhere. 

Long Island. Exceedingly rare; two breeding records and 
eight records of transients in migration; May 18 to September 14. 
Orient. Recorded May 30, June 4, and September 14. 

New York State. A common summer resident near Ossining 
May 2 to August 27 (Fisher;, and locally southward to Worthing- 
ton and Hastings (Granger); unknown on States bland. 



342 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Central Park. Very rare transient; June 13, 1892 (F. M. 
Chapman); May 24, 1908 (Hix); May 20 and 28, 1909 (Anne 
A. Crolius); May 18, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius); May 16, 1921 
(Charles Johnston). 

Bronx Region. Bred formerly at Riverdale (Bicknell), 
long since extirpated; now very rare, recorded May 20, 1917 
(L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. The only breeding locality in our area was the 
Palisades near Englewood, where it is now extinct; at present an un- 
common transient near Elizabeth, where Mr. Urner reports it 
eleven times in the last six years, May 14, 1916 to May 23, 1920, 
and August 20, 1916 to September 21, 1919; now a rare spring tran- 
sient near Englewood; never recorded in twenty-five years near 
Plainfield (Miller); casual near Montclair, May 8, 1911 (Howland). 
It seems evident, therefore, that the Kentucky Warbler is extinct as 
a summer resident, and as a transient occurs only near the Hudson 
River valley, and casually elsewhere. 

,. Englewood Region. Formerly a fairly common summer 
resident on the west slope of the Palisades just south of Engle- 
wood, the last pair nesting in 1914; only once recorded since; 
May 6, 1919 (Granger) to early July (Hix). 

Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis) 
This shy Warbler is exceedingly rare in spring, but is 
irregularly present in the fall, apparently absent some years, 
really common occasionally. It occurs in the densest growths 
of swampy woods, or the borders of weedy pastures. In 
such a locality a large Warbler will flush suddenly and dis- 
appear after a short flight, nor will it be easily found again. 
It is very thrush-like in perching motionless for some time 
after being flushed, and the student can take advantage of this 
habit to get an observation. Perhaps the swampy woods of 
Van Cortlandt Park is the best locality near the City to 
find this bird, where it should be looked for anywhere between 
the last days of August and the first days of October. In any 
plumage the Connecticut Warbler differs from the Mourning 
in having an eye-ring. The under tail-coverts are twice as 
long as in the Mourning Warbler, and extend for two-thirds the 
length of the tail. Females and immature have a brownish 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 343 

throat and breast, a character no other Warbler possesses. 

Adult males have a bluish-pay throat and breast, with no 
black on the breast, as in the adult male Mourning. However, 
it is very like the female Mourning, and they must be sep- 
arated by the eye-ring and long under tail-coverts. 

Long Island. Irregular transient in autumn, sometimes 
common; September 4 to October 11; rare on the south shore. 

Orient. Rare fall transient, September 14, 1913 to Sep- 
tember 30, 1910. 

Mastic. No record. 
New York State. Exceedingly rare in spring, irregularly 
common in the fall. 

Central Park. Casual transient, the only Warbler that 
finds conditions in the Park utterly unsuitable; if one bears in 
mind the intensive observation every spring by scores of 
observers, the number of spring records is not as surprising as 
might seem; the following records are unquestionably authen- 
tic, made by people fully competent to identify the bird, 
and entirely aware of the importance of their observation; 
May 15, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius, Griscom, LaDow, Miller, 
Wiegmannj; May 15, 1921 (Charles Johnston) ; also Septem- 
ber 9, 1908 (Hix), September 22, 1908 (Anne A. Crolius), twice 
in September 1909 (Anne A. Crolius), September 22, 1922 
(Crosby and Griscom), and October 5, 1922 (Griscom and 
oth» 

Bronx Region. Irregular fall transient, often absent, 
Bometimee fairly common, as in 1882, 1889, 1890, 1896, and 
1908; August 20, 1922 (F. E. Watson) to October 2, 1889 
■Dwighr I. 

New Jersey. Exceedingly rare in spring, irregularlv common in 
FalL 

Englewood Region. An adult male collected May 526, 
1917 at Fort Lee (Weber); in fall from August 27, 1896 
Dwight; to October 11, 1889 (Chapman). 

Mourning Warbler (Oporornis Philadelphia) 
Next to the Orange-crowned this i- undoubtedly the rarest 
Warbler that visit- this territory with any degree of regularity. 

I cannot help thinking, however, that it i- also frequently 



344 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

overlooked. By nature shy and retiring, an inhabitant of 
the densest undergrowth, and usually entirely silent when 
migrating, the bird is never seen unless specially searched for. 
Most local observers stop Warbler hunting after the height of 
the migration and go to the coast for Shore-birds; in other 
words they are far away at just the time when this species is 
most likely to occur. Those who have seen the Mourning 
Warbler most frequently are those who visit favorable terri- 
tory the last ten days in May, when the returns seem small 
and insignificant compared with the abundance of the pre- 
ceding week. Mr. Miller's experience at Plainfield and my 
own in Central Park is that this species is usually recorded 
on the day of the wave of Blackpolls and female Warblers, 
which comes after the peak of the migration has passed. The 
greater rarity of the bird in fall is to be expected; it is just 
that much harder to find. 

Long Island. Very rare transient, scarcely a dozen records, 
May 14, 1912, Brooklyn (Mrs. E. W. Vietor) to June, 1862; Sep- 
tember 11, 18, and 26; previously unrecorded is a specimen taken 
at Baldwin, August 16, 1908 (J. P. Chapin). 

Orient. Recorded September 18 and 26. 
New York State. A rare transient; reported August 18 to 
October 1, at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Rare spring, very rare fall transient; 
May 19, 1896 (C. W. Vaughan); May 31, 1900 (Chubb); 
May 16, 1905 (Hix); May 24, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius); May 
22, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius); May 26, 1913 (Griscom); May 
18, 1914 (Anne A. Crolius); May 21, 1917 (Janvrin); June 
5, 1917 (Hix); May 22, 1920 (Griscom); also August 6, 
1908 (Anne A. Crolius and Griscom) and August 11, 1913 
(Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Very rare spring transient, no fall records; 

Mr. L. N. Nichols has recorded it May 18, 1913; May 20 

and 31, 1917 and May 18, 1918. 

New Jersey. Recorded from but few sections in our area, but 

Mr. Miller tells me that in past years, when he was making a special 

search for Warblers at Plainfield, he used to record it three or 

perhaps four years out of five in spring. He has no positive fall 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 345 

record. Two birds taken September 24, 1885 near Morristown 
(Thurber). One seen June 1, near Plainfield (Miller) seems to be 
the latest spring record. 

Englewood Region. Three spring records, May 22, 
1898 (Chapman) to May 26, 1918 (L. N. Nichols); two fall 
records, specimens taken August 21, 1912 and September 30, 
1916 by Mr. J. A. Weber. 

Maryland Yellow-throat (Geothlypis trichas) 
An abundant and well-known summer resident in swampy 
land throughout the territory, occasional individuals arriving 
in April, the majority not until about May 7. Observation in 
Central Park shows that it is one of the first Warblers to 
start moving southward. It remains until the middle of 
October, stragglers remaining even later near the sea coast. 

Long Island. Abundant summer resident, April 14, 20 and 
May 1 to October 25 and casually to January. 

Orient. Abundant, May 1, 1908 to October 25, 1915, 
November, 1918, December 22, 1918 and January 28, 1919; 
average arrival May 4. 

Mastic. Abundant summer resident. 
Long Beach. Regular transient, a few pairs breeding; 
April 14, 1921 (Bicknell), April 20, 1913 (Griscom), and May 
4, 1916 (Bicknell) to October 18, 1917 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident; recorded April 
10, 1922 on Staten Island (Wm. T. Davis). 

Central Park. Very common transient; April 26, 1913 
(Anne A. Crolius) to June 6, 1907 (Chubb); August 13, 1921 
(Griscom) to October 23, 1907 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, May 3, 1916 
(L. N. Nichols) to October 15, 1916 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. An abundant summer resident throughout; 
recorded October 26, 1919 near Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, April 
30, 1917 (C. H. Rogers) to October 17, 1915 (J. T. Nichols). 

Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) 
The Chat Is the eccentric clown of our local birds, and 
any medley of chucks, caws, toots and whistles coming from 



346 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

a dense thicket may safely be ascribed to him. He is often 
very ventriloquial, and one bird can make noises enough for 
half a dozen. While generally distributed throughout our 
territory, it cannot be called exactly common, and in recent 
years has decreased markedly in the suburban districts. 
More often heard than seen, it arrives about May 10, but is 
rarely recorded in fall, apparently only stragglers remaining 
after the first week in September: 

Long Island. Uncommon summer resident north of the coastal 
plain, May 2 to October 2 (October 31). 

Orient. Rare and irregular summer resident, usually 
absent; May 2, 1906 to September 30, 1912. 

Mastic. Uncommon in spring; casual October 31, 1920 
(Laidlaw Williams). 

Long Beach. Casual May 15 , 1919 (Bicknell) and October 
10, 1922 (Hix). 
New York State. Fairly common summer resident outside of 
the suburbs; recorded April 28 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Uncommon spring transient, May 5, 
1904 (Hix) and May 9, 1919 (Griscom) to May 31, 1901 
(Chubb); very rare in the fall; August 26, 1913 (Hix) and 
October 5, 1921 (Carter and Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident, formerly 

more numerous; May 3, 1916 (L. N. Nichols) to September 

14, 1921 (Griscom). 

New Jersey. Fairly common summer resident throughout, 

occurring on High Point and the Wawayanda Plateau; recorded 

April 30, 1922 at Montclair (Howland). 

Englewood Region. Now uncommon summer resident, 
May 5, 1886 (Chapman) to September 6, 1887 (Chapman). 

Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) 
The erratic distribution of this beautiful Warbler will be 
discussed in detail below. It is supposed to be a species of the 
Carolinian Zone, and consequently it is quite surprising to 
have it decrease southward in our territory. Like the Golden- 
winged Warbler, it is astonishingly rare as a transient just 
south of country where it breeds abundantly. It arrives the 
first week in May and departs in August. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 347 

Long Island. Rare transient; April 30 to May 27; August 28 

to September 28. As it breeds commonly in the pine barrens of 
New Jersey, its absence as a breeding species on Long Island is 
surprising. The old theory that Long Island was virtually north of 
its range is scarcely tenable in view of its abundance in extreme 
northern New Jersey. 

Orient. Rare transient; May 4, 1912 to May 12, 1913; 

September 14, 1913 to September 28, 1911. 

Mastic. Twice, May 27, 1917 (J. T. Nichols and Rogers) ; 

May 10, 1921. 
New York State. Formerly recorded as nesting in several 
localities in Westchester County, and still doing so in the northern 
half, but rare. 

Central Park. Uncommon spring, rare fall transient; 

May 4, 1916 (Hix) to May 30, 1917 (Hix); August 7, 1908 

(Hix) to September 8, 1913 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Formerly breeding at Riverdale and West 

Farms, long since extirpated; now a rare transient, only two 

recent records, May 10, 1920 andMay 19, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. An abundant summer resident in the hills of the 
northwestern and northern counties, especially characteristic of 
the laurel thickets and rhododendron swamps, where the Cana- 
dian Warbler is also common; ascending to 1300 feet in the Waway- 
anda Plateau; south along the Palisades to Fort Lee, and also 
in the rich valley just west of them; in the rest of our area one of the 
rarest Warblers on migration. So abundant is this bird across the 
entire northern boundary of the State, that one would suppose the 
country south of its breeding range would be flooded with them. 
The case is analogous with that of the Golden-winged Warbler, 
except that the Hooded is an even rarer transient. Miller, as the 
result of over twenty-five years' observation at Plainfield, has seen 
scarcely more Hooded Warblers in spring than Mournings. 

Exglewood Region. Common summer resident, formerly 

more abundant; May 4, 1913 (Griscom) to September 17, 

1<»22 fGriscom and LaDow); casual November 8, 1903 (C. H. 

Rogers). 

Wilson's Warbler ( Wilsonia pusilla) 
The perky little Wilson's Black-cap is a regular transient 
in our area, rather uncommon in most sections in spring, 
generally even more uncommon in fall, but occasionally 



348 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

common. It arrives after the tenth of May, and its maxi- 
mum numbers are generally reached in the wave of Black- 
poll and female Warblers after the peak of the migration. 
In the fall it is rarely seen after September 15. As is usually 
the case with this family, the bird is scarcest on Long Island 
and commonest in Central Park. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient; May 13 to June 13; 
August 22 to September 26 and October 12. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 18, 1910 to May 28, 
1908; August 27, 1912 (Mabel R. Wiggins) to September 26, 
1914. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient; recorded October 12, 
1916. 

Long Beach. Mr. Bicknell has three records, May 14, 
1914, May 29, 1915, and September 2, 1920. 
New York State. A generally uncommon transient. 

Central Park. Common spring, uncommon fall transient ; 
April 30, 1920 (Dr. Ellsworth Elliott); May 2, 1911 (Griscom); 
May 6, 1913 (Griscom); May 10, 1912 (Anne A. Crolius) to 
June 5, 1901 (Chubb); August 20, 1912 (Hix) to September 
23, 1905 (Hix), exceptionally to October 4, 1904 (Hix), and 
October 10, 1907 (Anne A. Crolius and Griscom); casual 
October 31, 1903 (Rogers). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon transient; May 11, 1918 (C. 
L. Lewis) to May 31, 1917 (L. N. Nichols); August 14, 1890 
(Dwight) to September 28, 1916 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. A generally uncommon transient; recorded Sep- 
tember 29, 1918 at Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Uncommon transient; May 11, 
1902 (Bird-Lore) to May 30, 1907 (Hix); August 15, 1887 
(Chapman) to September 20, 1916 (Weber). 

Canadian Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis) 
A very common transient throughout except on Long 
Island, and breeding commonly in the higher swamps of 
northern New Jersey. Its migration is almost the same as 
that of Wilson's Warbler, but it arrives a few days earlier on 
the average both spring and fall. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 349 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, chiefly on the north 
shore; May 7 to June 3; August 8 to September 19. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 7, 1917 to May 29, 
1915 (Mabel R. Wiggins); August 20, 1916 to September 14, 
1912. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Occasional on migration; May 23, 1915 
(Janvrin) to May 29, 1915 (Hix); August 19, 1915 (Bicknell) 
to September 1, 1919 (Bicknell). 

New York State. A common transient; recorded May 6 and 
October 11 at Ossining (Fisher). 

Central Park. Very common transient; May 9, 1913 
(Griscom) to June 12, 1907 (Hix); August 6, 1913 (Hix) to 
September 25, 1910 (Hix) and October 8, 1907 (Anne A. 
Crolius and Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 5, 1918 (L. N. 
Nichols) to June 3, 1917 (L. N. Nichols); August 14, 1890 
(Dwight) to September 26, 1914 (Hix); casual October 29, 
1904 (Hix and Wiegmann). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident in the high swamps of 
Sussex and Passaic Counties, breeding south to Budd's Lake and 
Newfoundland; a common transient throughout; recorded Sep- 
tember 25, 1921 at Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common transient; May 7, 1922 
(Griscom and Janvrin) to June 2, 1910 (Weber); August 7, 
1887 (Chapman) to September 13, 1907 (Weber). 

Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) Fig. 27 
After the Maryland Yellow-throat and Ovenbird, the 
Redstart is our commonest and most generally distributed 
breeding Warbler, but is almost or entirely absent from the 
coastal plain. It is abundant on migration, arriving rarely 
in April, and moving south early in August. A few birds 
linger into October. 

Long Island. Fairly common local summer resident, almost 
absent on the south shore; May 1 to October 15, casually to No- 
vember 22, 1908 in Prospect Park, Brooklyn (E. W. Victor). 

Orient. Rare or locally absent as a summer resident, 
May l, 1908 to October 8, 1908; average arrival May 4. 




Detail of Museum Group 



Fig. 27. Redstart 
350 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRD- 351 

Mastic. Fairly common transient; recorded October 15, 
1916 and November 4. 1917. 

I.. >\<; Beach. Occasional spring, regular fall transient; 

May 8, 1919 (Bicknell) and May 24, 1914 (Hix); August 3, 

1922 (Bicknell) to October 17, 1918 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Common summer resident throughout, 

except on States Island, where it is uncommon on the north side, 

absent on the south side. 

Central Park. Very common transient; April 27, 

1913 (Griscom) to June 5, 1909 (Griscom); August 2, 1908 
(Griscom) to October 11, 1908 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, April 29, 
1905 (Hix) to October 11, 1920 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout, except 
along the southern boundary of our area, where it is uncommon or 
locally absent. 

Englewood Region. Common summer resident, April 26, 

1914 (Griscom) to October 19, 1907 (Weber). 

Pipit (A?ithus rubescens) 
The Pipit is a common transient along the coast, and up 
the Hudson River valley, but further inland is rare and 
irregular, often unrecorded an entire season, occasionally 
occurring in large flocks. As a general rule it is much less 
common in spring, from the middle of March to May. In 
the fall it is recorded chiefly from the end of September to 
November. Occasional individuals linger into the winter on 
the coastal marshes. On the ground the Pipit's slender bill 
and tail-wagging habits readily identify it. On the wing 
overhead the notes closely resemble those of the Horned Lark. 
and many students have difficulty in separating them. The 
Pipit is slender, with a very undulating flight, the Lark is 
noticeably broad shouldered, and its flight is little if at all 
undulating. 

Long Island. Abundant transient; March 12 to May 27; 
September 6 to November :>(). occasional in winter. 

Orient. Abundant fall, rare spring transient, irregular in 
winter; September 10, 1910 to November 25, 1914; average 
arrival September 25. 



352 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Uncommon fall transient, October 13, 1912 

(Griscom) to November 3, 1914 (Bicknell), December 18, 1910 

(Griscom, LaDow and Wiegmann), and January 4, 1910 

(Griscom and LaDow). 

New York State. Fairly common transient on Staten Island, 

up the Hudson River and along the Sound, rare elsewhere. 

Central Park. Casual visitor; October 24, 1904 (Hix); 
October 30 and 31, 1909 (Anne A. Crolius); May 5, 1919 
(Griscom); December 25, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 

Bronx Region. Now a rare spring and uncommon fall 

transient; March 20, 1921 (L. N. Nichols); September 24, 1919 

(C. L. Lewis) to December 1, 1921 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. A common transient on the coastal marshes, 

rare and irregular inland; recorded in late December and February 

on the Newark Marshes, and as late as May 13, 1922 (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Common transient, irregularly 
abundant, on the Overpeck Meadows; rarely observed else- 
where; March 20, 1920 (Griscom) to May 5, 1918 (J. M. John- 
son); September 25, 1921 (Griscom and J. M. Johnson) to 
November 14, 1910 (Griscom and LaDow). 

Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) 
The Mockingbird is one of our local species which defies 
classification. A century ago it was of regular occurrence in 
parts of southern New Jersey, colonies existed as far north as 
Keyport and Sandy Hook, and Giraud reported it as nesting 
occasionally on Long Island. Between 1875 and 1884 there 
were a few sporadic breeding records, but occasional birds 
have been reported throughout the area from then down to 
the present time. Dr. Chapman, writing in 1906, suggested 
that many of the specimens were escaped cage-birds, and this 
was the general view at that time. Many years have now 
passed since it was lawful to possess a caged Mockingbird, 
and the fact that the frequency of records has increased 
since the traffic was stopped, somewhat impugns the validity 
of this suggestion. At present the Mockingbird is of rare or 
casual occurrence, and may be expected almost anywhere in 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 353 

our area except in extreme northern New Jersey. Recent 
records are between August 1 and May 10; least often in 
spring. No other southern species occurs chiefly in fall and 
winter, and where the birds recorded locally can come from 
is a mystery which still awaits solution. 

Long Island. Now a casual spring transient, April 27 to 
May 20; rare but generally distributed early fall transient August 
1 to September 9; less rare local winter resident October 1 to 
March 25, 1917, Garden City (Nichols); probably occurs every year. 
Orient. Rare and irregular visitant, August 1, 1920 to 
May 20, 1915 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith); several winter records. 
Mastic. Rare fall visitant, latest September 9, 1917. 
Long Beach. April 27, "1916 (Bicknell); September 4, 
1917 (Newbold T. Lawrence). 
New York State. Recorded at Croton-on-Hudson winter of 
1S99 (Miss Anne Van Cortlandt). 

( i:\tral Park. Two specimens prior to 1877 {fide Bick- 
nell); October 19, 1892 to January 20, 1893 (F. M. Chapman); 
October 30, 1909 (L. B. Bishop); August 27, 1921 (Griscom). 
Bronx Region. Recorded October 28 and November 11, 
1877 (Bicknell); February 17, 1912 (Griscom and Hix); 
February 9. 1920 (Lee S. Crandall). 
New Jersey. Years ago the Mockingbird bred sporadically in 
our area and has been recorded at rare intervals ever since. Re- 
ported as a very rare summer resident at Morristown before 1887 
(Thurber); a pair bred at Ridgewood in 1884 and one was seen in 
November 1902 (Henry Hales); from December 14, 1913 to March 
3, 1914 at Andover (Blanche Hill); three records near Plainfield, 
one in May and two in September (Miller); May 11, 1919 near 
Elizabeth (Urner); April 17, 1921 near Boonton (Carter). 

Englewood Region. A pair nested at Tenafly about 1876 
and again in 1884, and one returned to the same place in the 
spring of 1885 (F. M. Chapman, on authority of Mr. Martin); 
one in early January, 1903 :it Qradel 'Kimball C. At wood); 
one seen February 14 and March 2, 1915 (J. T. Nichols . 

Catbird I Durru tella carolinensis) Efig. 28 
An abundant summer resident throughout the territory, 
of ran- occurrence in winter. Arrive- the first week in .May, 
rarely in April, and remains until October 10, lingering occa- 
sionally even later near the COast. 



354 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 




Photograph by F. M. Chapman 

Fig. 28. Catbird 

Long Island. Abundant, April 27 to November 7 and]25, 
casual in winter. 

Orient. Abundant in summer, several winter records; 
April 27, 1913 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith) to October 23, 1916; 
average arrival May 12. 

Mastic. Common summer resident; once in winter, 
January 1, 1921; recorded as early as April 27, 1921. 

Long Beach. Bred in 1908 (Griscom) ; now a rare spring 
and regular fall transient; May 8, 1919 to May 18, 1916 
(Bicknell); September 17, 1914 (Bicknell) to November 2, 
1917 (Bicknell) and November 25, 1920 (Crosby, Griscom, 
Janvrin). 






ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRD- 355 

New York State. Generally abundant summer resident. 
Central Park. Last bred in 1904; now a very common 
transient; April 26, 1913 (Hix) to May 30, 1917 (Hix); 
September 14, 1921 (Carter) to October 12, 1913 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common summer resident, two winter 
records; April 27, 1912 (Hix) to November 25, 1917 (Janvrin). 
New Jersey. Abundant summer resident throughout, very 
rare in winter. 

Englewood Region. Abundant summer resident, April 
27, 1912 (J. T. Nichols) to November 4, 1911 (Griscom, Hix, 
LaDow). 

Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) Fig. 29 
The Thrasher is a common summer resident in most of 
our area, but is absent or relatively uncommon in the hilly 
country of northwestern New Jersey. ' It arrives from ten to 
fourteen days earlier than the Catbird, but departs about 
the same time, and is even rarer in winter. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, very rare in winter; 
April 2 and April 21 to November 3. 

Orient. Common summer resident, but rare locally; 
recorded in winter; April 23, 1916 to October 25, 1912; aver- 
age arrival April 28. 

Mastic. Common summer resident. 

Long Beach. Formerly a common summer resident, still 
breeds occasionally or frequently; April 21, 1912 (Griscom) to 
October 13, 1919 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident throughout our 
area. 

CENTRAL Park. Common transient; April 19, 1914 (Fet- 
terer) to June 4, 1917 (Hix ; September 4, 1910 (Hix) to 
October 19, 1907 (Griscom); casual in August; wintered up- 
town three years in succession from 1907-8 to 1909-10. 

Brow Region. Common summer resident, Aprils, 1919 
L X. Nichols) and April 21. 1917 E. <i. Nichols] to October 
12. 1909 (Griscom); one winter record. 
New Jersey. Generally common summer resident, bul un- 
common or locally absent in the hill- of the northwestern and ex- 
treme northern sections; it is abundant, however, along the 
Delaware River from Dingman'fl Ferry to Porl Jeryis, a very Bandy 
region; very rare in winter. 



356 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 




Fig. 29. 



PkaU 

Brown Thrasher 



M. Chapman 



Englewood Region". Fairly common summer resident, 
April 8, 1913 Weber) and April 17. 1921 Bowdish] to October 
7. 1886 Chapman) and November 8, 1910 (Bowdish); three 
winter records. 



Carolina Wren Th -yothorus ludoi icianus) 

The Carolina Wren is an austral species which periodi- 
cally spreads northward. Once a pair has become established, 
however, they are strictly resident, but are unable to with- 
stand an unusually severe winter. Our territory is at the 
northern limit of its range, and its fortunes here vary widely. 
Up to about 1900 it was resident on Staten Island, had bred 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 357 

once at Riverdale. and was occasionally recorded on Long 
Island, in Westchester County and near Englewood, New 
Jersey. About this time a northward movement took place, 
a colony became established on the Palisades, another on 
Gardiner's Island, the bird bred sporadically on Long Island 
and at Plainfield. and appeared elsewhere in the territory 
more frequently. The period of maximum abundance was 
reached about 1911. A sharp winter caused a decline in 
numbers, and while the colonies on the Palisades and Gardi- 
ner's Island survived, there was a marked decrease in records 
elsewhere. The record-breaking winter of 1917-18 completely 
exterminated the Carolina Wren throughout our territory. 
and it has been scarcely recorded since. It may confidently 
be expected to appear again in the future. 

Long Island. A colony was established for years on Gardiner's 
Island, and scattered pairs have bred at Flushing and Roslyn; 
numerous records elsewhere; at present all breeding birds exter- 
minated. 

Orient. Besides the colony on Gardiner's Island, known 
as a rare visitant at Orient between July and March; now 
probably extinct. 

Mastic. Rare visitant, no records since the winter of 1917- 

18. 

New York State. Permanent resident on States Island until 

the winter of 1917— IS: occasional visitant to the rest of the area, 

nesting casually; never recorded at Ossining. No records since the 

winter of 1917-1 v 

Central Park. Rare and irregular visitant, occasionally 
remaining some time: thus present from October to December 
1907 (Anne A. Crolius : another bird appeared the middle of 
June. 190$. and remained until late February, 1909; no recent 
records. 

Bronx Region. Mr. Bicknell obtained several r- 
at Riverdale, and found it breeding May 2. 1^79: the only 
recent records are December 28, 190$ to May - 
com . and January 27 to February 4. 191 1 Hix . 
New Jersey. Recorded as very rare 'wn Th m 

and Summit HohnfB : rare and irregul Plainfield 

from Julv 4. 1806 to the re winter, on*- r*ed- 



358 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

ing record (Miller); spring of 1910 near Bernardsville (J. D. 

Kuser); June 8, 1907 (Montclair); not recorded since 1918 at 

Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Of variable status; in the eighties 
rare, recorded in April and September (Chapman); later a 
colony became established on the east slope of the Palisades, 
where by 1911 the bird was positively common; this colony 
much reduced in numbers by the winter of 1913-14, and wiped 
out by the winter of 1917-18; one individual seen in April 
1922 (Chapman) ma}' mark the beginning of its reappearance 
in the region. 

House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) 
The familiar little House Wren is a generally common 
summer resident throughout, but is relatively uncommon 
near the sea and in the suburbs, where it has decreased 
markedly in the last twenty-five years, thanks to the Starling 
and the House Sparrow. The first individuals arrive the 
last days of April, and the species remains until October. 
About the middle of August most of our Wrens disappear 
from our lawns and gardens, and are then detected in thickets 
and dense undergrowths on the edges of woods or swamps. 
The House Wren is not yet entirely domesticated, and a few 
still nest in hollows in swampy woods away from the haunts 
of man. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 14, 1922, 
Islip (Miss E. R. Jenks) and April 19, 1922 at Garden City (J. T. 
Nichols) to October 18; casual March 29. 

Orient. Rare summer resident in East Marion (Mabel R. 
Wiggins); otherwise a very rare transient; April 20, 1908 to 
May 30; August 20, 1917 (Mrs. Frank D. Smith) to October 
8, 1910. 

Mastic. Uncommon summer resident. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration, October 18, 1917 and 

October 13, 1919 (Bicknell). 

New York State. Common summer resident in northern 

Westchester County, steadily decreasing in the suburban districts. 

Central Park. Bred at least as late as 1908; now an 

uncommon spring and rare fall transient; April 22, 1905 (Hix) 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 359 

to May 17, 1921 (Griscom); October 6, 1921 (Griscom) to 
October 13, 1919 (L. X. Nichols). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident, decreasing; 

April 19, 1914 (G. K. Noble) to October 11, 1920 (L. N. 

Nichols). 

New Jersey. A generally common summer resident, decreasing 

in many parts of the suburban area; arrived April 16, 1922 at 

Elizabeth (Urner) and April 18, 1922 at Montclair (Howland). 

Englewood Region. Uncommon summer resident, de- 
creasing; April 19, 1913 (Bowdish) to October 12, 1916 (Gris- 
com and J. M. Johnson). 

Winter Wren (Nannus hiemalis) 
The elusive Winter Wren is an uncommon transient and 
rare winter resident in most of the area, with a preference for 
rocky banks, ravines, and brush piles. It arrives the very 
last of September or early October and lingers until the end of 
November. In spring, when it is usually a rare bird, it passes 
north from the end of April to the middle of May. Occasional 
birds are observed in March. These undoubtedly represent 
individuals which have wintered much farther north than the 
majority. It has decreased near the City. 

The Winter Wren is a smaller bird than the House Wren, 
with a much shorter tail. It has a light superciliary stripe, 
and the underparts are but little lighter than the upperparts, 
instead of markedly lighter. 

Long Island. Uncommon transient and rare winter resident; 
September 14 and 29 to May 20. 

Orient. Uncommon transient and rare winter resident; 
irregular; September 14, 1913 to May 1, 1902; average arrival 
September 24. 

MASTIC Uncommon late fall transient. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration; March 29, 1914»(Hix); 
November 7. 1911 (\\. U. Wiegmann); November 2, 1916 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. Now rarely wintering in the Buburban sec- 
tion-. 

Central Park. Now a rare transient; formerly more 
common, occasionally spending ')]*• winter; September 20, 



360 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

1914 (Hix) to November 30, 1907 (Griscom); March 19, 1918 
(Hix) and April 10, 1914 (Griscom) to May 15, 1912 (Anne A. 
Crolius). Wintering birds have always left in March; in 
spring observed chiefly in May. 

Bronx Region. Now rarely observed; September 28, 
1885 (Dwight) to December 31, 1908 (Griscom); April 26, 
1908 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Now much rarer than formerly in the suburban 

section; irregularly fairly common locally in late October and 

November, and in winter. 

Englewood Region. Now of rare occurrence; formerly 
more common and occasionally wintering in some numbers 
on the east slope of the Palisades; September 13, 1886 
(Chapman) to May 11, 1919 (Granger and Griscom); now 
rarely recorded between December and May. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren (Cistothorus stellaris) 
This Marsh Wren is an exceedingly local summer resident, 
and is so rare as a transient, that it is unknown to those 
students who do not live near a breeding colony or make a 
special trip to such a locality. It does not occur in cat-tail 
marshes, but prefers open sedgy meadows with a dense tangle 
of vegetation through which meanders some sluggish stream. 
Here it can best be detected by its song which is a staccato 
chap, chap, chapper, chapper, chapper, rapidly running down 
the scale and increasing in tempo at the same time. But little 
is known about its migrations. 

Long Island. Very rare or casual transient; autumn of 1901 
(A. H. Helme); September 12, 1908 at Freeport (Weber); October 
18, 1910 at Floral Park (H. Thurston); December 28, 1913 at 
Jones Beach (Griscom) ; specimen collected in every case. 
Long Beach. October 3, 1917 (Bicknell). 
,New York State. Recorded as a rare summer resident near 
Ossining, remaining to October 16 (Fisher). 

Bronx Region. Six adults and four young discovered in 

the Bay Chester marshes June 15, 1917 (L. N. Nichols). 

New Jersey. A very local summer resident; colonies are known 

in the Great Swamp and the Passaic Meadows near Chatham; in 

Sussex County this Wren nests commonly in the Walkill Valley (S. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 361 

N. Rhoads, Griscom) and along the Paulin Kill near Newton (Hix 
and Rogers 1 ; also in the extensive meadows of the Pequest River 
in Warren County (Griscom). The only spring arrival date before 
me is May S, 1921 in the Passaic Valley near Stirling (Miller). 

Englewood Region*. One record, August 16, 189S 
(Dwight). 

Long-billed Marsh Wren (Telmatodytes palustris) 

The Long-billed Marsh Wren is an abundant summer 

resident of our coastal marshes and tidewater swamps, 

with a marked preference for cat=tails. As might be expected 

it is very local inland. The first birds arrive in the second 

week in May, but the full complement of breeding individuals 

is not reached until two weeks later, when the vegetation is 

further advanced. A few birds remain regularly into October, 

a very few into November, and the species is casual in winter. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, of casual occurrence 

in winter; April 8; May 4 to October 26. 

Orient. Possibly a rare summer resident in East Marion; 
otherwise a rare transient; May 1 to May 5; September 13 
to October 12; also December 22, 1918. 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, decreasing. 
Long Beach. A pair or two occasionally breed; May 17, 
1911 (Griscom) to October 13, 1921 (Bicknell) and November 
25, 1920 (Crosby). 
New York State. A common summer resident along the coast 
and up the Hudson River, wherever the marshes have not been 
drained or filled in. Recorded October 28 at Ossining (Fisher). 

( i \tkal Park. Casual transient; May 13, 1901 (Chubb); 
May 10, 1922 (Mrs. Meade). 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident, formerly 
abundant locally; May 10, 1912 (Griscom) to October 17, 
1921 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. An abundant summer resident in the coastal 
marshes, becoming increasingly local inland. 

Enouewood Region. Abundant summer resident in the 
Overpeck Marshes; May 4. 1912 (Griscom) to November 25, 
1915 (Rogers). 



362 



BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 



Brown Creeper (Certhia familiaris americana) Fig. 30 
The Creeper is generally distributed in our area as a 
winter resident of regular occurrence, but is usually 'only 
fairly common, arriving the end of September and remaining 
until the first week in May or even later. It is always a very 
common transient. It has been found nesting in one locality 
in northwestern New Jersey, and might occur in others. 






, W 



r 




Courtesy of D. Appleton & Co. From Bird-Life 

Fig. 30. Chickadee and Brown Creeper 



Long Island. Abundant transient, fairly common winter 
resident, September 10 to May 19. 

Orient. Common transient, rare in winter; September 
10, 1913 to May 19, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins); average arrival 
September 24. 

Mastic. Fairly common transient and winter resident. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration, five records in fall 
from October 12, 1914 (Bicknell) to November 3, 1914 (J. 
M. Johnson). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 363 

New York State. Fairly common winter resident, common in 
migration. 

Central Park. Common transient, formerly wintering 
occasionally; September 9, 1913 (Hix) and September 17, 
1921 (Carter and Griscom) to November 30, 1907 (Griscom); 
April 2, 1913 (LaDow) to May 21, 1917 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. A fairly common winter resident, com- 
mon on migration; September 13, 1921 (Griscom) to May 3, 
1915 (L. X. Nichols). 
New Jersey. A rare but regular breeder in an elm swamp 
near Andover, Sussex County (P. B. Philipp); otherwise a fairly 
common winter resident, common in migration; recorded Septem- 
ber 11, 1921 at Elizabeth (Urner)" 

Englewood Region. Recorded from September 12, 1903 
(Hix) to May 10, 1911 (Griscom); transients arrive in early 
April. 

White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) 
A familial- permanent resident in woodland throughout the 
area, common in winter, generally distributed, but scarcely 
to be called common in summer. There is a distinct migra- 
tion in late September and October, but there is very little 
evidence of a return flight in spring. 

Orient. Uncommon resident on Gardiner's Island; else- 
where a rare visitant, July to May. 

Central Park. Uncommon fall, rare spring transient, 
formerly wintering regularly; September 11, 1913 (Hix) to 
October 13, 1921 (Carter and Griscom); April 10, 1922 (Laid- 
law Williams) to May 9, 1907 (Chubb). 

Red-breasted Nuthatch {Sitta canadensis) 
This pretty little Nuthatch is one of our most erratic 
birds. About three years out of five it will appear in the fall 
anywhere from mid-August to the end of November. Its 
numbers will vary greatly, and the Length of its stay will 
never be the same two year- in succession. As a general rule 
it will he recorded in May, if it came down the preceding fall, 
but it has never been common in spring, and often is not detect- 
ed at all. On rare occasions a bird or two winter locally. 



364 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

Long Island. Irregular transient, sometimes common in fall, 
rarely wintering; August 10 to May 20; casual July 20 (Dutcher). 

Okient. Irregularly common transient, very rare in 
winter; August 10, 1912 to May 20, 1917; average arrival 
September 1; last southward transients depart about No- 
vember 15. 

Mastic. Irregular transient, sometimes numerous in 
fall, occasionally wintering; recorded from August 22, 1921 to 
May 17, 1919. 

Long Beach. Rare transient; three spring records, April 
20, 1913 (Griscom) to May 17 and 24, 1917 (Bicknell); more 
often in fall, September 10, 1914 (Bicknell) to October 27, 
1912 (Griscom). 
New York State. 

Central Park. Irregularly common fall transient, August 
16, 1906 (Hix) and August 27, 1921 (Griscom) to October 17, 
1907 (Griscom); has wintered at least twice; uncommon or 
rare spring transient, recorded only when it appeared the 
preceding fall, April 23, 1913 (Anne A. Crolius) to May 24, 
1917 (Janvrin), casually to June 4, 1917 (Hix) and June and 
July, 1892 (F. M. Chapman). 

Bronx Region. An irregular transient, rarely wintering; 
August 25, 1921 (Griscom), February 28, 1914 (Griscom) and 
May 23, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Status as in other sections. 

Englewood Region. Irregular transient, rarely recorded 
between November 15 and May 1; August 20, 1921 (Chap- 
man) to May 17, 1914 (Griscom, LaDow, J. M. Johnson). 

Tufted Titmouse (Bseolophus bicolor) 
The Tufted Titmouse is a species of the Carolinian Zone, 
which reaches its extreme northern limit in this territory, 
and apparently now breeds a little further north in New 
Jersey than it formerly did. It is of purely accidental occur- 
rence on the east side of the Hudson River. 

Long Island. Stated by Giraud to be common in his day; 
now accidental, only four definite records, the most recent a single 
bird near Coney Island, September 25, 1921 (Ralph Friedmann). 

New York State. A permanent resident on Staten Island; 
accidental elsewhere; recorded from Williamsbridge, New York 
City (George N. Lawrence). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 365 

( Central Park. One record, a bird present for two weeks 
in May, 190S (Anne A. Crolhis). 

Bronx Region*. Accidental; November 29, 1874 to 

March 28, 1875 at Riverdale (Bickiiell); February 12, 1911 

Griscom); end of March, 1914 (A. A. Saunders); November 

6, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) to May 20, 1920 in Bronx Park 

(numerous observers). 

New Jersey. A common permanent resident from the Raritan 

River north to Elizabeth, Plainfield, Orange, Summit, Morristown, 

and in recent years to Englewood; recorded once at Montclair 

(Howland), once at Lake Hopatcong (Dwight); a nesting colony 

near Andover, Sussex County (P. B. Philipp) . 

Englewood Region. Formerly a rare spring visitant, 
first found wintering in 1900 (Chapman); a permanent 
resident by 1907, increasing, and fairly common by 1913; 
exterminated by the heavy snowfall in February and March 
1920; reappeared in May 1921, and at present there are one 
or two resident pairs (Griscom). 

Chickadee (Penthestes atricapillus) Fig. 30 
One of our best known birds, and a permanent resident 
throughout the territory, fairly common in summer, very 
common or abundant in fall and winter. 

Long Beach. Casual; October 27, 1912 (Griscom and 
LaDowj; December 14 to 18, 1913 (Bicknell and Griscom); 
January 20, 1916 (Bicknell). 

CENTRAL Park. Formerly a common winter resident, 
arriving the middle of October, rarely earlier, and remaining 
until April 22, 1911 (Hix); September 24, 1921 (Carter and 
Griscom) and October 6, 1912 (Griscom); it has not wintered 
the last two years and has been recorded in fall only. 

Hudsonian Chickadee (Penthestes hudsonicus hudsonicus) 
Accidental winter visitant from the northwest. A speci- 
men captured at Ramsay, NVw Jersey, on November 1, L913 
by Charles R. Sleight, and now in the American Museum of 

Natural History, hafl been referred to this subspecies by W. 

DeW. Miller and Dr. Charles W. Townsend See Auk. L920, 
p. 593). 



366 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGIOX 

Labrador Chickadee (Penthestes hudsonicus nigricans) 1 
There was a remarkable southward flight of Hudsonian or 
Brown-capped Chickadees in the winter of 1916-17. All 
specimens taken locally and at various points in New England 
belonged to the recently described Labrador race, which any- 
one can recognize in life, who is well acquainted either with 
the typical Hudsonian or the Acadian Chickadee, so strongly 
marked are its characters. The various sight records made 
locally are consequently referred here, as the presumptive 
evidence is strong. There is no difficulty in recognizing the 
Hudsonian Chickadee, should another flight occur. Instead 
of being black-capped, white, and gray, it has a brownish- 
gray cap, the back is brownish and the sides are rufous. The 
call note is a nasal, drawling tchick, chee-day-day , with pro- 
nounced intervals and strongly accented, quite different from 
any effort of the Black-capped Chickadee. 

Long Island. Two sight records are presumably this sub- 
species; November 13, 1916 at Hewlett (Bicknell, Auk, 1917, 
p. 93); December 2, 1916 at Roslyn (Gerald H. Thayer). 

New York State. Four birds were discovered December 2, 
1916 on Staten Island by Harold K. Decker, in the Moravian 
Cemetery. As many as five individuals were seen at one time by 
H. H. Cleaves, and many other observers. At least one bird re- 
mained until February. As a matter of record I collected a speci- 
men on January 14, 1917, which was clearly referable to nigricans. 

Bronx Region. A Brown-capped Chickadee, presumably 
nigricans was discovered in Van Cortlandt Park on October 29, 
1916 (C. L. Lewis). 

New Jersey. Two Labrador Brown-capped Chickadees were 
found in a cedar grove near Scotch Plains December 17, 1916 (W. 
DeW. Miller). One collected on December 31, was clearly refer- 
able to nigricans. The other was last seen on January 28. On 
January 7 Miller saw a single individual in another locality 
between Plainfield and Stirling, and on February 4 he and Mr. 
Chas. H. Rogers found another individual between Westfield and 
Summit (See Miller, Auk, 1917, p. 218). 

'This recently proposed subspecies has not yet been passed upon by the A. O. U. 
Committee. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 367 

Exglewood Region. A Brown-capped Chickadee was 
observed December 23, 1916 (Lester Walsh and G. O. Shoon- 
hoven), and Mr. C. H. Rogers saw possibly the same individual 
on January 1, 1917. These birds were presumably nigricans. 

GOLDEN-CEOWNED KINGLET (RegulllS SCltrapa) 

This Kinglet is a fairly common winter resident in favor- 
able places, and is usually a common transient. There was a 
great mortality of this species in the severe winter of 1917-18, 
and it was quite rare for several years. It has slowly increased 
since, and in the fall of 1922 was as common as formerly. 
It arrives about October 1, remains until May, and the winter 
population is great ly reenforced by transients from the south 
in early April. 

Long Island. A fairly common winter resident, September 
14 and September 21 to May 7 and May 19. 

Orient. Common transient, rare winter resident; Sep- 
tember 14, 1913 to May 19. 1917; average arrival September 
26; arrival from south April 1. 

Mastic. Fairly common winter resident. 
Long Beach. One spring record, April 1, 1917 (Janvrin); 
regular fall transient, October 7, 1919 (Crosby) to November 
19, 1916 (Hix). 
New York State. Winters much more commonly up the Hud- 
son River than near the City; recorded September 20 at Ossining 
(Fisher). 

Central Park. Formerly a very common transient, 
occasionally wintering; rare or uncommon since the winter 
of 1917-18; September 26, 1922 (Carter, Griscom, Howland 
to November 22, 1918 (Janvrin/; March 26, 1913 (LaDow 
to May 3, 1914 Hix . 

Bronx Region. Formerly a common and regular winter 
resident* now a common transient wintering occasionally; 
September 26, 1922 (Griscom to April 23, 1918(L X Nicl 
New Jersey. Much less common in winter in the suburban 
section than formerly. 

lewooo Region. Formerly an abundant transient, 

occasionally wintering; known only a- a ran- or uncommon 

tran.-ient since the winter of 1917—18, but -lowly increasing 

and unusually numerous in the fall of 1922; September 24, 

pman to May 3, 191 I Griscom . 



368 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) 
The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is a common transient 
throughout the territory of the hand-book, with a migration 
which is practically identical with those of the Yellow Palm 
Warbler and the Hermit Thrush. There are a very few winter 
records, chiefly in the vicinity of the coast. 

Long Island. Common transient; April 1 to May 17, 1917 at 
Hempstead (Murphy and J. T. Nichols) and May 23 at Orient; 
September 14 and September 21 to November 11; three December 
records. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; April 12, 1908 to May 23, 
1914; September 14, 1913 through October, irregularly to 
November and December 28, 1920. 
Mastic. Fairly common transient. 

Long Beach. Uncommon spring, regular fall transient; 
April 14, 1922 (Bicknell) to May 17, 1917 (Bicknell); October 
1, 1918 (Bicknell) to November 7, 1916 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Recorded in winter on Staten Island. (H. 
H. Cleaves and Harold K. Decker). 

Central Park. Very common transient; March 31, 1910 
(Anne A. Crolius) to May 16, 1910 (Griscom); September 15, 
1913 (Hix) to November 10, 1912 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; March 24, 1895 (E. 

I. Haines) to May 18, 1916 (L. N. Nichols); October 1, 1916 

(L. N. Nichols) to October 27, 1919 (L. N. Nichols) and 

November 28, 1914 (LaDow and Rogers); one winter record, 

January 11, 1921 (Chubb). 

New Jersey. A common transient throughout," one noted 

August 29, 1922 at Cedar Pond, Passaic County (W. DeW. Miller), 

and another September 11, 1921 near Elizabeth (Urner) both 

abnormally early dates; several winter records for Plainfield (Miller) 

the last February 1 to 12, 1913. 

Englewood Region. A common transient; September 
15, 1887 (Chapman) to November 28, 1914 (LaDow and J. M. 
Johnson); April 2, 1922 (Janvrin and Laidlaw Williams) 
to May 16, 1914 (J. T. Nichols); recorded during the winter 
of 1908-09 at Demarest (Bowdish). 




Plate V. Tufted Titmouse 

. oftht National Atoociation of Audubon ><jri(tits 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 369 

Blue-gray Gnatcatchee (Polioptila caerulea) 
The Gnatcatcher is a southern species, which has been 
found nesting in southern New Jersey, and Dr. Stone regards 
n as a rare and local summer resident in the extreme south- 
ern part of the State. North of this point it is regarded as a 
casual wanderer. So numerous, however, are the records for 
this little bird near New York City and on Long Island both 
in spring and fall, that it is impossible to class it as anything 
but a rare transient . Where the spring birds go to and where 
the fall birds come from is a mystery, which still awaits solu- 
tion. Practically all the records are strictly coastal; the bird 
is very rare or unrecorded inland. It is indisputable, however, 
that in this narrow coastal strip, the Gnatcatcher is a com- 
moner bird than the Golden- winged or Mourning Warblers. 
Fortunately few of our local birds are so distinctive in size, 
color, shape and note, and the numerous sight records 
given below can be accepted with absolute confidence. Most 
of them, especially those in Central Park, were made by a 
large number of people. 

Long Island. A rare transient, in spring chiefly at the west- 
ern end, in fall chiefly at the eastern end; numerous records, 
• specially in fall; April 7 and 10, 1910, Prospect Park, Brooklyn 
(E. W. Vietor and many others) to April 18; July 1, 13 and 30 to 
October 11. 

Orient. Late summer and fall visitant; one spring record, 
April 16, 1908 at Peconic (Mrs. Frank D. Smith); July 30, 
1908 to September 10, 1917; numerous records. 
Mastk . One record, September 21, 1918. 
New York State. Frequently observed in Central Park, rarely 
in the Bronx Region, very rare or accidental elsewhere; on May 6, 
1922 Mr. Arthur Janes found a singing male at Scarsdale; he very 
courteously responded to my request for further information, and 
wrote so detailed an account of his observation that there can be no 
doubt of the correctness of his identification, although he had never 
seen the bird in life before. 

CenTOAL Park. A rare transient, recorded chiefly in 
spring; seventeen records in twenty-one years; May 22, 1901 

(C. B. Isham ; May 10. \<M)\ Carleton Schaller ; April 24 



370 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

and May 9, 1905 (Hix); May 5, 1907 (Hix); April 7 and 8, 
1910 (Griscom); May 11, 1910 (Griscom); April 18, 1911 
(Griscom); April 27, 1913 (Griscom); May 9, 1916 (Janvrin); 
April 30, 1920 (Dr. Ellsworth EUiott); May 14, 1920 (L. N. 
Nichols); May 24, 1920 (Griscom); May 3, 1922 (Griscom); 
also September 10, 1905 (Hix); September, 1910 (Anne A. 
Crolius); August 28, 1922 (Griscom). 

Bronx Region. Specimen taken at New Rochelle, Sep- 
tember 12, 1895 (E. I. Haines); one seen May 3, 1912 (Messrs. 
Burdsall, Comly, Cook and Maples); one seen May 7, 1920 
(L. N. Nichols and E. G. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Apparently of purely casual occurrence in our 

area; on May 16, 1920 one was seen by the Passaic River near 

Plainfield (W. DeW. MiUer and C. H. Rogers). 

Townsend's Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) 
An accidental visitor from the far West. One was taken 
at Kings Park, Long Island, on November 25, 1905 (J. A. 
Weber) . 

Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) 
A common and well-known summer resident throughout, 
except near the sea. It arrives the last days of April or the 
first days of Ma}-, and lingers into October. Breeding birds 
disappear from then nesting haunts the end of August. After 
this Wood Thrushes are ven r hard to find, and but few are 
recorded. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, April 13 and May 1 
to October 29. 

Orient. Summer resident, locally rare; May 1, 1908 to 
September 24, 1914; average arrival May 4. 
Mastic. Fairly common summer resident. 
Long Beach. Casual on migration, three records, May 4, 
1916 to May 17, 1917 (Bicknell). 
New York State. Common summer resident throughout. 
Central Park. Formerly a common transient, a pair or 
two breeding annually; in the last few years a very uncommon 
transient; April 28, 1908 (Anne A. Crolius) to May 25, 1907 
(Griscom); September 28, 1914 (Hix) to October 5, 1921 
(Carter and Griscom). 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 371 

Bronx REGION. Common summer resident, May 2, 1916 
(L. N. Nichols) to October 20, 1916 (L. X. Nichols). 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout; noted 
casually near Plainfield, December 19 and 25, 1909 (Miller). 

Englewood Region-. Common summer resident, April 
26, 1900 (Bird-Lore migration tables) to October 3, 1886 (F. 
M. Chapman); recorded in November (J. A. Weber). 

Wilson's Thrush; Veery (H ylocichla fuscescens) 
A common summer resident in the richer woodland of our 
area, locally absent from the coastal plain, where it is known 
chiefly as an uncommon transient . It is the first of our thrushes 
to leave, and is rarely recorded even in September. On foggy 
August nights the mellow calls of Veeries and Bobolinks from 
the sky are a feature of the migration, mingled with the 
harsher cries of Night and Green Herons and various Shore- 
birds. Many late September and October sight records of 
this thrush are undoubtedly erroneous and are omitted. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient, occasionally nesting 
on the north shore; April 13 and May 1 to May 23; September 2 
to October 15 and casually to November 5. 

Orient. Rare transient; May 1, 1909 to May 23, 1914 
September 15, 1913 to October 11, 1917 (Mabel R. Wiggins). 
Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Casual on migration; recorded by Mr. Bick- 
nell on May 8, 1919, May 9, 1917 and September 2, 1920. 
New York State. A common summer resident in northern 
Westchester County, decreasing southward. 

Central Park. Formerly a common transient; now un- 
common in spring, rare in fall; April 30. 1914 (Hix) to May 
30. 1907 (Griscom); August 20, 1915 (Hix) to September 17, 
1910 (Hix;. 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident; April 12, 
1912 (G. K. Noble.; May 3, 1887 (Dwight) to September 17. 
1916 (L. X. Nichols i ; I have noticed transients at Kivenlale 
August 27, 1922. 
New Jersey. Common summer resident throughout, decreas- 
ing along the southern boundary of the area. 

Englbwooo Region. Common tummer resident, April 
26, 1914 LaDo* to September 20. L885 Chapman). 



372 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Gray- cheeked Thrush (Hylocichla alicix alicix) 
The Gray-cheeked Thrush is a common transient in most 
of our area, but is less common on Long Island. It passes 
north the second half of May, and returns during the latter 
part of September and early October. On one occasion I 
have heard it sing. The greatest care should be used in 
separating this species from the Olive-backed Thrush. The 
plate in Doctor Chapman's Handbook is a better aid than 
pages of detailed description. Sight records given below may 
include BicknelPs Thrush. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient; May 6 and May 11 
to May 30; (September 1) September 17 to October 12. 

Orient. Common transient; May 6, 1914 to May 30, 
1912; average arrival May 15; September 1 and September 18, 
1914 to October 2, 1910. 

Mastic. Uncommon transient. 

Long Beach. Occasional on migration; May 18, 1916 
(Bicknell); September 1, 1919, September 8, 1921 and Sep- 
tember 21, 1916 to October 13, 1919 (Bicknell). 
New York State. A generally common transient; casual at 
Ossining, November 21, 1922 (Courtenay Brandreth, specimen 
collected) . 

Central Park. Common transient; May 9, 1922 (Gris- 
com) to June 4, 1907 (Chubb); September 9, 1913 (Hix) to 
October 16, 1915 (Hix). 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 7, 1922 (Starck 
brothers) to May 25, 1920 (L. N. Nichols) ; September 17, 1884 
(Dwight) to October 21, 1916 (C. L. Lewis). 
New Jersey. A common transient. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; May 7, 1922 
(Griscom and Janvrin) to June 1, 1897 (Bird-Lore migration 
tables); September 6, 1915 (Weber, specimen taken) to 
October 13, 1919 (Rogers). 

Bicknell' s Thrush {Hylocichla alicix bicknelli) 
Bicknell's Thrush is nothing but a dwarf subspecies of the 
Gray-cheeked, with only a slight average difference in 
measurements. To be certainly identified it must be killed, 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 373 

carefully sexed and measured. Few specimens have been 
shot in our area, but this should not be taken as indicating 
its rarity. Breeding directly north of us, it must pass through 
in numbers every spring and fall. I cannot regard this bird 
as identifiable in life, and reject all sight records. It is true 
that every year I see very small Gray-cheeked Thrushes, 
sometimes with direct comparison with other species, and 
others have often had the same experience. The difference 
in size, however, is so slight, and the chance for error so 
great, that there is no real satisfaction in speculating on the 
subspecific identity of these birds. There is a very good 
chance, however, that judicious collecting of such suspicious 
looking birds would prove that a majority of them, at least, 
belonged to this race. 

Long Island. Not uncommon transient, collected chiefly in 
fall; May 21 and 22; September 18 to October 23. 

Long Beach. One found freshly killed October 12, 1921 
(Bicknell). 
New York State. 

Bronx Region. Specimens collected May 16, 1887 and 
May 12, 1890 (Dwight). 
New Jersey. I am not aware of a specimen ever having been 
taken in our section. 

Olive-backed Thrush (Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni) 
A very common transient throughout, but less common 
on Long Island, arriving a little earlier both spring and fall 
than the Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

Long Island. Fairly common transient; April 30 and May 8 
to May 30; September 4 to October 30. 

Orient. Uncommon transient; May 3, 1908 to May 24, 
1911; September 15,1914 to October 10, L915. 

M win . Uncommon transient. 

Long Brach. May B, L919 Bicknell . May 26, 1918 J. 

M. Johnson), and May 30, 1911 (Giuoom, His and Rogi 

regular in fall, S<-|>T.-ml><T 15, 1921 t<> October 13, L919 

(Bicknell;. 



374 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New York State. A common transient throughout. 

Central Park. Common transient, often abundantlin 
spring; April 30, 1914 (Griscom), May 2, 1913 (Griscom), May 
3, 1911 (Griscom), and May 6, 1913 (Griscom) to June 5, 1900 
(Chubb); September 1, 1914 (Hix) to October 14, 1907 
(Griscom) . 

Bronx Region. Common transient; May 6, 1919 (L, 
N. Nichols) to May 31, 1917 (L. N. Nichols); September 5, 
1917 (Hix) to October 9, 1919 (L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. A common transient throughout; recorded 
September 10, 1916 to October 13, 1918 at Elizabeth (Urner). 

Englewood Region. Very common transient; May 6, 
1919 (Granger and Griscom) to May 30, 1907 (Hix); Sep- 
tember 14, 1886 (Chapman) to October 10, 1915 (J. M. John- 
son, J. T. Nichols and C. H. Rogers). 

Hermit Thrush (Hylocichla guttata pallasi) 
The Hermit Thrush is best known in our territory as a 
common transient, arriving in early April with the Kinglets 
and the Yellow Palm Warbler. Indeed its period of migration 
is almost an exact parallel with that of the latter species. 
Probably a few birds winter somewhere near the coast every 
year, and occasionally this Thrush winters in some numbers, 
particularly in dense cedar groves, where the flowering dog- 
wood has a large crop of berries. As a summer resident in 
our area its occurrence is quite inexplicable. Supposedly a 
Canadian Zone species, it might be expected in the higher 
hills of New Jersey, where, however, it is very rare. One 
is scarcely prepared, therefore, to find it a locally common 
summer resident in the hottest and driest pine barrens of 
Long Island, where the ground is carpeted with little else 
but the bear-berry and the pine barren sandwort. 

Long Island. Common transient; locally common summer 
resident in the pine barrrens and adjacent woodland; probably 
regular in small numbers in winter; March 21 to May 22; Sep- 
tember 14 to December 1. 

Orient. Common transient, frequently wintering; March 
23, 1912 (Mabel R. Wiggins) to May 19, 1916; September 18, 
1913 to December; average arrival September 23. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS 375 

Mastic. Fairly common summer resident, more numerous 
in migrations. 

Long Beach. Occasional on migration; April 12, 1914 
(Griscom) to May 8, 1919 (Bicknell); October 7, 1919 (Cros- 
by) to November 19, 1911 (Griscom). 
New York State. A common transient, occasionally wintering 
near the coast. 

Central Park. Common transient; March 25, 1916 
(Hix) to May 16, 1907 (Chubb); September 26, 1921 (Gris- 
com) to November 20, 1910 (Hix); rarely recorded in March 
and September; a bird spent the winter of 1908-09. 

Bronx Region. Common transient, occasional winter 

resident; April 10, 1886 (Dwight) to May 4, 1886 (Dwight); 

September 26, 1885 (Dwight) to December 23, 1918 (Hix). 

New Jersey. A single pair found on the summit of Bearfort 

Mountain north of Newfoundland in July, 1921 at an altitude of 

1400 feet, but none could be found in 1922 (W. DeW. Miller); 

otherwise a common transient throughout, wintering regularly near 

Plainfield (Miller) and more rarely northward and inland. 

Englewood Region. Common transient, rarely wintering; 
April 1, 1898 (Bird-Lore migration tables) to May 14, 1921 
W. DeW. Miller); September 25, 1921 (Griscom and J. M. 
Johnson) to November 26, 1922 (Griscom and LaDow). 

Robin (Planesticus migratorius) 
One of our most abundant and best known summer 
residents, among the first to arrive and the last to leave. In 
the fall the flocks take to the open country, and wander about 
searching for dogwood and other berry-bearing trees and 
shrubs. A few birds probably winter somewhere along the 
coast every year. 

Long Island. Probably a very few winter somewhere on the 
island every year; February 23 to December 23. 
Orient. Irregular in winter. 
Mastic. Not recorded in winter. 

Lono BsACH. Formerly a rare Spring and regular fall tran- 
sient; a pair or two now breed every season; March 10, 1921 
(Bicknell t<> November 27. 1918 (Bicknell) and December 22, 
1912 Griscom . 



376 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

New York State. Winters every year near the coast, more 
rarely inland. 

Central Park. Common summer resident; February 10, 
1901 (Chubb) to November 22, 1908 (Griscom); recorded in 
winter on several occasions years ago; average arrival March 10. 
Bronx Region. February 15, 1884 (Bicknell) to Novem- 
ber 26, 1916 (Janvrin); winters almost every year. 
New Jersey. Frequently wintering near Elizabeth (Urner) 
and Plainfield (Miller), more rarely northward and inland. 

Englewood Region. March 14, 1920 (Griscom) to No- 
vember 25, 1920 (Weber) ; a few sometimes winter. 

Varied Thrush (Ixoreus nxvius) 
An accidental visitant from the far northwest. 

Long Island. Three records; an old specimen from Islip 
(G. N. Lawrence); December 20, 1889 at Port Jefferson (A. H. 
Helme); November 19, 1905 at Miller Place (A. H. Helme). 

New Jersey. One specimen taken at Hoboken in December, 
1851, and recorded by G. N. Lawrence. 

Greenland Wheatear (Saxicola oenanthe leucorhoa) 
Occasional individuals of this European bird straggle 
down the American coast. Three specimens have been taken 
on Long Island, the last near Jamaica in 1885. 

Bluebird (Sialia sialis) 
The soft warble of the Bluebird is one of the best known 
harbingers of spring to all those who dwell in the country. 
It is still a common summer resident in the rural sections, but 
is rare near the seacoast, and is steadily decreasing in the 
suburbs. It is one of the chief sufferers from the Starling and 
English Sparrow, and has disappeared from many an old 
haunt. The Bluebird is not particularly rare in winter, but 
is apparently less often recorded near the coast than further 
inland. However, it never winters in such numbers as the 
Robin. 

Long Island. Common summer resident, occasional in winter; 
February 22 to November 28. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE BIRDS ^77 

Orient. Rare summer resident, occasionally seen in 
winter; irregularly common transient; February 22, 1915 
(Mabel R. Wiggins) to November 25, 1915; average arrival 
March 4. 

Mastic. Common transient, uncommon summer resident. 
Long Beach. Four spring records, March 12, 1911 (Gris- 
com) to April 15, 1919 (Bicknell); rare in the fall, October 22, 
1911 (Griscom) to November 3, 1914 (Hix and Rogers). 
New York State. Reported as a common permanent resident 
at Ossining (Fisher) ; now steadily decreasing as a summer resident. 
Central Park. Rare spring, uncommon fall transient; 
March 12, 1905 (Hix) and March 29, 1910 (Anne A. Crolius) 
to April 30, 1901 (Chubb); October 21, 1910 (Hix) to Novem- 
ber 4, 1917 (E. G. Nichols) and December 15, 1901 (C .H. 
Rogers); only seven spring records in twenty-two years. 

Bronx Region. Uncommon summer resident, decreasing; 

February 7, 1884 (Bicknell) to November 26, 1916 (Janvrin). 

New Jersey. A common summer resident in the rural districts, 

steadily decreasing in the suburban area; wintering frequently 

near Elizabeth, Plainfield, Morristown and Montclair, in some 

localities more often than the Robin. 

Englewood Region. Common transient; formerly com- 
mon summer resident and occasional winter resident; now 
uncommon summer resident and rare in winter; steadily 
decreasing; February 22, 1909 (Chapman) to November 22, 
1913 (J. T. Nichols).' 



APPENDIX 

a. Extinct and Extirpated Species 

Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) 
In the early part of the last century, when this species 
bred in southern New Jersey, it was regarded as a rare visitor 
on the coast of Long Island by Giraud and De Kay. Four 
definite records exist for Long Island; South Oyster Bay, 
July 4, 1882; Shinnecock Bay, July 8, 1884; Point Lookout, 
Long Beach, July 1, 1885. It is worth noting that this Tern 
was regarded as rare in New Jersey in 1869 and last nested 
in 1890. Its occurrence in Long Island waters today would 
be purely accidental. Its very stout, heavy black bill, some- 
what curved at the tip, is an excellent field mark. 
Long Island. 

Long Beach. One record, July 1, 1885 (Dutcher); Mr. 
N. T. Lawrence informs Mr. Bicknell that he killed two at 
Point Lookout on June 6, 1885. 

Forster's Tern (Sterna for steri) 
In the days when Forster's Tern nested in New Jersey, it 
may well have been a rare visitor to the coast of Long Island. 
Lawrence (1866) says: "A few years ago, in the autumn, I 
found in Fulton Market several specimens of this Tern, both 
adult and young, which came from Long Island." One of 
these specimens, now in the American Museum, was found in 
Fulton Market, September 30, 1857. Eaton gives four other 
records for Long Island, the last in 1883. Its occurrence now 
would be accidental. While it is indistinguishable in life 
from the Common Tern in the fall, there is no ground what- 
ever for supposing that it is an uncommon fall transient in 
this vicinity, as has been recently stated. 

Long Island. Formerly a rare visitor to Long Island; five 
records, September 3 to October 1; none in the last 40 years. 

Long Beach. One shot byN. T. Lawrence October 1, 1872 
has apparently never been recorded (information supplied by 
Mr. Bieknell). 

378 



EXTINCT AND EXTIRPATED SPECIES 379 

Labrador Duck (Camptolaimus labradorius) 
This species was apparently not uncommon in winter on 
Long Island in former years. It is now totally extinct, and 
the last specimen was taken in 1875. 

Snowy Egret (Egretta candidissimd) 
In former times Giraud regarded this species as not un- 
common on Long Island from ''late in the spring till the last 
of September/' and it undoubtedly bred. Small companies 
of these birds were recorded every year from 1881 to 1885, 
since when no specimens have been taken on Long Island to 
my knowledge. The Snowy Egret is consequently extirpated 
as a summer resident, and its occurrence at the present time 
would be purely accidental. Many years ago Dr. A. K. 
Fisher collected a casual individual at Ossining. 

Whooping Crane (Grus americana) 
In colonial times this splendid bird undoubtedly occurred 
on migration in New England, New York, and New Jersey. 
"De Vries in his Journal, describing the country- of New 
Netherlands, mentions "White Crane as occurring (1639-42) 
with the swans, geese, and ducks which swarmed on the 
coast of Now York Bay " (Eaton). It had apparently become 
extirpated by 1800, as it was unknown to Giraud or De Kay, 
but there is a record for New Jersej' as late as 1857. This 
Crane is now on the verge of extinction, and is one of the 
rarest of North American birds. 

Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicai 
The history of the Stilt in our area is a repetition of the 
Avoeet's. Two specimens from Long Island are in existence, 
the last taken in 1843. While commoner than the Avocel in 
southern New Jersey a century ago, it has been a much rarer 
specie* there in the la>t 50 year-, and Dr. Stone gives only 
one record. Its occurrence on Long Island now would, 
therefore, be even more unlikely than the Avoeet's. 



380 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) 
Sixty years ago this fine Curlew was a regular transient on 
the shores of Long Island. By 1880 it had become a scarce 
fall transient, but specimens were shot almost every season 
up to September 9, 1889, the last record. The migration dates 
were April 28, and July 21 to September 12. It is un- 
doubtedly a bird of the past on Long Island, and its occur- 
rence at the present time would be purely accidental. Mr. 
Roy Latham reports one on September 2, 1905 at Orient. 
A record published in Bird-Lore of a bird observed July 4, 
1904 at Long Beach is not worth a moment's consideration. 

Long Beach. Specimen shot August 20, 1873 (New- 
bold T. Lawrence) 

Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis) 
The Eskimo Curlew occurred formerly on Long Island in 
flights in fall after easterly gales, sometimes in numbers. 
It is now on the verge of extinction, if not actually extinct. 
The last definitely authenticated specimen was shot near 
Good Ground, Long Island, August 3, 1893. Two more 
recent records have been proved erroneous, and otherwise 
we have only a few reports of specimens shot by sportsmen 
who "knew the birds well years ago," but who thought 
nothing of it at the time. Such records are of little scientific 
value, when a bird almost extinct is involved, especially when 
some of them have been proved erroneous. One report, 
however, is worthy of full consideration. Mr. John H. 
Hendrickson of Jamaica ; a veteran sportsman, who knows 
Long Island Shore-birds as well as any one living, and who 
has added much to our local knowledge of the rarer species, 
believes he saw two birds on September 1, 1913 (See Miller, 
Auk, 1915, p. 226). 

Oyster- catcher (Hxmatopus palliatus) 
This is another of the long list of water-birds that are 
now extinct at the northern limit of their former range. 



EXTINCT AND EXTIRPATED SPECIES 381 

Formerly a summer resident on the coast of New Jersey, it 
has not been recorded since 1896. In Giraud's day the bird 
was " scarce' ' on Long Island. Three specimens were ob- 
tained between 1877 and 1882, the last captured at Green- 
port on June 2, 1882, thus appearing on the Orient region 
list. 

Heath Hen (Tympanuchus capido) 
Formerly a common resident in the scrub-oak barrens of 
Long Island. The last specimen was shot about 1840. The 
bird is now extinct throughout its former range, except for a 
small colony on Martha's Vineyard. 

Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) 
In colonial times apparently abundant throughout our 
area. De Yries speaks of shooting one, which weighed 30 
pounds, near New Amsterdam about 1640. The bird was 
extinct in our area, however, long before the days of our 
earliest ornithologists. 

Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) 
This species, now totally extinct, was formerly a common 
transient throughout our area. It had greatly decreased by 
1875. 

Long Island. Mr. Dutcher'a Notes give ten records between 
] 885 and 1890, the last record a fleck of six seen in the fall of 1890 
at Miller Place 'A. II. Helme), and a specimen was shot the preced- 
ing year. The dales arc March 29, and September 7 to October 22. 

New York State. The last record for this section seems to be 
October 11, Isss in Westchester County (Gerald II. Thayer). 

New Jersey. The last record for the State is October 7, L893a1 
Morristown (A. B. Pros! ■ The record of a specimen >hot I, 
Irving Wood at Englewood, Jure 28, 1896 proves to be erroneous. 
lewood Reg* - record, September 1878, two 
birds (Chapman . 



382 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

b. Introduced Species 

Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) 
The Mute Swan has been introduced on the Hudson River 
near Rhinebeck and at the South Side Club near Oakdale, 
Long Island. On several occasions the young birds have 
escaped from the latter place, and the Rhinebeck birds have 
also migrated. It is highly likely that some of the recent 
reports of Swans from Long Island and Barnegat Bay, New 
Jersey, refer to such feral Mute Swans, which have been 
positively identified at Mastic. In any case recent and future 
sight records of Swans cannot be credited automatically to 
the Whistling Swan, as was formerly the case. Unfortunately 
the distinction between the two species is one which requires 
a closer approach than is ordinarily possible. The Mute 
Swan has a frontal tubercle or knob, which causes a " dis- 
torted profile/' and nearly half the bill is reddish orange. 
The Whistling Swan has a solid black bill and no tubercle. 

Long Island. 

Mastic. Apparently a rare resident. 
Long Beach. Five birds, doubtless this species, were 
observed July 17, 1920 (Newbold Herrick). 
New Jersey. A young bird, picked up exhausted in Elizabeth, 
October 24, 1916, was erroneously recorded as a Whistling Swan by 
Mr. Chas. A. Urner, and subsequently corrected. 

Skylark (Alauda arvensis) 
Individuals of this species have been liberated from time 
to] time near New York City, and in 1887 a small colony 
became established near Flat bush, Long Island. This 
colony was finally destroyed by the advance eastward of the 
City, and no individual of this species has been observed to 
my knowledge in ten years. Its introduction has been a 
failure, and the bird is not really entitled to a place in the 
A. O. U. Check List, 



INTRODUCED SPECIES 383 

European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) 
This pretty European species was introduced at Hoboken 
in 1878. It appeared in Central Park the next year, and then 
spread to the upper parts of the City. For a time it gave 
every appearance of increasing in numbers. For some reason, 
however, this promise has not been fulfilled. Only a very few 
stragglers have been reported in the last ten years, and while 
it is too early to say that the bird is extirpated, its introduc- 
tion can be declared a hopeless failure. 

Long Island. Single individuals seen in Brooklyn on May 27, 
1915 and April 27, 1918 (Fleischer). 

Central Park. Formerly a common resident, which had 
completely disappeared in 1907; one bird seen May 9, 1920 
(L. N. Nichols). 
New Jersey. 

Englewood Region. I have no record of the arrival of this 
species, but its maximum numbers were reached about 1910. 
Last observed in 1915 (Nichols), and now probably extinct. 

Chaffinch (Fringilla ccelebs) 

Several pairs of this European species were released in 
1890 in Central Park. Three individuals remained in 1906, 
and a single male survived several years longer. Possibly 
one of these same birds was seen in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, 
on January 10, 1909 (E. Fleischer). 

The Greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and the Bullfinch 
(Pyrrhula pyrrhula) have been observed in Central Park. 
They were unquestionably escaped cage-birds. The 
European Linnet (Linota cannabina) has been recorded from 
Scarboro, X. Y., but was in all probability an escape. A 
Brazilian Cardinal (Paroaria cuculhiUn, seen last spring in 
Central Park, was also a cage-binl. It Beemfl uselesi 
include SUCh Bpeciefl in a local avifauna. One might as well 

add the Waxbills or Parrots occasionally reported! When 
a given species is known to be :i common cage-bird at the 
time the record is made, it is impossible to prove that it ia a 
genuine accidental visitant. 



384 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

c. Hypothetical List 

Western Grebe (JEchmophorus occidentalis) 
Messrs. Rogers, Hix, and Fleischer report a most satis- 
factory identification of a bird of this species at Long Beach, 
May 21, 1916. It was just outside the surf, and all conditions 
of observation were exceptionally favorable. They were all 
well acquainted with the Holboell's Grebe in life, and Mr. 
Rogers had had field experience with the Great-crested 
Grebe of Europe. The great size, long, swan-like neck and 
black and white coloration were all observed at leisure. It 
should also be noted that a Holboell's Grebe at this date 
would be unprecedented; and would have been in breeding 
plumage. There seems no reason to doubt the identification 
of a field ornithologist of such wide and lengthy experience as 
Mr. Rogers, and the occurrence is worthy of serious considera- 
tion. This Grebe, however, has never occurred on the At- 
lantic seaboard, and in such cases I follow Mr. Brewster's 
principle in considering that the personal opinion of observers 
and author had better be sustained by a specimen. Observa- 
tions, therefore, of the Western Grebe on Long Island must 
be considered hypothetical, no matter how probable, until a 
specimen is collected. 

Great Auk (Plautus impennis) 
Singleton Mitchell in a " Partial Catalogue of the Birds 
of New York," made at Plandome, Long Island, and dated 
July 5, 1803, reports the "Penguin" in his list of 123 species, 
a name by which the Great Auk was generally known in 
colonial times. The existence of this excessively rare pam- 
phlet was unknown to previous writers on New York State 
birds. The author was not a scientist, however, only Eng- 
lish names were given, some of which are not positively iden- 
tifiable ; and there are no remarks or annotations of any kind. 
This report, therefore, cannot be regarded as definitely estab- 




Pr -.it. VL W'ooi, Thbush 



HYPOTHETICAL LIST 385 

lishing the former occurrence of the Great Auk on Long 
bland, though this is quite possible or even probable. 

Cabot's Teen {Sterna sandvi&ensis acuflavida) 
There is no valid reason for giving this species a place 
among the birds of New York State. De Kay states that it 
''has been little noticed on our coast," and Eaton cites a 
record of Lawrence in his catalogue of 1866, but there is some 
mistake, as this species is not mentioned. Giraud, who knew 
the birds of Long Island better than De Kay, does not men- 
tion it. 

Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui) 
This South American species has even less claim to a 
place in this list than Cabot's Tern. Eaton includes it as a 
New York State bird, "which has been taken once on Long 
Island, as reported by Audubon. . ." The only statement 
Audubon ever made, however, was: — "I have received from 
Mr. Trudeau an intimation of the occurrence of several 
individuals on Long Island." No South American bird 
would be added to a state list today on such evidence as this, 
and I cannot see that the great age of the evidence increases 
its value. The Terns were very poorly understood in 
Audubon's day, and Trudeau doubtless knew even less 
about them than did Audubon. 

Rutous-crested Duck (Xetta rufino) 

A Bpecimen of this European species was found in Fulton 

Market in February, 1872. It was supposed to have come 

from Long Island, as the birds in this market did for the most 

part come from this locality. However, positive evidence ifl 

certainly absent, and we know thai many game-birda in this 

market came from Chesapeake Bay and the West. Conse- 
quently, while there i- no reasonable doubt that this Bp 
occurred accidentally in North America, it- capture on Long 

Island ifl hypothetical. 



386 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

Brazilian Tree-duck (Dendrocygna viduata) 
A specimen of this South American duck was killed on the 
Hackensack Meadows early in October, 1912 and sent to the 
taxidermist, Rowland, of New York, for preservation, where it- 
was identified by George Bird Grinnell. The bird was not at 
all shy, and allowed itself to be shot, while sitting on a drift 
log. Dr. Grinnell, in recording the occurrence, did not seem 
to consider it of any great value. Certainly there is too 
much chance of its being an escape from some aviary to take 
it seriously as a genuine accidental occurrence of a wild bird. 

Hutchin's Goose (Branta canadensis hutchinsi) 
This small western subspecies of the Canada Goose was 
regarded by Giraud as not uncommon in his day at the eastern 
extremity of Long Island. There are no records since, and no 
specimens from Long Island are in existence. The great 
variation in size of the Canada Goose makes sight records of 
this subspecies of little value, as a Goose apparently half a 
foot shorter than others in the same flock might perfectly well 
be a Canada Goose, unless its tail feathers were counted. 
Even if a bird in the flesh were in the hand, it would take an 
expert ornithologist to make a competent determination. 
L T ntil a critically determined specimen is available, the occur- 
rence of this race on Long Island is purely hypothetical, and 
under the circumstances Giraud's evidence cannot be re- 
garded as positive. 

European Curlew (Numenius arquatus) 
The record of a specimen said to have been taken on Long 
Island in 1853 is regarded by the American Ornithologists' 
Union Committee, as subject to some doubt. Its occurrence, 
therefore, in our area or in New York State is purely hypo- 
thetical. 



HYPOTHETICAL LIST 387 

Ground Dove {Chaemepelia passerina terrestris) 
Dr. George Bird Grinnell has recorded that when a small 
boy he shot a " small pigeon" out of a flock in a tall tulip tree 
in October, 1862 on the upper end of Manhattan Island. The 
bird was shown to Mr. John Woodhouse Audubon, who pro- 
nounced it a Ground Dove. This is the only evidence of the 
capture of this southern species in New York State. The cir- 
cumstances cannot be regarded as entirely satisfactory. The 
date is unlikely, and Ground Doves do not occur in tall trees. 
On the other hand Dr. Chapman has already suggested the 
possibility of escaped cage-birds, which would account at 
least for the abnormal date. In my opinion it would be better 
to regard the occurrence of the Ground Dove in Xew York 
State as hypothetical. 

White Gyrfalcon (Falco islandus) 
An arctic species, whose occurrence in our area is purely 
hypothetical. Mr. A. H. Helme, the veteran field naturalist, 
has reported a bird seen at Miller Place, Long Island, which he 
feels sun- must have been this species. 

Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea) 
A species <>i the Great Plains, which has been reported in 
this vicinity on one occasion. A bird flew into an uptown 
house in New York City, August 8, 1875 and was caught 
alive. This record is so remarkable, that one instantly sir— 
poets aii escaped cage-bird. In my opinion it is entirely 
unsatisfactory, and Dr. Chapman was entirely eorreet in 
omitting; it from his List. This species has no real claim to a 
place among the birds of New York State. 

American Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides americanus) 

On February 5, 1018, which will l>e remembered as the 

severest winter on record, Mr. Charles Johnston, an active 

and careful observer, saw a male of this species in the woods 

• Englewood, Bergen County, New Jersey. It was 



388 BIRDS OF THE NEW YORK CITY REGION 

comparatively tame and was studied at leisure. He noted the 
yellow crown patch immediately, the regular black and white 
barring of the back, and was able to name the bird at sight, 
without referring to a text-book. He was previously familiar 
with the Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker in life. Several days 
later a sister of Mr. J. M. Johnson reported to him a strange 
Woodpecker in the same locality. Her description clearly 
indicated this species. Neither the writer nor the Local Avi- 
fauna Committee of the Linnsean Society can find the slight- 
est grounds for doubting an identification so well attested. 
This bird, however, has never occurred south of Massachu- 
setts, and, in line with the discussion under the Western 
Grebe, the writer feels that a specimen had better be ob- 
tained, before so unlikely a species is definitely recorded from 
New Jersey. 

Hoyt's Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris hoyti) 
If this subspecies has really occurred, it is a purely acci- 
dental visitant from the Northwest. Its inclusion in the list 
of birds of New York State is based on a specimen taken at 
Long Island City, identified as this subspecies by Dr. H. C. 
Oberholser, who, however, admits that it is not typical. 
There are also specimens in the Dwight Collection which 
show a similar approach to hoyti in characters, taken during 
the winter on Shelter Island. The Horned Lark is now 
divided into numerous close and critical subspecies, which 
intergrade freely, and with considerable individual variation. 
In such cases I cannot regard the publication of accidental 
occurrences as of any scientific value. The subspecies are 
determinable in large series only, and the extremes of any 
one race are indistinguishable from the adjacent ones with 
which it intergrades. Records of accidental occurrence 
should be based at least on absolutely typical examples. 
Until such a typical specimen of Hoyt's Horned Lark is 
captured in New York State, its occurrence should be re- 
) 



HYPOTHETICAL LIST 389 

garded as hypothetical. Even should an apparently typical 
example be taken, it could never be proved that such a 
specimen did not merely show that individual variation of the 
subspecies normally present was greater than formerly 
supposed. 

Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) 
While specimens of this beautiful southern Finch have 
unquestionably been taken in the vicinity of New York City, 
the captures were all made at a period when it was a popular 
cage-bird. Under these circumstances it is impossible to 
prove that any given specimen was a truly wild bird. More- 
over it is not witnout significance that no capture was ever 
made before it became a popular cage-bird, or since that- 
traffic was stopped. The species should be removed from 
the list of New York State birds, and its occurrence in our 
area in a wild state is purely hypothetical. 



INDEX 



Acanthis hornemanni exilipes, 266 

linaria holbcelli, 266 

linaria linaria, 265 

linaria rostrata, 265 
Accipiter cooperi, 184 

velox, 183 
Actitis macularia, 166 
JEchmophorus occidentalis, 384 
JZgialitis meloda, 172 

semipalmata, 171 
JEstrelata hasitata, 85 
Agelaius phceniceus, 247 
Aix sponsa, 102 
Alauda arvensis, 382 
^.Zcer tarda, 64 
^4 We a We, 65 
Aluco pratincola, 200 
Ammodramus savannarum austra- 

lis, 272 
Anas platyrhynchos, 93 

rubripes, 94 
Anser albifrons gambeli, 119 
Anthus rubescens, 351 
Antrostomus vociferus, 221 
Aquila chrysaetos, 193 
Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johan- 

nis, 192 
Archilochus colubris, 225 
Arrfea herodias, 126 
Arenaria inter pres morinella, 174 
Arquaiella maritima, 150 
Asio flammeus, 203 

vrilsonianns, 202 
Astragalinus tristis, 266 
As^r atricapillus, 185 
Auk, Great, 384 

Razor-billed, 64 
Avocet, American, 145 

Baeolophus bicolor, 364 

Baldpate, 97 

Bartramia longicauda, 164 



Bittern, American, 122 

Least, 125 
Blackbird, Red-winged, 247 

Rusty, 252 
Bluebird, 376 
Bobolink, 244 
Bob- white, 175 
Bomby cilia cedrorum, 301 

garrula, 301 
Bonasa umbellus, 176 
Booby, 86 

Botaurus lentiginosis, 122 
Brant, 121 

Black, 121 
Branta bernicla glaucogastra, 121 

canadensis canadensis, 119 

canadensis hutchinsi, 386 

leucopsis, 121 

nigricans, 121 
5w6o virginianus subarcticus, 209 

virginianus virginianus, 207 
Bufflehead, 110 
Bunting, Indigo, 292 

Lark, 293 

Painted, 389 

Snow, 267 
Buteo borealis, 186 

lineatus, 188 

platypterus, 189- 
Butorides virescens, 129 
Buzzard, Turkey, see Vulture, 
Turkey 

Calamospiza melanocorys, 293 
Calcarius lapponicus, 268 

ornatus, 269 
Calidris leucophsea, 157 
Camptolaimus labradorius, 379 
Canvasback, 104 
Cardinal, 289 
Cardinalis cardinalis, 289 
Carduelis carduelis, 383 



390 



INDEX 



391 



Carpodacus purpureas, 200 

Catbird, 353 

Cutharista wrubu, ISO 

Cutliartcs aura scptcutrionalis, 179 

('atoptropfiorus seaiip(dmatus inor- 

natus, 163 
semipalmatus senripalmatus, 

163 
Centronyx bairdi, 272 
Cent ur us curolinus, 220 
Cepph us grylle, 63 
Certhia familiaris americana, 362 
Ceryle alcyon, 213 
Chsemepelia passerina terrestris, 

387 
Chatura pelagiai, 22-1 
( hamnch, 383 
Changes in Bird-Life, 48 

Chai-adrius dam micas, 168 
ChariUmctta alheola, 110 
Chat, Yellow-breasted, 345 
Chaulelasmus streperus, 95 
Chen cxrulescens, 118 

hyperboreua hyperboreus, 118 

hyperboreua /oralis, 118 
Chewink, see Towhee 
( fcickadee, 365 

Hudsonian, 365 

Labrador, 366 
Chondedea grommocus, 278 
ChordeiUs virginianua, 222 
Circus hudaoniue, L82 
CiaMhortu tteUaria, 360 
Clangula dangula americana, 108 

idomdica, 109 

tmua, 21 1 

erythrophthnlm m . 2 1 2 
Coiaptea tturatm lutetu, 220 
Coftti 17.", 

Coiymbua auritm . 57 



Compsothlypis americana ameri- 
cana, 322 

americana usnex, 320 
Coot, American, 141 
Cormorant, 88 

Double-crested, 89 
Corvus brachyrhynchos, 242 

corax principalis, 241 

ossifragus, 242 
Coturnicops noveboracensis, 137 
Cowbird, 246 
Crake, Corn, 139 
Crane, Whooping, 379 
Creciscas janiaicensis, 137 
Creeper, Brown, 362 
Oex crez, 139 
Crossbill, American, 261 

White-winged, 263 
Crow, 242 

Fish, 242 
Cryptoglaux acadica, 206 
Cuckoo, Black-billed, 212 

Yellow-billed, 211 
Curlew, Eskimo, 380 

European, 386 

Hudsonian, 167 

Long-billed, 380 
Cyanocitta criatata, 241 
Cygnua alar, 382 

DafUa acuta, 101 
Dendrocygna riduata, 
Dendroica xstiva, 324 

cseridescens, 32 1 
castanra, 329 

./"/, :;_'7 
caraaata. 

Dendroica ducolor, 337 
domtmeo, 332 
/toco, 332 
magnolia 
pahnarum hypochr 



392 



INDEX 



palmarum palmarum, 335 

pensylvanica, 328 

striata, 331 

tigrina, 322 

vigorsi, 334 

virens, 333 
Dickcissel, 293 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 244 
Dove, Ground, 387 

Mourning, 177 
Dovekie, 65 
Dowitcher, 148 

Long-billed, 149 
Dryobates borealis, 216 

pubescens medianus, 215 

villosus, 215 
Duck, Black, 94 

Greater Scaup, 106 

Harlequin, 112 

Labrador, 379 

Lesser Scaup, 107 

Ring-necked, 108 

Ruddy, 116 

Rufous-crested, 385 

Scaup, 106 

Wood, 102 
Dumetella carolinensis, 353 
Dunlin, see Sandpiper, Red-backed 

European, 154 

Eagle, Bald, 193 

Golden, 193 
Ectopistes migratorius, 381 
Egret, American, 127 

Snowy, 379 
Egretta candidissima, 379 
Eider, American, 113 

King, 113 
Elanoides forficatus, 181 
Empidonax flaviventris, 233 

minimus, 237 

trailli alnorum, 235 

virescens, 234 



Ereunetes mauri, 157 

pusillus, 155 
Erismatura jamaicemis, 116 
Erolia ferruginea, 155 
Euphagus carolinus, 252 

Falco columbarius, 197 

islandus, 387 

peregrinus anatum, 196 

rusticolus gyrfalco, 196 

rusticolus obsoletus, 196 

sparverius, 198 
Finch, Purple, 260 
Flicker, Northern, 220 
Florida cxrulea, 128 
Flycatcher, Acadian, 234 

Alder, 235 

Crested, 229 

Least, 237 

Olive-sided, 230 

Yellow-bellied, 233 
Fratercula arctica, 63 
Fregata aquila, 90 
Frigate-bird, 90 
Fringilla c&lebs, 383 
Fulica americana, 141 
Fulmar, 83 
Fulmarus glacialis, 83 

Gadwall, 95 
Gallinago delicata, 146 
Gallinula galeata, 139 
Gallinule, Florida, 139 

Purple, 139 
Gannet, 86 
Gavia immer, 59 

pacifica, 62 

stellata, 62 
Gelochelidon nilotica, 378 
Geothlypis trichas, 345 
Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 369 
Godwit, Hudsonian, 158 

Marbled, 158 



IXDEX 



393 



Golden-eye, American, 10S 

Harrow's, 109 
Goldfinch, 266 

European, 383 
Goose, Barnacle, 121 

Blue, 118 

Canada, 119 

Greater Snow, 118 

Hutchins's, 386 

Lesser Snow, 118 

White-fronted, 119 
Goshawk, 185 
Grackle, Bronzed, 254 

Purple, 253 
Grebe, Holbcell's, 56 

Horned, 57 

Pied-billed, 58 

Western, 384 
Grosbeak, Blue, 291 

Evening, 258 

Pine, 259 

Rose-breasted, 290 
Grouse, Ruffed, 176 
Grus americana, 379 
Guara alba, 122 
Guillemot, Black, 63 
Guiraca c&rulea, 291 
Gull, Bonaparte's, 75 

Glaucous, 68 

Great Black-backed, 7n 

Herring, 71 

Iceland, 69 

Ivory, 68 

Kumlien's, 70 

Laughing, 73 

Little, 76 

Ring-hilled, ~i 

Sabine's, 76 
Gyrfalcon, 196 

Black, l 

White, 387 



Hsematopus paMiatu8 } 380 
Haliseetus leucocephalns, 193 
Harelda hyemalis, 112 
Hawk, Broad-winged, 1S9 

Cooper's, 184 

Duck, 196 

Fish, 199 

Marsh, 182 

Pigeon, 197 

Red-shouldered, 188 

Red-tailed, 186 

Rough-legged, 192 

Sharp-shinned, 183 

Sparrow, 198 
Helmitheros vermirorus, 313 
Helodromas solitarius, 162 
Hen, Heath, 381 
Herodias egretta, 127 
Heron, Black-crowned Night, 131 

Great Blue, 126 

Green, 129 

Little Blue, 128 

Louisiana, 128 

Yellow-crowned Night, 132 
Hesperiphona vespertina, 258 
Himantopus mexicanus, 379 
Hirundo erythrogastra, 296 
Histrionicus histrionieus, 112 
Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, 225 
Hydranassa tricolor ruficoUis, 128 
Ih/dmchelidon nigra turinamensis, 

81 
Hylocichla alicix aliciw, 372 

aliciie bicknelli, 372 

fuscescem, 371 

guttata pallasi, 374 

mutteUna s 370 
ustvlata twrinaonii 373 

Ibis, Glossy, 122 
White, 122 

Woo, I. 122 



394 



INDEX 



Icteria virens, 345 
Icterus galbula, 251 

spurius, 248 
Indigo-bird, see Bunting, Indigo 
Ionomis martinicus, 139 
Iridoprocne tricolor, 297 
Ixobrychus exilis, 125 
Ixoreus nsevius, 376 

Jaeger, Long-tailed, 67 

Parasitic, 67 

Pomarine, 65 
Jay, Blue, 241 
Junco hyemalis, 283 
Junco, Slate-eolored, 283 

Killdeer, 170 
Kingbird, 226 

Arkansas, 228 

Gray, 228 
Kingfisher, Belted, 213 
Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 367 

Ruby-crowned, 368 
Kite, Swallow-tailed, 181 
Kittiwake, 68 
Knot, 149 

Lanius borealis, 302 

ludovicianus migrans, 303 
Lanivireo flavifrons, 308 

solitarius, 309 
Lapwing, 167 
Lark, Horned, 238 

Hoyt's Horned, 388 

Prairie Horned, 239 
Lams argentatus, 71 

atricilla, 73 

delawarensis, 72 

hyperboreus, 68 

kumlieni, 70 

leucopterus, 69 

marinus, 70 



minutus, 76 

Philadelphia, 75 
Life Zones, discussion of, 13 

Alleghanian, 16 

Canadian, 17 

Carolinian, 14 
Lirnosa fedoa, 158 

hsemastica, 158 
Lobipes lobatus, 144 
Local area, definition of, 12 
Local birds, migrations of, 27 
Local collection, 47 
Local regions, description of, 40 

Bronx, 46 

Central Park, 44 

Englewood, 47 

Long Beach, 42 

Long Island, 41 

Mastic, 42 

Orient, 42 
Longspur, Chestnut-collared, 269 

Lapland, 268 
Loon, 59 

Pacific, 62 

Red-throated, 62 
Lophodytes cucullatus, 92 
Loxia curvirostra minor, 261 

leucoptera, 263 

Machetes pugnax, 164 
Macrorhamphus griseus griseus, 
148 

griseus scolopaceus, 149 
Mallard, 93 

Man-o'war-Bird, see Frigate-bird 
Mareca americana, 97 

penelope, 96 
Marila affinis, 107 

americana, 103 

coUaris, 108 

marila, 106 

valisineria, 104 



INDEX 



395 



Martin, Purple, 294 
Meadowlark, 248 
Mcgalcstris skua, 65 
Melanerpes erythroccphulus, 218 
Mdeagris gattopavo silrestris, 381 
Melospiza georgiana, 286 

lincolni, 284 

melodia, 284 
Merganser, American, 90 

Hooded, 92 

Red-breasted, 91 
Mergiis americanus, 90 

M motor, 91 
Mirropalatna himontopus, 149 
Mini us polyglottos, 352 
Mniotilta varia, 311 
Mockingbird, 352 
Mohthrus ater, 246 
Murre, Biiinnich's, 63 
Myadestes townsendi, 370 
Mycteria americana, 122 
Myiarchus crinitus, 229 
Myiochanes virens, 232 

X fin /t us }ii( /units, 359 

Afatta rufina, 385 
Xettio7i carolinense, 98 

crecca, 98 
Night hawk, 222 
Xu meni' "us, 380 

nrtjutitus, 386 

boreal ts. :;s() 

liuilsnutcus, 167 

pfceopua, 167 
Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 

White-breasted 
NvttattomU boreatis, 230 
L32 

J! I' I 

• nydxcora L 31 

"ttea oceonicus, 86 



Oceanodroma leucorhoa, 85 
Ochthodromus wilsonius, 173 
Oidemia americana, 114 

deglandi, 115 

perspicillata , 116 
Old-squaw*, 112 
OZor columbianus, 122 
Oporornis agilis, 342 

formosus, 341 

Philadelphia, 343 
Oriole, Baltimore, 251 

Orchard, 248 
Osprey, see Hawk, Fish 
Otocoris alpestris alpestris, 238 

alpestris hoyti, 388 

alpestris praticolo, 239 
0£us ersio, 207 
Oven-bird, 338 
Owl, Arctic Horned, 209 

Barn, 200 

Barred, 205 

Burrowing, 387 

Great Gray, 206 

Great Horned, 207 

Hawk, 211 

Long-eared, 202 

Saw- whet, 206 

Screech, 207 

Short-eared, 203 

Snowy, 209 
Oxyechus vociferus, 170 
Oyster-catcher, 380 

Pagophila ulha, 68 

Pandion holiaStus caroUnensis, 199 

Passer <l<. _'()() 

prirtreps, 270 
.aii'hi ah, nri8 sani/nta, 271 

. Ha 1 1 aim. 287 
Passertie thai us caudacuiut, 276 

heruilau 7. 273 
_'77 



396 



IXDEX 



nelsoni nelsoni, 274 

nelsoni subvirgatus, 275 
Passerina ciris, 389 

cyanea, 292 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, 89 

occidentalis, 90 
Pelican, Brown, 90 

White, 89 
Pelidna alpina alpina, 154 

alpina sakhalina, 154 
Penthestes atricapillus, 365 

hudsonicus hudsonicus, 365 

hudsonicus nigricans, 366 
Petrel, Black-capped, 85 

Leach's, 85 

Wilson's, 86 
Petrochelidon lunifrons, 295 
Peucsea aestivalis bachmani, 283 
Pewee, Wood, 232 
Phalacrocorax auritus, 89 

carbo, 88 
Phalarope, Northern, 144 

Red, 142 

Wilson's, 144 
Phalaropus fulicarius, 142 
Phasianus colchicus, 176 

torquatus, 176 
Pheasant, 176 

Ring-necked, 176 
Philohela minor, 145 
Phloeotomus pileatus abieticola, 217 
Phcebe, 229 
Picoides arnericanus, 387 

arcticus, 216 
Pigeon, Passenger, 381 
Pinicola enucleator leucura, 259 
Pintail, 101 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 288 
Pipit, 351 
Piranga erythromelas, 293 

rubra, 294 
Pisobia bairdi, 152 



juscicollis, 152 

maculala, 151 

minutilla, 153 
Planesticus migratorius, 375 
Plautus impennis, 384 
Plectrophenax nivalis, 267 
Plegadis autumnalis, 122 
Plover, Black-bellied, 167 

Golden, 168 

Piping, 172 

Semipalmated, 171 

Upland, 164 

Wilson's, 173 
Podilymbus podiceps, 58 
Polioptila caerulea, 369 
Pocecetes gramineus, 269 
Porzana Carolina, 135 
Progne subis, 294 
Protonotaria citrea, 311 
Puffin, 63 
Puffinus borealis, 83 

gravis, 84 

griseus, 85 

kuhlii kuhlii, 83 

Iherminieri, 84 

puffinus, 84 

Quail, see Bob-white 
Querquedula discors, 99 
Quiscalus quiscula aeneus, 254 
quiscula quiscula, 253 

Rail, Carolina, see Sora 

Clapper, 134 

King, 133 

Little Black, 137 

Virginia, 134 

Yellow, 137 
Rallus crepitans, 134 

elegans, 133 

virginianus, 134 
Raven, Northern, 241 



INDEX 



397 



Recurvirostra americana, 145 

Red-head, 103 
Redpoll, 265 

Greater, 265 

Hoary, 266 

Holbcells, 266 
Redstart, 349 
Rcgulus calendula, 368 

i<atrapa, 367 
Ring-neck, see Plover, Semipal- 

mated 
Riparia riparia, 298 
Rissa tridactyh, 68 
Robin, 375 
Ruff, 164 
Rynchops nigra, 81 

Sanderling, 157 
Sandpiper. Baird's, 152 

Bartramian, see Plover, Up- 
land 

Buff-breasted, 165 

Curlew, 155 

Least, 153 

Pectoral, 151 

Purple, 150 

Red-backed, 154 

Scmipalmated, 155 

Solitary, 162 

Spotted, 166 

Stilt. 14<» 

Western, 157 

"White-rumped. 1 52 
Bapsucker, Yellow-bellied, 216 
Sujcuola etnanthe leucorhoa, 376 
Sayomu /<' 

■ r. American, 114 

Surf. 116 

White-winged, 1 16* 
ijdex nebvio&Oj 20*> 
nal Variation in Bird-Life, I s 
•oeapiOua, 



noreborucensis notabilis, 340 

noveboracensis noveboracensis, 
339 

motacilla, 340 
Setophaga ruticilla, 349 
Shearwater, Audubon's, 84 

Cory's, 83 

Greater, 84 

Manx, 84 

Mediterranean, 83 

Sooty, 85 
Shoveller, 100 
Shrike, Migrant, 303 

Northern. 302 
Sialia sialis, 376 
Siskin, Pine, 266 
Sitta canadensis, 363 

carolinensis, 363 
Skimmer, Black, 81 
Skua, 65 
Skylark. 382 
Snipe, Robin, see Knot 

Wilson's, 146 
Snowflake, see Bunting, Snow 
Solitaire, Townsend's, 370 
So materia dresseri, 113 

spectabilis, 113 
Sora, 135 

Sparrow, Acadian Sharp-tailed, 
275 

Bachman's, 283 

Baird's, 272 

( Shipping, 281 

English, 260 

Field. 282 

Fox, 287 

Grasshopper, 272 

Hensfow's, 273 

Bouse, 260 

Ipswich, 270 

Lark. _'7^ 

Lincoln's, 284 



398 



INDEX 



Nelson's, 274 
Savannah, 271 
Seaside, 277 
Sharp-tailed, 276 
Song, 284 
Swamp, 286 
Tree, 280 
Vesper, 269 
White-crowned, 278 
White-throated, 279 
Spatula clypeata, 100 
Speotyto cunicularia hypogxa, 387 
Sphyrapicus varius, 216 
Spinus pinfus, 266 
Spiza americana, 293 
Spizella monticola, 280 
passerina, 281 
pusilla, 282 
Squatarola squatarola, 167 
Starling, 244 
Steganopus tricolor, 144 
Stelgidopteryx serripennis, 299 
Stercorarius longicaudus, 67 
parasiticus, 67 
pomarinus. 65 
Sterna antillarum, 80 
caspia, 77 
dougalli, 79 
forsteri, 378 
fuscata, 80 
hirundo, 77 
maxima, 77 
paradisea, 79 

sandvicensis acuflavida, 385 
trudeaui, 385 
Stilt, Black-necked, 379 
$£rix yario, 205 
Sturnella magna, 248 
Sturnus vulgaris, 244 
£wZa bassana, 86 

leucogastra, 86 
Surnia ulula caparoch, 211 



Swallow, Bank, 298 

Barn, 296 

Cliff, 295 

Rough-winged, 299 

Tree, 297 
Swan, Mute, 382 

Whistling, 122 
Swift, Chimney, 224 

Tanager, Scarlet, 293 

Summer, 294 
Teal, Blue-winged, 99 

European, 98 

Green-winged, 98 
Telmatodytes palustris, 361 
Tern, Arctic, 79 

Black, 81 

Cabot's, 385 

Caspian, 77 

Common, 77 

Forster's, 378 

Gull-billed, 378 

Least, 80 

Roseate, 79 

Royal, 77 

Sooty, 80 

Trudeau's, 385 
Thrasher, Brown, 355 
Thrush, Bicknell's, 372 

Gray-cheeked, 372 

Hermit, 374 

Olive-backed, 373 

Varied, 376 

Wilson's, 371 

Wood, 370 
Thryotkorus ludovicianus, 356 
Titlark, see Pipit, 
Titmouse, Tufted, 364 
Totanus flavipes, 160 

melanoleucus, 159 
Towhee, 288 
Toxostoma rufum, 355 



INDKX 



399 



Tree-duck, Brazilian, 380 
Tringa canutus, 149 
Troglodytes acdon, 358 
Tryngites subruficollis, 165 
Turkey, Wild, 381 
Turnstone, Ruddy. 174 
Tympanuchus cupido, 381 
Tyrannus dominicensis, 228 

tyrannas, 226 

verticalis, 228 

Una lonu-ia, 63 

T*an€//u5 vanellus, 167 
Veery, see Thrush, Wilson's 
Yermiiora celata, 318 

chrysoptera, 315 

laurencei, 316 

leucobronchiali,*, 316 

peregrina, 319 

pi mi*. 314 

rubricapilla, 317 
Yireo, Blue-headed, 309 

grisevs. 310 

Philadelphia, 305 

Red-eyed, 304 

Solitary, see Blue-headed 

Warbling, 307 

White-eyed, 310 

Yellow-throated, 308 
Yireo<]d>a qtbo, 307 

olimcea, 304 

phihub ?; 
Vulture, Black, 180 

Turkey 179 

Warbler, Bay- i'29 

Black and White, 311 
Blackburnian, 
Black-throated Bin 
Black-throated I 
BlackpoD 



Blue- winged, 314 

Brewster's, 316 

Canadian, 348 

Cape May, 322 

Cerulean, 327 

Chestnut-sided, 328 

Connecticut, 342 

Golden- winged, 315 

Hooded, 346 

Kentucky, 341 

Lawrence's, 316 

Magnolia, 326 

Mourning, 343 

Myrtle, 325 

Nashville, 317 

Northern Parula, 320 

Orange-crowned, 318 

Palm, 335 

Parula, 322 

Pine, 334 

Prairie, 337 

Prothonotary, 311 

Tennessee, 319 

Wilson's, 347 

Worm-eating, 313 

Yellow, 324 

Yellow Palm, 337 

Yellow-throated, 332 
Water-Thrush, 339 

Grinnell's, 340 

Louisiana, 340 
Waxwing, Bohemian, 300 

Cedar, 301 
Wheatear, Greenland, 370 

Whiml.rel. 167 

Whip-poor-will, 221 
Whistler, see Goldenn 
Widgeon, see Baklp 

European '.♦»'. 
Will,-. 

Western 163 

■m rnninh 



400 



INDEX 



citrina, 346 

pusilla, 347 
Woodcock, 145 

Woodpecker, American Three- X ema sabini, 76 
toed. 387 

Arctic Three-toed, 216 

Downy, 215 

Hairy, 215 

Northern Pileated, 217 

Red-bellied, 220 

Red-cockaded, 216 

Red-headed, 218 
Wren, Carolina, 356 

House, 358 

Long-billed Marsh, 361 



Short-billed Marsh, 360 
Winter, 359 



Yellow-legs, Greater, 159 

Lesser, 160 
Yellow-throat, Maryland, 345 



Zamelodia ludovidana, 290 
Zenaidura macroura carolinensis, 

177 
Zonotrichia albicollis, 279 
leucophrys, 278 



ERRATA 

Page 24. Remove Swainson's Hawk from list of Accidental Visitants. 
Page 26. Under Summary, the number of Accidental Visitants should 

read 65, and the total should read 376. 
Page 27, line 3, for three, read four. 

Page 27, line 4, to list of extralimital species add Swainson's Hawk. 
Page 27, line 19, for 66, read 65. 
Page 27, line 21, for 377, read 376. 
Page 379, line 1, for Camptolaimus read Camptorhynchus. 




MAP 



NEW YORK CITY REGION 



ADJACENT TERRITORY 



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1 








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r 7§ 










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tL